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For the Y E A R 1759. 



Printed for J. D o d s l e y, in Fall-Mall, 1777. 

%# ^^ ^^ ^^ ^« ^^ « *^# 

P R E F A C E. 

IN our Preface to the Regis- 
ter of laft year, we fully 
explained the nature of our de- 
fign : the Book itfelf has fiiev/n 
in what manner we have been 
able to carry it into execution : It is 
therefore not neceffary to detain the 
reader a long time at the entrance 
of the volume v/hich we now lay be- 
fore him. Even at our firft fettino^ 
out, we employed none of the cuf- 
tom.ary arts to excite attention, and 
ieduce judgment ; and on the prefent 
A 3 occa- 


oceafion thefe arts would prove as inr 
effedlual, as they would have then 
been low and illiberal. The favour 
which the public has fbewn to our 
humble labours, without any fuch 
helps, encourages us to proceed in the 
manner in which we originally began. 

There is no considerable change in 
the order and method of the work ; 
a fmall improvement we have indeed 
made, by clafling our Mifcellaneous 
Papers fomewhat more exadlly. Be- 
sides, as a work of this kind depends 
for its materials on the events and 
publications of the year, it would be 

improper fo fcrupuloufly to reftrain our- 


fclves to one fct of heads, and to one 
proportion of matter under each, as 



not to conform ourfelves to thinss as 
they arife. Some years abound in one 
fpecies of entertainment, and are bar- 
ren in another. In our laft Ren-ifter 
we had an article of Extj^aordinary 
Adventures , This year has produced 
hardly any thing of that kind, and 
therefore we have omitted that title ; 
but we have made the reader amends 
under that of CharaBers \ which con- 
tains a very great variety of accounts 
of eminent perfons, good and bad ; 
fame drawn by very mafierly hands; 
none in a manner that is contemptible. 
We are the more pleafed with our fer-- 
tility in this part, as we know no kind 
of reading that can be at once more 
ufeful and more agreeable. 

4 We 


We do not pretend, that with all 
our care, and with fomething more of 
experience, we have been able to 
avoid all the errors, and to fupply all 
the defects which might have been 
obferved in our firft volume. They 
have been in that overlooked or par- 
doned by the candour of the public ; 
and we (hall never, we hope, forfeit 
our title to that indulgence by laying 
claim to perfedion ; we fhall make 
the errors of each year leiTons for the 
cnfuing; and when we have done our 
bcft, we fiiall fland in need of 

\Vc have only to add, that we re- 
queft the favour of the correfpondence 



of ingenious perfons. It is hoped that 
the choice we have hitherto made will 
not give any gentleman caufe to be 
a/liamed that his performance fhould 
appear among the pieces we feled, 
whether in profe or in verfe. We re- 
ceived indeed fome papers, but they 
came too late, our plan having been 
then unalterably fettled. V/e hope 
that thofc gentlemen who intend to 
favour us, will fend in their letters 
before November. 


1 • >4 N 








For the YEAR 1 759. 





C H A P. I. 

^he inclinations of the po^juers at ivar at the clcfe of the laji campaign. The 
King of Spain's death apprehended. Condition of the King of PruJJio.f 
Emprejs ^eea, RuJJia, Snveden, Holland, France, and England. 

WHOEVER refleas upon 
the conclufion of the fe- 
veral campaigns fiace the 
year 1755, ^'''' ^^^'y perceive that 
at the end of the laft, the fortune 
of the feveral powers at war feem- 
ed more nearly upon a balance, 
than it had been at the clofe of any 
of the former. That campaign was 
rather lefs bloody, than that which 
immediately preceded it ; and it 
was not concluded with any adion 
of fuch an eclat, as could greatly 
raife, or deprefs the hopes of any 
Vol. II. 

of the contending parties. All par- 
ties became more cautious ; becaufe 
it became every day more evident, 
that the fortune of war was not to 
be decided by any fingle ftroke, 
however confiderable. The prize 
was referved for the player of the 
fkilful game ; for the molt attentive 
patience ; for the greateit depth of 
refources. An equality of this 
kind feemed at laft to promife Eu- 
rope fome repofe. All fides might 
now give and receive honourable 
and equitable terms ; and peace 
fi might 


might be fettled on that fooling, 
on which it has been ufually made, 
for fome lime pail, in our part h( 
the world. But the great defigns 
entertained by each power ; re- 
venge imbittered by the blows 
which all had felt in their turns ; 
the confidcration of the valt ex- 
pences that fell upon all, and 
which a peace 3X that time would 
have made fruitlefs ; even the hopes 
arifing from the equivocal appear- 
ances of the laft campaign, eitrang- 
ed every court from the difpofuion 
to peace. Infomuch that there were 
no terms diredtly offered by any of 
the belligerent powers ; nor did any 
of the neutral interpofe their medi- 
ation. Befides thefe, another caufe 
operated powerfully ; a great event 
was hourly expefted about this time; 
an event which threatened to in- 
volve the Southern parts of Europe 
in the calamities of that war, that 
had fo long walled the Northern ;. 
and which, whenever it fiiould take 
place, threatened to render the po- 
litical fyftem infinitely more intri- 
cate, and probably to give the war 
quite a new turn. 

The late king of Spain, by the 
force of a conjugal affedion, rarely 
feen in that dignity, fince the death 
of his queen, had been given up 
to a melancholy, which preyed up- 
on his health, and afltded his un- 
derllanding. His death or inca- 
city appeared inevitable within a 
fhort time. The king of Naples, 
Don Carlos, was next in the order 
of iliccellion. In the treaty of Aix 
la Chapelle, it had been agreed, 
that the duchies of Parma, Placen- 
tia, and Guallalla, fhould be reftor- 
ed to the houfe of Auftria, in cafe 
Don Carlos fhould ever come to the 
crown of Spain. Thefe countries 
were, at the end of that war, in the 
hands of the Erapreis Queen, or 

her allies. Her Imperial Majefly 
had fet up a claim to the reverfion 
of thefe duchies, on the extinftion 
of ifTue male in the houle of Far- 
ncfe. But tlie ambition of the 
Queen of Spain to make all her 
children fovereigns, put powerful 
bars in her way to it. This ambi- 
tion was one of the caufes, which 
made the lail fo general a var. The 
peace of Aix la Chapelle, which put 
a period to that war, after fettling 
thefe centered duchies as an efta- 
blifhment for Don Philip, fecond 
fen to the King of Spain, provided, 
that whenever the event, which we 
have mentioned before, fhould take 
place, that is to fay, the accefTion 
of Don Carlos to the crown of 
Spain, then the kingdom of Naples 
and Sicily fhould pafs to the Infant 
Don Philip, and the duchies which 
formed his eftablifhment fnould re- 
vert to the houfe of Auftria. 

The King of Naples, not with- 
out reafon, looked upon this article 
of the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, as 
injurious to his rights ; accordingly 
he never acceded to it. No method 
in this cafe could be feen which, 
might prevent matters from com- 
ing to extremities, except the fitua- 
tion of the Emprefs, engaged as fhe 
was with a powerful adverfary, who 
kept her forces flrained to the ut- 
moil pitch. She was in no condi- 
tion to engage in a new war, how- 
ever interefting the objeft might be. 
Her ally, France, who fo inefFeftu- 
ally affilted her in Germany, could 
not probably afTill her with more 
efFeft in Italy ; Ihe therefore feemed 
to have no other part left, than to 
acquiefce for the prefent, and wait 
in filence a more favourable oppor- 
tunity to afTert her claims. The 
event of the King of Spain's death 
hath fince happened. It has pro- 
duced none of thofe immediate ef- 
8 feds 

For the YEAR 1759^ 

iefls which were apprehended ; and the AuHrians 
this probably proceeded from the newal ot th 

cau;e which we have ju(t now hint- 
ed A dead calm at prefent breeds 
over Itly. But in this tranquillity 
and iilence there are materials ga- 
thering, which may, on no very dif- 
tant period, bunt in a terrible 
terapeftover that delightful country. 

Add to this, the re- 
fubfidy treaty with 

Great Britain, on the advantageous 
terms of the former year. Thcfe 
were undoubtedly great fupports ; 
and the King feemed as entire in 
power, and more advanced in re- 
putation, than ever. 

But, on a more critical examina- 

They are very nearly the fame that tton, things had an afped; not quite 
produced the laft troubles there ; lo favourable. i his appearance 
and may not only revive them, but was rather fpecious than entirely 

fpread the horrors of war once more 
over all Europe, 

Such were the inclinations of the 
powers at war, at the opening of 
this year : their ftrength feemed al- 

fJid ; and whiht all without look- 
ed full and fair, within there was a 
decay of fubitance, and an hollow- 
nefs that runjr at the flighteft touch. 
That incomparable body of troops. 

fo very entire; in particular, the re- which, at the beginning of the War, 

fourccs of the King of Pruffia ap- had given him fo great a fuperio- 

peared allonilhing, after the great rity, no longer cxilled in thfe iame 

blows he had fuixered ; and a'^ter perfons. If his troops derived ad- 

the advantages he had gained, but vantages from a long feiies of ac- 

gained at fo high a price. He was tive fervice, thefe advantages were 

Hill able to Ihew himfelf the father equally on the fide of the enemy, 

and benefadlor, as well as the pro- His army had known what it is to 

tedlor of his people. In the midll of 
the devouring walte of fuch an ex- 
penfive war, from the funds of his 
ceconomy he was enabled to remit 
the taxes to thofe parts of his do- 

be beaten ; and it is no wonder, if 
a fort of wearinefs and defpair be- 
gan to creep upon them, after fuch 
an infinite train of unrewarced fa- 
tigues, v.'hen they faw that fo many 

minions vthich had fufFered from wonderful exploits had not yet end- 

ihe Ruflian barbarity ; be even ad- 
vanced money to thofe who had 
fufFered the moil confiderably. 

To take a nearer view of his fitU- 
ation, we mult obferve, that the 
whole kingdom of Pruffia flill re- 
mained in the hands of the Mufco- 

ed the war in their favour. Many 
of his beft generals had been killed, 
in battle, or died, or had retired, 
or were difgraced, 1 he hoards 
which he had amaffed before the 
war, by this time muil have beea 
entirely fpent ; his dominions inuffc 

vites. The duchy of Cleves, toge- have been greatly exhaufled, both 

therwith his other polTeffionson the of men and money. Saxony cruid 

Rhine, could yield him nothing ; no longer yield fuch fupplies a.s 

they were held by the French ; formerly. The indigence of the 

but in thefe refpeds, his fnuation fubdued inhabitants, let bounds to 

w.-is not worfe than it had been, the rapacity of the conqueror. Ths 

almoft from the beginning of the fubfidy from Great Britain d d a 

war. He had, to balance thefe great deal ; but it could not fui ply 

lofTes, the rich country of Saxony, the deficiencies on this, and oa 

which he had twice in one cam- every other fide. Thefe circMn- 

paign wrelled fxcm the haadg of llances, probably, made the King 

B 2 t>t 


of Pruifia more cautious and dilatory 
than ufual. 

The court of Vienna h«d as great 
burthens to fuftain as the King of 
Pruflla, and {he had iufFered much 
greater blows. That power has a 
Itrength, fomewhat unaccountable 
and peculiar to herfeli. More de- 
ficient in pecuniary funds, than 
any other great pawer in Europe, 
ihe is better able to fubfill, and to 
do confiderable things without 
them. For, by a long habit, the 
whole ftate is formed to its neceffi- 
ties : and the fubjecl is more ready 
to fupply free quarter, and to en- 
dure military licence than any other. 
The country is abundantly fruitful 
in all its parts. And whilll the 
war is carried on near home, an ar- 
bitrary government, operating on 
fo extenfive an objeft, can hardly 
fail of fuch refources, as mull ferve 
an Aultrian army ; which is (till 
paid, in a great meafure, as Tacitus 
delcribcs the troops of the ancient 
Germans to have been ; ti-'ey ha'je a 
plentiful table in lieu cf pay '. 

And indeed it mult be owned, 
that there is no Sovereign, who is 
more highly honoured in his domi- 
nions, or obeyed with a greater 
mixture of love and reverence, by 
all his fubjetfls, than her Imperial 
Majerty. So that having a very am- 
. pie power, very willing obedience, 
a large territory, and many men, 
not fufficiently employed in the arts 
of peace, it perhaps may be guef- 
fed, in what manner fhe has been 
able to fupply her many and great 
lolles, and to continue a war, like 
the prcfent, better than ftates more 
abundant in money. Sheis befides, 
and this is a matter of no imitll con- 
fequence, fupported by the counte- 
nance, the authority, and the lorces 

of the Empire. And fhe has for her 
allies the full, and mod formidable 
names in Europe. In the wars which 
this power carried on in the lall, 
and in this century, though ufually 
not very fuccef^ful, flie has always 
been the lall to defue a peace ; 
though frequently flow in her ope- 
rations, file makes amends by an 
extraordinary perfeverance. 

This flownefs could not efcape 
general obfervation, in the actions 
of the lafl year. That the Auftrians 
did not play, with fufHcient Ipirit, 
the great game which was in their 
hands, after the battle of Hohkir- 
chen and the entry of the Ruffians 
into the New Marche of Branden- 
burgh, feems hardly difputable. 
Perhaps it was that the court of Vi- 
enna, by an error common to many 
courts, but particularly fo to this, 
and often fatal to it, interfered too 
much and too minutely in the ope- 
rations of the campaign. 

It is not impoffible that the cha- 
rafter of Marflial Daun himlelf, 
might have had ibme fliare in this 
in 'divity ; a charadler almoft in all 
things the dired reverfe of that of 
his Prufiian majclly. He faw that 
the King, aftive, refolate and ad- 
venturous, walled himfelf even by 
that aftivity and fpirit, to which he 
owed his moll brilliant fuccefles. 
Should the Aullrians carry on the 
war in the fame fpirit, they might 
fuffer in the fame manner, without 
being ever able to equal, much lefi 
to exceed that great Monarch, in a 
llile of adlion peculiarly his own. 
Daun therefore by principle, feems 
to have kept his army from coniing 
to adtion, in order to oppofe a 
llrcngth entire, and recruited by a 
long reft, to that of the King of 
Pruifia, wafted by the efforts it was 

* Nam epuhr, et qiiamquam i/icompti, largi tamen apparatus projlipendio ce- 
dunt. Tacit, de moribus Gtrm. § 14. 


For the Y EAR 1759. 

obliged to make, inceiTantly and on 
every fide. His defign Itemed to be, 
that the iffue of the war fhould ra- 
ther arife from the general refult and 
concurrence of aii the operations, 
gradually producing a folid though 
a ilovv advantage, than trom the ef- 
feft of a bold, quick, and mafterly 
ftroke. In taCt, the Au'trians felt 
all the benfiitsTj and ail the incon- 
veniencies which ulualiy attend this 
fort of conduft, a conduct which 
probably lolt them Saxony in the 
lalt campaign, and which has fecur- 
ed them the poiTelTion of what they 
now hold in that country. The 
Auftrians and PruiPians watched the 
time and one anotner, and came 
very late to adlion. 

The court of Peterlburg ftill ad- 
hered to its old fyilem, in fpite of 
the late ill fuccel? of her arms, and 
a!l the efforts of the Britiih miniller, 
to withdraw her from her alliance. 
If {he had fome lois of men^ it \vj.s 
the lealt lofs fhe could feel : and Ibe 
thought that whilll the war was car- 
ried on at the expence of others, the 
reduction of fo near, fo dreaded, and 
fo hated a rival as the king of Prufiia, 
and the opportunity of the forming 
lier troops to fervice, and perfecting 
her officers, were objects of confe- 
quence enough to keep her clofely 
attached to her firllfentimcnts. 

The Swedes preferved likewife 
the fame connexion ; but they con- 
tinued as before, an inconfiderable, 
and inglorious part of the war. 

Holland preferved her neutrality ; 
but it was a neutrality little refpect- 
ed, and indeed in itfelf little re- 
fpeftable. Divided in her councils, 
attentive only to private interefts, 
file difgufted the Englifh, and nei- 
ther pleafed nor ferved the French. 
For fome of the fubjedls of that re- 
public had carried on the trade of 
France in their bottoms, which fub- 

jefted them to frequent captures 
from the Englifh men of war and 
privateers. This produced loiid com- 
plaints in Holland, and warm re- 
monilrances to the court of London. 
Thefe complaints met with little at- 
tention, being in many refpe^ts but 
indifferently founded. TheafFairwas 
drawn out in length, until the difpate 
was extinguilhed by the dellruftion 
of its object ; fome of the French co- 
lonies were reduced, ana the trade in 
the others grown too Imall and too 
hazardous to be continued Ic-iger 
with any hope of advantage. 

The affairs of France and Eng;- 
land were partly con nefted with 
the general fyliem, and partly di- 
ftinct and independent. France per- 
ceived that the ilrength of theEng- 
li(h, and the exertion of that ftrength, 
increafed continually in America ; 
Ihe knew from the natural inferio- 
rity of her colonies, and the feeble 
ftate of her navy, that fae could not 
in reafon hope for great fuccefs in 
that quarter ; for which reafon, al- 
thoug:i (he fent a fleet under Ivlonf. 
Eompart into the Well Indies, and 
fome men of war, with as many (lore 
and tranfport fnips as ihe could Ileal 
cut of the river St Laurence, her 
great efforts were to be made in Eu- 
rope : (lie had two objeds, the reco- 
very of Hanover, and the invafoT, 
of thefe iilands ; in either of which, 
if fhe fucceeded, there could be no 
doubt, but that it would prove a 
fufiicient balance for all that (he had 
fuffered, or had to apprehend in any 
other part of the world. 

With regard to the firft objeft, 
though it was difficult to attain it, 
and though, if itfnould be attained, 
it did not promife to anfwer her 
purpofes fo well as the latter, yet it 
was upon that (he chiefly depended. 
Hitherto indeed the fuccefs which 
France had in Germany, was not at 
B 3 all 


all proportioned to the prodigious 
piForcs which l"he made ; ihe began 
to find her if If much exhaulted. i he 
vanrs of the Prench obliged them 
^o pay little refped to neutral, or 
even to friendly powers; fo tnat the 
efteeni and a'Jilldiice which they had 
in Germany diminifli,'d continuaily. 
'i hey eat up the country, and feiz- 
ed on luch towns as w^re conveni- 
ent to them, wi hout any ceremony : 
yet freed from all thefe reftraint?, 
their army had made very little pro- 
grefs ; their generals had not dif- 
played any great abilities, and their 
army, in itlelf very badly compofed, 
was deficient in dil'cipline, to a de- 
gree which is fcarcely credible. They 
kept neither gqards, nor p.-its, nor 
centinel.' ; a great partof iheir.trcops 
wandered fiom the camp into the 
neighbouring towns, and returned 
. drunk. Their councils of war were 
held in a tumultuous and diforderly 
manner; and all their defigns were 
p^rfetlly known in the camp of the 
allies, where a very different picture 
was exhibited with regard to regula- 
rity and caution *. 

The French troops have feveral 
effential defedls in their conftituiion, 
which prevent them from equalling 
thofc of Germany and other nations. 
Several regiments are in a manner 
hereditary in great families, who, 
placed at their firft outlet at a very 
high point of military rank, thi'ik it 
iinneceflary to- attain the qualifica- 
tions, which lead others to it flep by 
ftep. As to tlie reft of the officers, as 
their pay is fmall and their hopes 
little, few liudy the art military as 
a profeffion ; they ferve becaule it is 
the faihion to do io, and that v: is 
thought necefiary to a gentleman. 
Thus rhey difpatch their buhnefs as 
a disagreeable tafk ; and having little 
to loi'e ia the fervice, it is almoll 
* See Letins de . 

impofiible to preferve a due fubordl- 
nation. The common men are little 
more than abjed valfals, and there- 
fore want that high fpirit which in 
their ge. try makes fome amende 
for the want of knowledge and af- 
fiduity. And as they are corrupted 
by the example of their fuperiors, fo 
by their negligence they are left 
without any reltraint. The officers 
do not chufe to incur the ill will of 
their rnen, or to gi-e themlelves 
trouble, by exercihng tliat whole- 
fomc feverity in which the health and 
vigour of military difcipline confifts. 
The German common people are 
indeed in a ftill lower ftaie of vaf- 
falage than the French, and might 
therefore be fuj-'pofed naturally no 
better foldiers ; but their bodies are 
mere robull and hardv ; their treat- 
ment is fevere and rigorous, their 
fubordinaiion is moft exad, which 
makes their difcipline ptrfed ; and 
Germany is lo habituated to war, 
that ail the people may be faid to 
be born foldiers. Thefe things give 
the Germans a great fuperiority 
over the French ; a fuperiority which 
was more vifible in this, than in any 
former war. 

Thefe defeds in their army were 
increafed by the low ftate of their 
finances, which cauled their troops 
to be very ill paid The French 
court made fome attempts to keep 
up their credit, by changing their 
fo'-mer methods of raifiug money. 
Mi. Silhouet was made controller of 
the finances, and the farmers gene- 
ral were removed from their former 
employment of finding the fupplies. 
New methods were devifed, which 
might ftave off the entire ruin of 
their finances, until their armies in 
Germany could ftrike fome effec- 
tive blow, or their projed of an in- 
vafion, which quieted the minds cf 

M. Bdltinc. 


For the Y E A R 1759. 

Ae people in fome degree, fhould 
be put ia execution. 

With regard to the latter projeci, 
France had formerly found that the 
bare report of (uch a defign had 
ferved many material purpofes ; but 
in England things had, fince then, 
been greatly changed. The threats 
of an invaiion increafed our internal 
ftrengih without raifing any appre- 
henfions ; they in a great meafure 
executed the militia ad, which hard- 
ly any thing elfe could have put in 
execution ; they increafed the regu- 
lar troops, both in their number 
and their fpecies. England for the 
lirft time fa^v light horfe ar.d light 
foot. There reigned in both houfes 
the moft perfect and unprecedented 
union. Among the great men there 
was no difference that could in the 
Jeaft aiFedt the condudit of the war. 

The difpute concerning the prefe- 
rence of the continental and the ma- 
rine fyftem, was entirely filenced ; 
becaufe a fyftem took place which 
comprehended both, and operated 
in both as fully as the warmell ad- 
vocates of either could deure. Ne- 
ver did England keep a greater 
number of land forces on foot, oa 
the continent of Europe, in Eng- 
land, in America, when (he turned 
all her power to her land forces 
only. Never did Ihe cover the feas 
with fuch formidable fleets, when 
her navy alone engaged her atten- 
tion. Such is the efFett when power 
and patriotifm unite; when liberty 
and order kifs ; and when a nation 
fits with a happy fecurity under the 
fhade of abilities which flie has tried, 
and virtues in which ihe dares to 


^he allied army m^njes. Succefsjul Jkirmijhes on the fide of the allies. Battle 
of Bergen. Prince Ferdinand retires to Windeken. Plan of the campaign. 
General Woherfno^ s expedition into Poland. Prince Hemy's into Bohemia 
a^.d Franconia. General Macguire defeated. Bamberg pillaged. Prince 
Henry returns to Saxony. Heffe abandoned by the allies. 

TH E feizing of Francfort the the fortune of his Britannic Ma- 
laft year, iby a moft flagrant jefty's army, as to that of the King 

violation of the liberties of the Em- 
pire, had given the French and 
fheir allies the moft material ad- 
vantage they had acquired in the ; for it fecured to them 
the courfe of the Maine, and the 
Rhine, and made it eafy to them to 
receive every kind of reinforcement 
and fupply. It fecured likewife that 
communication between them, the 
Imperial, and the Auftrian armies, 
and formed that chain, from which 

of Pruffia. Such a ftroke muft ne- 
ceilarily have the greateft influence 
on the events of the whole eni'uing 
campaign. Prince Ferdinand, {txi~ 
fible of this, as foon as the feafon 
permitted him to enter upon adlion, 
drew his troops out of their canton- 
ments ; and at the head of thirty 
thoufand men, prepared to diflodge 
them, before they could receive the 
fupplies of which they were in daily 
expectation. The reft of his army. 

they derived no fmall benefit, of confifting of about ten or twelve 

mutual fuccour and concurrence in 
their operations. Much depended 
upon their being diflodged from 
'^hac poU \ as well with regard to 

thoufand men, were left to guard 
the electorate, and to watch the 
biftioprick of Munfter. Some de- 
tachments of Haneverians and Pruf- 
B 4 iiani 


fians had, in the latter end of Feb- 
ruary, clriven the Imperialills and 
Auftians from thepoits, which they 
occupied at Erfurth and Klhnach, 
and iome places in the couniry of 
Heffe ; this drt-w a llrong body of 
the enemy into that part, which 
puftied tiiem back ; but the He- 
reditary Prince of Brunfwick, who 
led the army of the allies through 
ways, before deemed impafiable to 
an armv, defeated them in fonie fe- 
vcre fkirmifhes; fcveral places of 
importance were taken ; feveral 
whole battalions were made prifon- 
'ers, with their officers. The French, 
alarmed at the vivacity of this be- 
ginning, judged it but the prelude 
to fomething more decifive. Ac- 
cordingly, the duke of Broglio took 
an advantageous poll, near Bergen, 
at a village between Francfort and 
Hanau, which it was iiecellary that 
the allies (hould matter, before they 
could penetrate to his line. This 
place he had made his right, and 
fecured his flanks and center in fuch 
a manner, that the attack could on- 
ly be made at that village. 

In this difpofition was the French 
army when the allies approached : 
they formed themfelves under an 
eminence, and began the attack 
on the village of Eergen, between 
nine and ten in the morning, with 
great intrepidity. They were re- 
ceived with a very fevere fire, which 
the enemy had prepared for them ; 
they made three attacks in the fpace 
of about two hours, and were every 
time repulfed. 

Prince Ferdinand now obferved 
that the enemy Hill k^pt a good 
countenance in their poll, and tbit 
his own troops began to fail into 
fome difoidcr. This able general, 
who never rilques his fortu le on a 
fingle throw, began to think of a 
retreat, whilil his lofs was yet in- 

confiderable, and the diforder of 
his men eaiily to be repaired. Euc 
a retreat in the face of a victorious 
enemy, was hazardous ; and the 
day was not yet above half fpent. 
In this exigence he made fuch 
movements, as ftrongly indicated a 
defign of falling once more upon 
the village, in the enemy's right, 
and of making at the fame time a 
new attack upon their left. Thefe 
appearances were further counte- 
nanced by a cannonade on both 
thefe pofts, fupported with an un- 
common fury. The French, de- 
ceived by thefe manoeuvres, kept 
clofe in their polls ; they expedited 
a new and a lively attack every mo- 
ment ; they returned the cannonade 
as briflcly as they could ; and in 
this poftore things continued until 
night came on, when the Prince 
made an eafy retreat, without dif- 
order, or mokflation, and halted at 

In this aftion the lofs of the allies 
was about two thoufand in every 
way ; that of the French was by 
no means lefs confiderabie. The 
allies indeed fufFered nothing in 
their reputation ; their countenance 
through the whole aftion having 
been excellent. Prince Ferdinand 
gained as much honour, and dif- 
played as much ikill, as could have 
been obtained, or Ihewn upon a 
more fortunate occafion. The event 
however was, in its confequences, 
far from indifferent ; for the allies 
having milled this blow, the French 
ftill kept Francfort, and all the ad- 
vantages which they drew from that 
fituation ; they had time and means 
to receive their reinforcements; and 
they acquired in a fhort fpace fuch 
a fuperiority, as obliged Prince Fer- 
dinand to content himfelf with aft- 
ing on the defenfive, for a long time 


For the YEAR 1759. 

Th^ advantages which would 
have arifen fVom another iirue of that 
battle appeared more fully, from the 
operations which were carrying on 
on the fide of Bohemia, and which 
probably were defigned to concur 
with thofe of the Prince, in feme 
grand and comprehenfive fcheme. 
There is no doubt, that the army of 
the allies, and thofe of his Pruffian 
majetly, had determined to a<5l in 
concert, and had fettled fome plan 
for that purpofe : and though it 
fhould not be difcovered, with equal 
certainty, what that plan was, it 
may not however be unpleafaut to 
trace it ; as far at leall, as a rea- 
fonable conjecture, guided by the 
lights derived from the tendency of 
each operation, may lead us. For 
if we fucceed at all, in fuch an at- 
tempt, it diftufes a wonderful clear- 
nefs over the whole narrative. 

Jt is not impoffible then, thar it 
was defigned, in the firil phice, to 
keep the Ruffians at a diftance, un- 
til the latter end of the fummer, by 
the deftruftion of their magazines 
in Poland. That, on the other fide. 
Prince Ferdinand fhould attempt to 
drive the French towards the Rhine, 
and to get between them and the 
army of the Empire ; which having 
thus loltits communication with the 
French, Prince Henry ihould rufn 
but of Saxony, and fall upon them 
in Bohemia and Francor.ia, and cut 
Off alfo their communication with 
the great body of the Aullrians. 
Then the Imperialifts would find 
themfelves fituated between two 
hoflile and fuperior armies ; whilfi 
in Bohemia Marfhal Daun would 
be either obliged to try his fortune 
fingle handed, with the King of 
Pruflia, or totally to abandon that 
kingdom, into which it was in the 
power of the Pruflians to enter in 
csppofite parts at once. 

The firft part of this plan wss 
executed with great fpirit and fuc- 
cefs. So early as the 23d of Febru- 
ary, the Pruffian general Woberfnov/ 
marched into PoIand,.from Glogaa 
in Silefia, with forty-fix fquadrons, 
and twenty-nine battalions, where 
they routed feme bodies of Cof- 
facks ; and after having deilroyed 
feveral immenfe magazines, par- 
ticularly one at Pofen, faid to be 
fufficient for the fubfiftence of fifty 
thoyfand mpn for three months, 
they returned without any lofs into 
Silefia, on the l8th of April. 

As tor the fecond aft of this mi- 
Iit3.ry drama, it v/as executed with 
as great fuccefs, and with fome ad- 
vantages more ftrikiag than the 
firft. prince Henry commanded the 
Pruffian troops in Saxony, which 
the public . accounts called forty 
ihoufand men. He had certain in'- 
tellig;;nce, that fome movements, 
which had purpoiely been made by 
the King of Pruffia, had diawn the 
greateft part of the Aulbian troops, 
which had been polled as a watch 
upon Saxony, towards the frontiers 
ofSilefia. tie immediately took ad - 
vancageof this opening, and entered 
Bohemia in two columns; 
one marched to.vard Peterf- P.' '>' 
wade ; the other, whii.h was com- 
manded by General Huifr-n, made 
its way by PafDerg and Conuijottau. 
The ^rft penetrated as far as Lobof- 
chutz and Leitmeritz, the enemy 
Hying before them, arid every where 
abandoning or burning the vali ma- 
gazines which they had amafiTed in 
all thofe parts. 

The body under General Hulfen 
did as much fervice, and it had a 
more aftive employment. The pafs 
of Palberg, llrong in itfelf, was de- 
fended by a confiderable body of 
Auftrians. General Hulfen having 
conduced his infantry by another 




way, (o as to fall diredlly on their 
rear, attacked them with his infan- 
try in front, and drove them out of 
all their intrenchments ; one gene- 
ral, fifty-one officers, and no lefs 
ttvtn two ihouTand private men, were 
made prifoners on this occafion. The 
Pruffians lolt bat feventy men killed 
and wounded. They returned into 
. Saxony with hoilaffes for 

•^i*"'" tjie contributions they had 

After this fatiguing expedition, 
the Prince gave his troops a few days 
to re[t, and then led them once more 
to adVion. Ke direflied his march 
through the Voigdand, towards the 
army of the Empire ; they entered 
Franconia by the way of Hoif; they 
attacked General Macgiiire, who 
commanded a body of Aullrians and 
Imperialiils. Here they were brave- 
ly refilled for the whole day ; but the 
numbers and fpirit of the PruGians 
prevailing, Macguire gladly took 
advantage of the night to make a 
letreat, having loft about five hun- 
dred men. A few fkirmiflies more 
decided the fate of Franconia. The 
army of the Empire retreated, as the 
Prufiians advanced, and abandoned 
the rich bilhoprics of Bamberg and 
Wurtzberg to contribution. The 
, - f- town of Bamberg furren- 
^ y ^ * dered upon terms ; but 
fome confufion happening before the 
capitulationwas completely finiihed, 
a party of Croats came to blows with 
a party of Prufiians, who had by this 
time polleffion of one of the gates ; 
this was refented as an infringement 
of the capitulation. A pretence was 
given to plunder the place ; it was 
given up to pillage by order of the 
commanders, for two days, in a very 
unrelenting and licentious manner. 
This produced loud and juft com- 
plaints againft the FrufTians, and in 
due time, a fevere retaliation. 

Prince Henry had puflied back 
the army of the empire as far as 
Nuremberg ; he had difabled a 
great part of the circle of Franco- 
nia from giving them afliftance ; 
and thus far he had accomplifhed 
the objects of his expedition. But 
as that part of the plan, which 
Prince Fsrdin^od was to have exe- 
cuted, had failed, it was impoffible 
on one hand to hinder the French 
army from fuccouring that of the 
empire, or on the other, to prevent 
a body of Aullrians from availing 
themfelves of his abfence, to pene- 
trate into Saxony. In thefe circum- 
flances any farther flay in Franconia 
was ufelefs, and might be danger- 
ous. His army, loaded with booty 
and contribution, returned to their 
Old fituation. The Auflrians retired 
into Bohemia at their approach. 

Appearances were hitherto fa- 
vourable enough to the Prufiians ; 
however none of the great ends pro- 
pofed by the general plan were fully 
anfwered. The Ruffians, notwitb- 
ftanding the deliruftion of their 
magazines, continued their march 
toward^ Silefia. Count Dohna, who 
had raifed great contributions and 
levies in the duchy of Mecklenburg, 
was preparing to oppofe them on 
the fide of Brandenburg ; other par- 
ties, under other commanders, were 
polled at thofe pi .ces where their 
irruption was the moit apprehended. 
The approach of this army brought 
things nearer and nearer to a crifjs. 
The eyes of all Europe were fi:ve4 
with anxiety and expeftation on 
their progrefs. It appeared the more 
formidable, becaufe the progrefs of 
the French arms was very rapid af- 
ter the battle of Bergen. 

Prince Ferdinand, finding that 
another attack was not advifeable, 
retreated continually. The French, 
poflelR-d themfelves of HeiTe with- 

For the YEAR 1759. 


©ut oppofition ; they met as little in occafion (hould require. The con- 
making their wav through the bi- cidon of the allied army was ex- 
ihopric of Paderborn ; and whilir tremely dubicu. ; whilll the French 
their grand ^rmy, under Marfhal de increafed in their num'^ers and fpi- 
Contades, pulhed the allies in that rit. Their new la.ceis gave them 
quarter, and on the fide of Heffe, reafon to hope for a campaign as 
M. d'Armentieres was pofted by fortunace as that of 1757. 
Wefel, to advance on that fide as 

CHAP. iir. 

Expedition tc the Weji Indies under Hop/on and Moore. Account of Marti- 
/lico. Failure there. The caufes of it. Guadeloupe in-vaded. Dsfcription 
of that ijland. Ba/Je Tcrre attacked ond burned. General Hcpjon dies. 
Operations againfl Grand Terre. Several pafcs forced. The inhabitants 
capitulate. Bra-jery cf a French lady. Marie Galar.te taken. 

GREAT Britain was not con- 
tent with the efforts which 
{he had made in Germany : Ame- 
rica, the interefts of which had 
given rilr to the war, was the objedt 
which principally engaged her at- 
tention. Tnis was indeed the pro- 
per object of her ncitaral ftrcngrh, 
and by her fuccefs in this quarter, 
file moft effeflually laid ine ax to 
the root of the enemy o nival power, 
and cat away one great part of the 
refources which fed the war. A 
fquadron oi nine fnips of the line 


with fix'.y tranfports, con- 

_Q ' taining fix regiments of foot, 
' ^ ' in the end of the laft year 
failed for the Weii Indies, in order 
to attack and reduce the French Ca- 
ribbee iilands. General Hopfon 
commanded the land forces : the 
fleet in the expedition was to be 
under the orders of Commodore 
Rloore, then in the Well Indies. 

Th:ir firlt objedl was Martinico, 
the firll in reputation of the French 
Caribbees, the feat of government, 
the center of all the trade which 
France carries on with thefe iilands : 
ilrong both by nature and art. This 
jlland lies in the 1 5th degree N. lat. 
'J'he fhore is on every fide indented 

wiLh very deep bays, which they call 
Cul de facs, and tne fands, only dif- 
coverable at low water, form ia 
many places a hidden, and almofl 
infurmountable barrier. A lofty- 
ridge of almoft impalTable moun- 
tains runs north-weft ajid fouth-eail 
quite tnrough the ifland ; all the 
fpace on both fides is interfeiSed 
at inconfiderab:e diftances with deep 
gullies, through which the water 
pours down in the rainy feafons with 
great impetuofity. In other refpecls 
the iiland is pieafant and fruitful : 
well watered, and well cultivated, 
abounding with plarnations and vil- 
lages all along the iea-coafl. The 
two principal places are St. Pierre, 
and Port Royal ; both towns confi- 
derable in this part of the world, 
for their magnitude, trade, and 

By this fhort defcription may be 
difcerned how defirable fuch a con- 
quefl v\as, and the difficulties which 
naturally oppofed themfelves to it. 
They were the greater, becaufe at 
this time there was in the ifland a 
confiderable number of regular 
troops. They have at all times a 
numerous and well-armed militia, 
not contemptible for ti.eir difci- 




pline, and well fuited to the fervice 
of the country ; add to this, that 
they can bring into the field a large 
body of negroes, habituated to arnns, 
and in general well affcded to the 
interelt ot their maflers. 

The Englifh forces landed with - 
-r f- out oppofition, on the weil 
-' ' ' fide of Port Royal harbour, 
after the men of war had driven 
the enemy froai their batteries and 
intrenchments. Eut on their land- 
ing, they found that the nature of 
the country proved a greater ob- 
Urudion to their progrefs, than the 
ftrength of the enemy. Thefe pro- 
found gallies, inclofed by fteep, 
and alnioft p&fpendicalar preci- 
pices, proved an iniurmountaljle ob- 
ftacle to the regular march of the 
troops, or the conveyance of can- 
non. The enemy had broken up 
the roads ; and five miles of fuch 
roads, and through fuch an imprac- 
ticable country, were to be pafl'eJ 
before Port Royal could be attacked 
by land. The ccmmaader there- 
fore of the forces, judged the difli- 
cultieson the land fide iniu.niount- 
able ; the naval commander held 
it impolCble to put the cannon 
afhore nearer to the fort. Some jea- 
loafy fce.iis to have arifen. The 
xefult of the whole was, chat the 
forces were reimbarked on the day 
cf their landing. 

Very little was done at Port 
Royal ; but it w;is hoped that more 
would be done at St. Pierre. They 
accordingly fet fail for that place ; 
but when they had arrived before 
it, and examined the coart, 
-'* new difiiculties arofe, vvhich 
produced a nevv deliberation. They 
decermiaed that the fort could not 
be reduced, without fuch detriment 
to the troops and the (hipping, that 
they could afterwards make little 

ufe of their fuccefs ; and in this 
they had probably good reafon. The 
condutt of the officers afterwards 
plainly demonftrated, that no mean 
views had any influence on their 
councils ; they agreed to abandon 
their enterprize againll Marcinico. 
But having been foiled in this their 
firil attempt, they refjlved not to 
return with the difgrace of having 
done nothing worthy of the great- 
nels of the armament, and the ex» 
peftation of their country. They 
confidered that the illand of Gua- 
deloupe was ;.iu objcfl, though not 
of fuch an eclat, ol full as much 
real confequence as Martinico; and 
they knew that ic was neither (cf 
ilrong in troops or fortifications. 
Their firll failure might lead to an 
advantage as confiderable as that 
which they had miiTed. In pur- 
fuance of thefe refoluiions, they let 
fail foV Guadeloupe. 

This iHand is called Guadeloupe, 
from a relemblance vvhich ic bears 
to a chain of mountains of the 
fame name in Old Spain. To 
fpeak with exadnefs, Guadeloupe 
is rather to be confidered as \wo 
iHands, divided from each other by 
a fmall arm of the fea, or fait wa- 
ter river, not above three hundred 
feet over where it is wideih One 
of thefe iflands is called the Graad 
Terre ; the other more particular- 
ly and by dilHnction, Guadeloupe: 
they are together in circuit about 
ninety leagues. The firft is nearly 
dellitute of frelh water, and not 
perfedly cultivated ; but it is other- 
wife with Guadeloupe. No part of 
the world is furniilied with more or 
better. No lefs than fifty rivers in 
that fmall circuit, throw themfelves 
into the fea ; many navigable by 
boats, for two, fome even for three 
leagues into tne country. Not to 
f jncntioji 

For the YEAR 1759. 


mention the nurr.berlefs fprings 
which rife among the rocks, and 
after a thoufand beautiful meanders, 
lofe themfelves in tlie larger ftreams. 
The firft accounts which we have 
of that country, are lavifh in the 
defcription of its beauties ; and the 
}ateft agree with them, that no part 
of the Wert Indies, perhaps of the 
world, affords more agreeable and 
romantic fcenes. It is full of high 
mountains ; one of which towers 
far above the reft, and is a volcano, 
continually emitting fmoke and fire. 
From hence they have confiderable 
quantities of fulphur. They have 
alfo hot baths, fit for all the medi- 
cinal purpofes in which fuch wa- 
ters are ufed. The land in the 
valleys is extremely fertile ; it pro- 
duces the ufual Weft India commo- 
dities, fugar, indigo, coffee, cotton, 
and ginger : the mountains abound 
with game : fo that there is nothing 
in the ifland wanting, for the con- 
venience and delight of life, in an 
air more temperate and falubrious 
than is commonly breathed between 
the tropics. 

The French began to plant colo- 
nies in this ifland as early as the 
year 1632. But for a long time this, 
together with all their other colo- 
nies, continued in a languifhing 
condition. It was in the beginning 
of the prefent century, that they 
began to emerge. After the peace 
of Ucrecht had given France time 
to breathe, fhe turned her attention 
ftrongly to thefe iflands ; Guade- 
loupe partook however lefs of this 
care than Martinico ; and yet by 
its natural advantages, it does not 
fall Ihorc of that ifland, either in 
the quantity, or the goodnefs of its 
produce ; if it does not greatly ex- 
ceed it in both ; as it certainly does 
in its capacity 10 receive all forts of 
improvement. The importance of 

this ifland, until its late conqueli, 
was very little known in England. 
The reafon was this : By an old 
regulation, the people of Guade- 
loupe were forbid to trade direftly 
with Europe, but were obliged to 
fend all their produce to A'lartinico, 
from whence alfo they had all their 
European commodities. A llrav^e 
regulation to be continued in an awe 
fo enlightened as this, by a nation 
fo enlightened as France. 

The Englifh made attempts upon 
this ifland in 1691, and 1703 ; but 
they were neither powerful enough, 
nor conduced with fufiicient abili- 
ty, to produce any permanent eited ; 
the troops wafted the country, and 
retired with their booty. But on 
the occafion of which we are going 
to fpeak, they were more able, 
Ilrcng, and fortunate. 

On the 23d of January the fleet 
came before the town of BafTe Terre, 
the capital of the ifland ; a place 
of confiderable extent, large trade, 
and defended by a ftrong fortrefs. 
This fortrefs, in the opinion of the 
chief engineer, was not to be re- 
duced by the fliipping. But Com- 
modore JVIoore, notwithftandino- this 
opinion, brought four men of war 
to bear upon the citadel ; the refl 
were difpofed againft the town, and 
the batteries which obftrufted the 
landing. About ni e in the morn- 
ing a lire from all fides began, which 
continued with the utmoit fury un- 
til night, when the citadel, and all 
the batteries, were efFeC'tually fi- 
lenced. During this cannonade the 
bombs, that were continually ibow- 
ered upon the town, fet it on fire 
in feveral places. It burned without 
interruption the whole of this and 
the following day ; when it was al- 
moft totally reduced to alhes. The 
lofs was prodigious from the num- 
ber of warehoui'es in tjje town, fujt 




of rich, but combufiible materials. 
Nothing could be more llriking, 
than the horror oi the fpettaclc, 
from the niuiual and unremitted fire 
of fo many great Hiips and batteries, 
heightened with a long line of 
flames, which extended along the 
Ihore, and formed the back ground 
of this terrible pifture. 

In this lively engagement, our 
lofs was very inconfidcrable. The 
. next day the forces landed 

J ■ ^' without oppofition, and 
took poffellion of the town and cita- 
del. Notwithllanding this fuccefs, 
the ifland was far fiom being re- 
duced. The country is rugged and 
mountainous, and abounded with 
paffes and defiles, of a difficult and 
dangerous nature. The inhabitar.ts 
had retired with their armed negroes 
into the mountains; and all feemed 
prepared to defend their polTellions 
bravely, and to the laft extremities. 
General Hopfon died on the 27th 
of February, and General Barring- 
ton fucceeded him. Ke embark- 
ed part of his forces for the Grand 
Terra, where Colonel Crump at- 
tacked and reduced the towns of 
St. Anne, and St. Fran9ois ; whilft 
this attack diverted the enemy's 
attention, the general fell upon the 
llrong port of Gofier, and pofTeflisd 
himfelf of it ; and thus the Grand 
Terre was in a manner reduced, 
and Jifabled from fending any relief 
to the other part. 

There is a cor.fiJerable moun- 
tain, not far from the town of Eafie 
Terre, called Dos d' Afne, or the 
Ais's Back ; thither a great part 
of the enemy had retired. It is a 
port of great ftrength, and great 
importance, as it keeps a watch 
upon the town, and at the fame 
time forms the only communication 
there is between that town, and 
the Capes Terre, the plaineft, plea- 

fantefl, and moft fruitful part of the 
whole ifland. 

It was not judged prafticable to 
break into it by this way ; and all 
the relt of Guadeloupe was in the 
enemy's poflefHon. I'herefore a plan 
was formed for another operation , 
b/ which it was propofed to lurprize 
Petit Bourg, Goyave, and St. Ma- 
ry's, and by that way to march into 
Capes Terre, which might be eafi- 
ly reduced. But this defign failing* 
it was neceffary to attempt ihofe 
places by plain force. Col. Cla- 
vering and Col. Crump landed near 
Arnonville, and attacked the ene- 
my, flrongly intrenched at a poll 
ftiong by nature, called Le Corne. 
This was forced ; another intrench- 
ment at Petit Bourg had the fame 
fate ; a third near St. Mary's yield- 
ed in the fame manner. An open- 
ing being at lalt made into the 
Capes Terre, the inhabitants faw 
that the bell part of the country was 
on the point of being given up to 
fire andfword ; they came in and ca- 
pitulated; their poireffions,and their 

civil and religious liberties, . ,..„ 

,° , May I* 

were granted to them. ' 

The fmall iflands, near Guade- 
loupe, Dcfirade, Santos and . 
Petite Terre, furrendered a few ^ 
days after, and on the fame terms. . 

This capitulation was hardly fign- 
ed, when the French fquadron under 
M. Bompart appeared before the 
ifland, and landed at St. Anne's in 
the Grand Terre, the general of the 
French Caribbees, with fix hundred 
regular troops, t^o thouland bucca- 
neers, and a large quantity of arms 
and ammunition. The capitulation 
was made at the moll critical time j 
for had this reinforcement arrived 
but a day fooner, the v^hole expedi- 
tion had probably been loll. 

Thus" came into the pofTeflion of 
Great Britain, this valuable ifland, 


For the YEAR 1759. 


after a catrp.iign of near three 
months, in which the Englilh troops 
behaved with a firmnersj courage, 
a.nd perfeverance that ought never 
to be forgotten. Intolerable heat, 
continual fatigue, the air of an un- 
accullomed climate, a country full 
of lofty mountains and fteep preci- 
pices, pofts ftrong by nature and by 
art, defended by men who fought 
for every thing that was dear to 
them ; all thefe difficulties only in- 
crcafed the ardour of our forces, who 
thought nothing impoifible under 
commanders, who were not more dif* 
tinguifhed for their intrepidity and 
ikill, than their zeal for the fervice of 
their country, and the perfect har- 
mony and good underllanding that 
fubfilled between them. There is 
nothing, perhaps, fo neceffary to in- 
ipire confidence into the foldier, as 
to obferve that the officers have a 
perfeft confidence in one anotlver. 

It muft not be omitted, that many 
of the inhabitants exerted them- 
felves very gallantly in the defence 
of their country. Awoman,acon- 
fiderable planter in the ifland, par- 
ticularly diftinguifned herfelf; fhe 
was called Madame Duckarmey : this 
amazon put herfelf at the head of 
her fervants and flaves, and acquit- 

ted herfelf in a manner not inferior 
to the bravelt men. 

Soon after the reduction of ,;j- 
Guadeloupe, the ifland of ^' 
Marie Galante furrendered 
icfelf upon terms fimilar to thofe 
which were granted to the former 
iflands. This is a fmall iiland, hait 
the conqueft is of confequence, as 
the French' by this are left no foot- 
ing in the Leeward iflands : Marti- 
nico is one of thofe to the Windward. 
Thefe beginnings were happy omens 
to the fuccefs of the more important 
undertaking, which was to be car- 
ried on in another part of America-. 
The reputation of our arms there, 
except in the reduclion of Loaif- 
bourg, had hitherto been very great. 
But other commanders were now 
appointed, and other maxims pre- 
vailed. However, vv'e poilpone the 
narrative of thefe very important 
events, to coni! i.-r thofe which in- 
tervened on the continent of Europe, 
in which too we fee our arms no lefs 
dillinguifhed ; and to behold Eng- 
land, emerging from the rubbifh of 
low principles and timid condudl,. 
once more become the pride and 
terror of Europe, and ading in a 
manner not unworthy the molHUuf- 
trious periods of her hiilory. 

C H A P. IV. 

Progrefs of the French after the battle of Bergen. Munjler and other place* 
taken. Situation of the French, and of the allies. Motions of Prince Fer- 
dinand. Battle of Minden. Hereditary Prince of Brunfjjick defeats the- 
Duke of Brfac. The French pafs the Wefer. L. G. S, rejigns the com- 
mand of the Britijh forces ; Mcrquis of Granhy fucceeds him. The French- 
dri'ven to Marpurg. Siege of Munjler. M. de E tries arriz-es at the Frencir 
camp. Projecl of France for an invajion. Ha^jre bombarded, J^icn oj: 
Cape Lagos. French fleet defeated. 

TX 7E left the army cf Prince curfions almofl to the gates of Ha- 
W Ferdinand upon the retreat, nover. The Prince Iti;l continued 
ever fince the battle of Bergen. The to retire ; but he left garrifons in 
French, advanced with great viva- Lipftadt, Ritberg, Munfter, and 
city ; their light troops made in- Minden, in order to retard the 




enemies progrefs ; their principal 
defign feemed to be to cut off" his 
retreat to the Wefer, to which he 
kept very clofe, as he icnesv the in- 
finite confequence of that comma- 
iiication. However, if the enemy 
fai'ad to compal's that objedt, all the 
precautions of the Prince proved 
alfo ineffeftual to retard the pro- 
grefs of their arms. Ritberg was 
furprized. Lipftadt was blockaded, 
Minden was taken by aflault, where 
a garrifon of 1,500 men were made 
prifoners, and \vher< immenfe ma- 
gazines fell into their hands. D'Ar- 
mentieres advanced againft Mun- 
fter ; he attempted to take the place 
by a coup de main. Though foiled 
in this attempt with confiderabie 
lofs, be did not dehil ; he drew up 
, his cannon from Wefel, and, 
^ J after a ibort fiege, made him- 
^>' felf malter ofthe city; thegar- 
jifon of 4,000 men became his pri- 
foners. Nothing fcem.d able to 
withlland the rapid torrent with 
which the French over-ran the whole 
country ; they no longer hoped the 
conqueft of Hanover ; it was with 
them an abfoiute certainty. Elated 
with the fair appearance of their 
fortune, they kepi no bounds. The 
French minilter, cheDuke of Belle- 
ille, in his letters to the Marlhal 
Contades, fpcaks only of the means 
of fecuring their conqueft, and pre- 
venting another expulfion from Ha- 
nover ; and for this end propofed 
the m:'ft cruel and unwarrantable 
expedients. Nor was there lefs dread 
and deje^flion vifible on the fide of 
the allies, than pride and confidence 
on that of the French. The archives 
and moft valuable moveables were 
fent off from Hanover to Stade. All 
things feemed haftcning to the fame 
polture, which drew on the famous 
capitulation of Clofccr-icven. 
In this general gloom, that over- 

fpread the fortune of the allies, the 
Prince kept himfelf unmoved, and 
attentive to his defigns. He did not 
fuffcr himfelf to be difconcerted by 
blows, which he had probably fore- 
fecn, and the ill confequences of 
wiiich he knew how to prevent. 
The body of the French army, after 
the taking of Minden, had pofted 
themfelves near that city, to which 
the right of their army extended ; 
their left was protefted by a very 
fteep hill ; in their front was a large 
morafs ; and a rivulet covered their 
rear. Nothing could be moreadvan- 
vantageous than this fituation ; and 
whiift they continued in it, nothing 
could be enterprized againft them. 
The army of the allies, after a con- 
tinued retreat, began, at laft, to ad- 
vance, and fixed their camp alto- 
gether as advantageoufly at Peterf- 
hagen, a place about three leagues 
from the enemy. 

Things were brought to that 
pafs, that nothing but a battle 
cculd hinder the French from tak- 
ing winter quarters in the eletflo- 
rate. There was no poffibility of 
attacking them with any hope of 
fuccefs in the camp which they 
then occupied. The point was to 
draw them from that poft into 
the plain ; but the movements ne- 
ceiTary to effefl this were extremely 
hazardous to an inferior army, in 
fight of the enemy. The opera- 
tions of Prince Ferdinand, on this 
occafion, difplayed fo penetrating 
and uncommon a genius, fuch a 
guarded boldnefs, luch a certain- 
ty of the grounds he went upon, 
fuch a perfect po/Teffion of him- 
felf, that perhaps there is no ifi- 
llance in hiftory of generalfhip fo 
compleat and hniibed ; for which 
reafon we fhall endeavour, from the 
bell lights we have, to draw out 
at length ihefeveral parts that con- 

For the YEAR 



Curred to form this remarkable 
piece ; we could indeed wilh that 
the authentic accounts of fo very 
memorable an event, had been 
more clear and explicit, but we mufl 
conten;; ourfelves v\ich the materials 
we have. 

On the 29:h of July Prince Fer- 
dinand forfook his camp on the 
\^'erer, and marched toward Hil- 
len, a village confiderabiy to bis 
Hj;ht, with the greateil part of his 
army : however, he took care to 
leave on the brink of that river, a 
body under General Wangenheim ; 
which extended to the town of 
Thornhau'en, where they were 
intrenched, and fupported by a 
confiderabie artillery. He had the 
J , day before detached the He- 
^ o reditaryPrinceofBrunlwick, 
with 6000 men, to make a 
compafs towards the enemivrs left 
flank, ar.d to poit himielf in fuch a 
manner, as to cut off the communi- 
cation of their convoys from Fader- 

The French were not inatten- 
tive to thefe movements ; their ge- 
nerals imnsediately held a council 
of war ; and the refuit was, that 
they gave completeiy into the fnare 
that was laid for them. They faw, 
as they imagined, the allied army 
divided and disjointed ; and now 
the happy mon-ent prefented itfelf, 
for the attack of General Wangen- 
heim, w'uO they knew was not 
ftrcng, and who feemed at a great 
diftance froT). tixe reft of the army, 
fo that it appeared impolTible that 
he could be relieved. This body 
being routedj as it eafily migu, 
it was obvious that they Ihould 
then be able to place themfelves be- 
tween Prince Ferdinand's army and 
the VVeier, and cue off his commu- 
nication with that river ; the great 
bbjed at which they aimed, through 
Vol. II. 

the whole campaign, and in which 
was involved the certain deftrudion 
of the allies. 

Full of thefe ideas, they . 
left their advantageous poft, •=»* 

and in eight columns paiT- 
ed the morafs in their front, and 
advanced into the plain. The 
Duke of Brogliowas to lead the at- 
tack, by falling upon that body 
that lay near the river, which 
feemed to prefent him an affured 
and eafy vidory. He marched on, 
therefore, with great confiaence ; 
but as foon as he had gained z\\ 
e.ninence which Ly along his front, 
he was ftruck with the utmofl fur- 
prize, when, iniiead of a few polls 
weakly guarded, he belicld the 
whole army of the allies drawn up 
in excellent order, extending frora 
the b^nks of the Vvefer, quite to 
the morafs, in the front -of the late 
French camp. This was a ilroke 
entirely unexpecled : they believed 
the Prince to have been at Hillen ; 
but he had marched up, and the 
wliole army was joined in the night. 
This difcovery for a while put a 
ftop to the,mo:ion3 of the French ; 
they were hemmed in between thp 
aliies, the morafs and the river. 
Their fituation was difagreeable, 
but it was now impoffible to recede. 
The allies iinding the French 
flower than they ex.eded, began 
to advance, and threatened the ene- 
mies center. This was compofed 
almoil wholly of horfe ; but it was 
the flower of their cavalry, who 
anticipated the fnock of the al- 
lies, and began the engagement. 
The brunt of the battle was al- 
moft wholly fuftained by the Eng- 
lifh infantry, and ibme corps of 
Hanoverians, which flood the rei- 
terated charges of fo many bo- 
dies of hone, the ftrength and 
glory of the French armies, with a 
C refola- 



refolution, fleadinefs and expcrt- 
nefs in their nianceuvre, which was 
never exceeded, perhaps never e- 
quallcd. They cut to pieces or en- 
tirely routed thele bodies. Two 
brigades of foot atiempted to fup- 
port them, but they vaniihed be- 
fore the Englifh infantry. Walde- 
grave's anti Kins^lley'' regiments 
diftinguifhcd themleives in a par- 
ticular manner th s day, nor v/ere 
their commanders le s dillinguifhed. 
The enemies horfc which compoled 
their center, being entirely difcom- 

pofing their center almoft wholly of 
cavalry, without any proper f^up- 
port ( f foot. 

The battle was over ; but then it 
was that ;he effects of Prince Ferdi- 
nand's admirable diipofitions ap- 
peared in their full luftre. The 
French r.ot having been moldled 
by the Britilli cavalry in their re- 
treat, had an opportunity of re- 
gaining their former advantageous 
poll. 1 h('y had indeed loll the 
honour of the day, and mified the 
ftroke which they had meditated. 

fited, an ■; their right which attacked The\ had Jikrwife lolt a great rrum- 

Wangenneim, having made no lurt 
of imprelTion, they thought of no- 
thing but a retreat. 

At this point of time tliC Prince 
fent order? to L. George Sackville, 
who commanded the wiiole Bricilh, 
and feverai brigades of the German 
cavalry, to advance. That cavalry 
formed tiie right wing of the allies, 

berof men. But all ihefe iofTti and 
difgraces might be repaired, and 
there feemeu nothing decifive in 
the day of Minden. It had cer- 
rainly happened, as it then ap- 
peared, if .the Prince, who fore- 
feeing th^s and neglecting no- 
thing which could be provided, 
had not formed the plan of detach- 

extended to the morafs, and if it ing away the Hereditary Prince in 

could have charged at the inflant of 
the enemies retreat, fiich a Ihock at 
that time, and in that fituation, 
would in all probability have left 
the French without an army in Ger- 
iriany. But the orders were not 

the manner already related. At 
five in the morning of that day, 
this young hero attacked a large 
body of the Fjench under the 
de Brifac ; this body, though polled 
in a moll advantageous manner, he 

fufficiently preci'.e, or they were entirely defeated, and obliged them 

not fufHciently underllood by the to take refuge in Minden. The 

Englifh commander, fo that there news of thir- blow came with an ill 

was fome delay in wai:ing for an omen to IVf. de Contades, in the 

explanation. The critical minute inllant when the Englifh infantry 

pafTed away ; the Britifh cavalry began to engage his center. The 

loft their fhare in the glory of the enemy himfelf could not help ad- 

aftion ; and the French retreated in miring the dexterity of the ftroke 

fome order, favoured by thefpirited under which he funk; and full of 

and well judged efforts of the Duke aftonifhment at a conducl at once 

of Hroglio, and the advantages fo daring and judicious, paid the 

which the pofleffion of Minden juft applaufe to a general who could 

gave them. detach with fecurity fo large a body 

What is remarkable, the French from his army, when he was going 

attributed their misfortune in this to attack an enemy already much 

battle to the fame error in their fuperior to him in numbers, 

difpoiu.on, which lofl them the This happy flroke decided the 

battle of Blenheim j that of com- affair, all the pafTes through which 

2 the 

For the YEAR 1759. 

the French could draw fuccour or 
provifion, were feized. They re- 
linquiihed their ftrong poll; they 
fled through Minden, and pafiing 
the Weier, retreated to the eaft- 
ward of that river ; thus lofing all 
the advantages which tbey had 
made in the campaign, and forced 
to retreat through a country differ- 
ent from that through which they 
had advanced, and in which they 
had taken no nieafures to procure 

1 he lofs of the French in this 
a£iion amount>=d to about feven 
thoufand men killed, wounded and 
prifoners ; among whom were many 
officers of confiderable rank. The 
lofs of the fillies was not more than 
two thoufand. The En!?;lilh, as they 
gained the greateil glory, fo they 
were the gieatell fafferers. Twelve 
hundred of :he killed and wounded 
were of that nation. 1 he prince 
on the day after the battle paid 
the due honours to thefe illuilrious 
corps, as well as to feveral of the 
Hanoverians, who had behaved in 
the fame gallant manner. He did 
jullice to the merit of the othcers ; 
he diftinguiflied their names ; and 
even particularized fo low as cap- 
tains. To fome in the rnoft oblig- 
ing manner he fent confiderible 
prefents ; and he omitted nothing 
to (hew that, he knew what it is 
to be well ferved, and how to en- 
courage the troops and officers to 
do their duty with fpirit and cheer- 

Although the Englilh had the 
greateil fhare in the honour of this 
fignal day, and that the Prince ac- 
knowledged their merit in the 
ftrongeft terms, yet a cloud was call 
over their triumph. There were fome 
expreffions in the orders for the 
rejoicings, which were fuppofed to 

convey a very fevere refleftion on 
Lord G. S. commander in chief of 
the Englifh force:. The Prince re- 
quired with an emphafis, which 
feemed particularly pointed, that 
his orders by his aids de camps for 
the future fhould be more exadliy 
obeyed. In a manner flill lef^ to 
be mifunderftood, he exprefled his 
concern tliat the Marquis of Graq- 
by had not had the command of 
the Britifh cavalry. Had be com- 
manded, his highnefs made no 
doubt that the fuccefs of the day- 
had been much more compleat and 
brilliant. The fevere infinuation 
concerning the difobedience to or- 
ders, and the invidious compliment 
to a lubordinate officer, were clear 

The news of a viflory fo glorious 
to our troops, and of a cenfure fodif- 
graceful to their commander, came 
at once to England In proportion 
to the joy which filled all hearts, in 
proportion to the opinion of the 
great general to whom they owed 
fo feafonable an advantage, was 
their indignation againll the unfor- 
tunate commander to whom it was 
attributed that this advantage was 
not greater. The public as ufual 
judged definitely upon the firft 
charge. They never pardon a gene- 
ral whofe error it is to fall fnort. In 
vain they are prayed to fufpend their 
judgment^ and to wait for a full 
dilcuiTion ; the matter is already de- 
cided ; they have a facl againll an 
officer, and they look upon all rea- 
foning in his favour, not fo much 
as a defence of his conduft, as the 
exertion of eloquence and artifice to 
palliate a negleclcf duty. This in- 
deed makes the cafe of officers par- 
ticularly hard ; but then it always 
fhews them what they have to do. 
The merits of the maaer are 
C 2 Hill 



ftill regarded in the fame light by 
the public. Buc tiie heat, the eager- 
nci's, and curiofity of the firli move- 
ments being over, the matter will 
be he; rd whenever it conies to be 
again difcuiTed with lefs attention, 
bui with leis paffion too. !t is net 
for us to deliver any opinion in fo 
nice a controverfy. We have in 
points of lei's moment hiiher;o de- 
clined it; and wc (hall always de- 
cline it until the proper judges be- 
fore whom it will probably come, 
fhall have taught us what to think. 
1 here is indeed no doubt, that if the 
cavalry of the allies right wing, 
fitua:ed as it was, had been brought 
to art at a critical time when ic 
had orders to move, the battle of 
Minden had proved as decifive as 
that of Hocllet. Kut whether it was 
a fault in the giving or the deliver- 
ing of tlie orders, c r whether it was 
fome njiiayprehenfion in him who 
received them, we cannot but fin- 
cerely pity a commander of iuch ad- 
mirable talents, who by the error 
or the misfortune of a moment, loft 
an opportunity that would have 
ranked him for ever with the Marl- 
boroughs and Brunfwicks. 

A tew days after the battle his 
lordlhip rehgned his command, and 
returned to London. He was but a 
few days in iondon when he was 
deprived of all his military em- 
ployments. The Marquis of Gran- 
by, whom the opinion of Prince 
Ferdinand, and the defires of the 
whcie ;:rmy had pointed out, fuc- 
ceedcd him in his con-:mand. A 
generous and ardent courage, an 
affability of manners that flowed 
from no art'fice, a manly freedom 
and opennefs of foul, a chearful 
andunrefened converfation, a mu- 
nificence that knew no bounds, fo 
many qualities of the man and of 

the foldier, endeared him to the 
wiiolearmy, and rendered Englifh 
and foreigners, his inferiors, his 
equals ana his fuperior in com- 
mand, unanimous in his favour. 

Whilll ihele changes were mak- 
ing, Prince Ferdinand loft no tim.e 
to improve his vidlory, by the pur- 
fuit of the French, who retired in 
the utmoft diftrefs. The allies were 
not indeed able to overtake the 
main body of their army, but they 
harrafled them extremely, and the 
French were obliged to fucritice 
a great part of their army piece- 
meal, to preferve the reft entire. 
The necefiity of providing fubfift- 
ence drove them towards CafTel. 
The Prince purfued them, obliged 
them to evacuate that place, and 
once more freed that poor diftrefTed 
country from the French tyranny. 
The c.ilUe of Ziegenhayn, after an 
hour's defence, gave the allies about 
four hundred prifoners. . 

After this the Heredi- ^"S" ^^' 
tary Prince of Brunfwick, equally 
confpicuous in the greater and the 
lefTer o^ erations of war, made 
a private n.arch at night in or- ' " 
der to furprife a corps of the French 
irregulars commanded by the fa- 
mous partizan Fifcher, which were 
ported at Wetter, where it was con- 
venient for the allies to encamp. 
This corps he entirely routed, 
killing a great number, and taking 
four hundred. The French threw 
a garrifon into Marpurg, in hopes 
of putting Ibme Ilcp to the rapid 
career of the allies. In efledt, this 
did prove an obftacle for fome days, 
but at length the caftle furrender- 
ed, and the garrifon con- ^ 
fifting of between eight * 
and nine hundred men became pri- 
foners of war. 

Here a bound was fet to the pro- 


For the Y E A R. 1759. 

2 I 

grefs of the allied arms. Not that 
they were Itopped by any confiJer- 
able obflruclion from the main 
body of the French in that quarter, 
but from fome efiefts in another 
quarter of the unfuccefsful begin- 
ning of the campaign, from which 
the battle of Minden had not yet 
perfedtly difengaged them. Munller 
was Hill behind them, and ftill in 
the hands of the enemy, who had 
a powerful garrifon in that city. 

nevxsof th:t defeat ariivfd jult as 
the King was taking horfe to h'jnt. 
He retired hient and dt-jcded into 
the apartmtnt of Madam de Pom- 
padour, and for iome time faw 
none of his minillers. The Diike 
of Groglio and M. de Lontaues 
mutually accufed each other, for 
the ill condudt of the day. The 
public acquitted Broglio. Belleifle 
and his general Contades loft all 
reputation : but the duke Hill pre- 

M. de Contades, who even after his ferved his employment and a con- 

defeat exceeded the allies in num- 
bers, and had now no further view 
of an offenfive campaign, fent a 
ftrong body under d'Armentieres, 
which was reinforced by fome troops 
from the Lower Rhine, to near 
fifteen thoufand men, to cover that 
place. Prince Ferdinand had be- 

fiderable part of his influence at 

As foon as the fird confufion and 
furprize of fo unexpefted an event 
was a little abated, it was refolved 
to fend reinforcements to their ar- 
my in Germany, and at the fame 
time to fend tlii::her fome officer 

fore detached General Imhofffrom of experience and authority, who 

Caflel in order to reduce it. On 
the approach of d'Armentieres, Im- 
hofr was obliged to raife the iiege. But being foon after re- 
^' ' inforced, the French com- 
mander retired in his turn towards 
Wefel, the pofTefnon of which place 
has all along proved of infinite im- 

might judge, and compofe if pof- 
fible, the differences which fubfii^- 
ed between the commanders ; as 
well as to afnil in the delibera- 
tions for retrieving their affairs. 
Public misfortunes call great meii 
from their obfcurity. M. de E- 
trees was chofen on this occafion. 

portance to the French in all their and inverted with the authority 

operations. The fiege of Muniier which he unwillingly accepted, 

was again refumed, but the bufi- When he arrived at the (> 

nefs threatened to be difficult and French camp, he could "^ ' 5* 

tedious. This, however, was the not avoid a figh on viewing of the 

only rub which the allies encoun- ruins of that army, which had tri- 

lered. In all other refpecls they 
wereperfeflly fortunate. They had 
striven their enemy two hundred 
miles belore them, and at the end 
of the campaign, after all their ef- 
forts, and all their ianguine hopes 
of conqueil:, fet them down jult 
where they had begun it. 

The event of the battle of Min- 
den, and the fubfequent misfortunes 
of the French arms, threw Verfailles 

umphed under his command at 
Hallenbeck. However, h;s beha- 
viour toM. de Contades was polite 
and generous. The old Marechal 
told him, that he was not come to 
take his command, but to ferve un- 
der him ; and whilll he affilled him 
with his advice, he would receive 
his orders. 

Whillt the French endeavoured 
to piece up their broken fortune in 

into the utmoft confufion. The Germany, they made fome fhew 

C 3 of 


of pufhing the other part of their Boys was ftationed before Dun- 

fcheme with vigour. All their ports kiik. Ad.riira! Rodney was Tent to 

were full of the preparations for an bombard Havr?, which fervice he 

invafion of the Britiih dominions, perfurmed with fncceA. Admiral 

Men of war, tranfports and flat Hawke blocked up the harbour 

bottomed boats, now almoft a word of Bred with a flrong fquadron, 

of ridicule, were prepared with whilft a lefTer kept a watch upon 

great diligence. They talked of a that of Vannes. Thefe precautions 

triple embarkation. M. Thurot were continued the whole lum. ner, 

was to command a fmall fquadron during which time the French pro- 

and feveral tranfports from Dun- cecded rather fl wly ; but after the 

kirk, which it was believed were battle of Minden had deftroyed 

intended for Scotland. This man their hopes in Germany, they turn- 

from the mafier of a merchant fliip, ed to this object with the greater 

became a captain of a privateer, in attention. What iffue it had we 

which capacity he greatly annoyed fhall relate in its proper place. But 

the Englifii trade, and acquired a their firft attempts on the ocean 

reputation. At a time when France proved as unfuccefsful as their arms 

does not abound with great men, on land. 

his fervices in this way, and his dar- A great fleet was equipped at 

ing fpirit, recommended him to a Toulon, which feme deftined for 

command in the king's fervice. America, whilft others believed it 

The defign againil England, as was defigned to unite itfelf with 

the voyage hither is the fhorteft, that of Breft to favour the invafion. 

was to be attempted from Havre, Admiral Bofcawen, who command- 

and fome other ports of Normandy, ed in the Mediterranean, blocked 

in flat bottomed boats. The third up this fquadron, until fome unfa- 

embarkacion, which was fuppofed vourable weather and the foulnefs 

againft Ireland,, was to be made of his (hips obliged him to .eturn 

from V.innesin the Lower Brittany, to Gibraltar to refit. The French 

where a large body of troops was took this opportunity to . 

afiembh d, commanded by the Duke fail out, and they pro- ^' ^' 

d'Agu'iion, governor of that pro- ceeded with great diligence to the 

vince. This embarkation was to llreights. 

be covered by the fleet under M. de They had arrived very near Gi- 
Conllans, which was preparing with braltar before the adm:ral had no- 
great diligence in Breft. Had this tice of their approach; but not- 
defign been '"uch as it was repre- withftanding that our (hips were 
iented, and had it been put into not perfedtly prepared to fail, the 
execution, there is no doubt but admiral ufed fuch gieat expedi- 
fuch an attempt upon both king- tion that in two hours after the ac- 
doms, at three difterent places at count arrived the Englifh fleet was 
once, mult have thrown the M,ho)e out at fea. 

into no fmall confuTon. But ex- The Englifli fleet was con-;pofed 

cellent meafures were taken on the of fourteen Ihips of the line bolides 

partofEnglnnd to fruftrate their de- frigates. The enemy had tvv-lve 

iigns what- vf-rthey nighthavebten. of the line. The\ wtre luperior in 

A fquadron under Commodore the bulk of their fliips and in the 


For the Y 

number of rr.en, if they wereinfLrior 
in ih : numoer of veiieh ; and it is 
the opinion of rrisny perf^ns of judg- 
ment, that if they hsd formed a 
line of battle and fought Mr. Bof- 
cawen in order, they might very 
we.i have hoped for a better iiTue of 
this matter than they found. But 
the evil geniub ci France operating 
on the cowardice or incapacity of 
their conmai.der, induced them to 
feparate 'heir fieet and fly. The 
Englilh Ifiips were rewjy refitted; 
they proved fetter f^ilors, and the 
men animated with the ipirit^d ex- 
ample of ihcir admiral, engaged 
the French lli:ps as tley could over- 
take them ; and they overtook 
fome of them off Cape Lagos in 
Portugal. A brifk engagement en- 

E A R. 1759. 23 

fued. Two of the enemies fi-ips, 
the Ocean and the Redoubtable, 
were run on ihore and b'jrned. The 
firll was the fhip of M. de la Clue 
the French admiial, who efcaped 
to land; but being grievoufly wound- 
ed, and as it is faid having loft both 
his legs, he died foon after. Two 
other capital (hips, the Centaure 
and Modelle, were taken. 

The fcattered remains of their 
fleet with dilHculty got into the 
harbour of Cadiz, where they were 
foon after blocked up, and where 
they Hill remain. This aftion hap- 
pened on the 18th of Atguft ; and 
it gave a great eclat to the Bririfh 
arms, which in the fame month 
had triumphed fo fignally both by 
fea and land. 


Count Dohtta dlfgractd. Wcdel fucceeded. The Ruffians enter Silejia, Battle 
of Zulichau. RuJJians take Franckfort on the Oder. General Laudchnjoins 
them. King of P, cffta joins IVedel. Battle of Cunncrfdorf, King of 
Brujjm repajjes the Oder. Soltikoff and Daun communicate. King of Prufpa 
detaches General Wunfch into Saxotiy. Parallel of the King of Pru£ta and 
Prince Ferdinand of Brunfnxick. 

S the K-ng of Pruffia's vidory Auftrians, Ruffians, Imperiaiifts and 

at RolDach had given the Swedes. 

The Ruffians, whofe motions go- 
verned thofeof all the other armies, 
left their camp at Fofna in Poland, 
and quitting the Villula, drew near 
to the banks of the Oder. They 
were under the command of a 


Hanoverians an opportunity to free 
their countr , it mi^^ht be expect- 
ed that the affairs at Minden would 
have lerved to free his Prufian 
Majelly from fome of the nume- 
rous armies that cpprefTed him. 
But as this battle was fought in the Ruffian nobleman, Count Soltikoff. 
middle of the feafon for aclion, Count Dohnn, who had been order- 
and as Muniler ftill continued in ed to oppofe them, faw that their 
the PofleCion of the French, Prince numbers were too confiderable, and 
F';rdinand could not venture at that their pofts too ftrong to be attack- 
time, to make any detachment from ed with any profpedl of advantage ; 
his army in the King's favour, fo that he contented himfelf with 
without rifquing all the advantages obferving their motions, and har- 
which he had obtained from his raffing their march. This conduft 
viftory. The King of Pruffia was feemed more dilatory and timid 
therefore left alone to liruggle with than the circumftances, or the in- 

C X clinations 



cliniitions of the King could bear. 
He is. fa'd tn have reproached that 
general in fo i'evere a manner, for z 
condud jn which he was in all nro- 
bability vtryjuiliiiable, tiat he took 
the firit opportunity to refign his 
comreiand, and under a pretence of 
recovering his health, retired to 
Berlin. The King immediately put 
General Wcdel into his place, with 
pofitive orders to engage the Ruf- 
fian cirmyat all events. To enable 
him to obey his commands, he re- 
inforced him with feveral detach- 
ments horn his own army. The 
pofitivenefs of the King's orders on 
this occafiun may perhaps be cen- 
fured, but it muft be owned that 
the time required a courfe next to 
defperate. His hereditary domi- 
nions were in the utniOll danger, 
and nothing but feme great and 
fortunate ftrcke could eifeftually 
prevent the jun^.inn of the Auiirian 
and Ruffian arnres an event which 
of all others he had the g reateil rea- 
fon to dread. 

Fortified in fome meafure by the 
reinforcements he had received, and 
in confequence of his orders, Ge- 
neral Wedei reiolved to attack the 
Ruffians on their march. They had 
got to Zulichau, and di- 
July 23. j.gc^g(j tjjgjj. courle to 

Croffen in Silefia, to get before the 
PruiTian army, and to make good 
the paflage of the Oder. The fitua- 
tion of the Ruffians was very ad- 
vantageous ; polled upon eminen- 
ces, defended by a powerful artil- 
lery, and near feventy thouiand 
llrong. The Pruffian army fell 
ihnrr'of thirty thoufand ; and they 
h^d areater difadvaujages than their 
'-■U'rioriry of numbers to get over, 
'c'luv had a brid?,e to pals, and 
fuch a narrow defile to llruggle 
rhrojgh, that fcarce a third of a 

H E G I S T E R 

battalion could march in front. The 
ground was fuch, that the cavalry 
could not fupport their infantry. 
Yet with all thcfe diP:cuI:i'JS the 
attack was long and refolute. But 
thii refoiution made their rcpulle, 
which all thefe difadvantages had 
rendered inevitable, flir more bloody 
and dillrefsful. Four thoufand fe- 
ven hundred were killed or prison- 
ers ; the wounded came to three 
thoufand. General Woberfnow, aa 
officer of great ability, was killed, 
and General Manteufi'el was wound- 
ed. Tlie Pruffians were obliged to 
retire, but they were net purfued, 
and they paffed the Oder without 
moleilation. ,The Ruffians feized 
upon the towns of Croffen and. 
Frankfort on the Oder, 

The King of Pruflla, fince the be- 
ginning oi the war, had never hi- 
therto obtained an advantage where 
he was not perfonally prelent. His 
prefence nov/ became more necef- 
fary than ever Since the aftion at 
Zuiichau the Ruffians had peqe- 
trared a confiderable Wc.y into his 
territories, and had taken pofTeffion 
of the important city of Frankfort 
upon the Oder. He therefore 
marched with ten thoufand of his 
bell troops, to join the broken ar- 
my of Wedel, in ordqr to drive 
this formidable and determined 
enemy from iiis country. Prince 
Henry commanded the remainder 
of hi . army, which was too well 
polled to fear any infult during his 
abfcnce. The eyes of all were fixed 
upon his march, and his foldiers 
wiio remembered Zorndorf eagerly 
longed to try their llrength once 
mo;e with the ftme antagonifts. 

M. Daun was not unapprifed of 
the motions of the Ruffians, or the 
dehgns of the King of Pruffia. He 
knew that the great fault of the 


For the Y 

Fyiljan troops, was the wnr.t oi' a 
regular and firm - cavaliy, which 
iTjig t be depended upon in a day 
of adtion. This defect was a prin- 
cipal caufe of iheir m'sforvLine at 
Zori.dorf in ihe laft year; a m'f- 
fortui;e which difconcerted all the 
operuiions of that campaign. As 
this wii the only want which the 
Ruffians weie under, f) it was that 
which Daun was bcfl able to fupply 
at a ihurt warning. With cIms view 
he lelcCitd about tweKe thoufand 
of h"s horiu, and there is no better 
horfe than that of the Auflrians, 
which, with about eight thoufand 
foot, he placed under the command 
of General Laudohn, one cf the 
ablclt officers in that fervice. This 
body was divided into two columns, 
one of which n^iarched through Si- 
Jefia, and the other through Luia- 
tia. By extreme good fortune and 
conduft, with little lofs or oppou- 
tion, they both joined he RulJian 
army, and were received with tranf- 
ports of joy. 

In the mean time, the King of 

Pruffia, who was unable to prevent 

• this ftrolce, joined General 

-^"g-l- wedel at Muhlrofe, and 

took upon him the command of the 

united armies. But ftill finding hlm- 

felf too weak for the decifive action 

he was preparing to attempt, he 

recalled Gen. Finck, whom he had 

fent iome time before into Saxony 

with nine thoufand men, in order 

to oppoie the ImperialiRs in that 

country. With thefe reinforcements 

he v/as not able to raife his army to 

fifty thoufand comp'eat. That of 

the Rufiians, fince the junftion of 

Laudohn, was upwards of ninety 

thoafand. They had befides taken 

a poll, which they had fo ftronglv 

entrenched, and defended with fuch 

a prodigious number of cannon, 

(hat it was extremely di.'ncult and 

EAR 1759. 25 

hazardous to attempt them, yet un- 
der thefeaccumulated difadvantages, 
i- was abfokuely neceffary that 
he Ihould fight. The detachments 
from Count Daun's army aire.Tdy 
menaced Berlin ; Saxony, which 
he was obliged to leave expofed, 
had btcome a prey to the Imperial- 
ills ; and the Rud'ians, united with 
the Auilrians, encamped before his 
eyes in Siiefia, the bcft and richeft 
part of his dominions. In fhort, his 
former reputaiion, his prefent diffi- 
culties, his future hopes, every mo- 
tive of honour and of fafety, de- 
manded an enc^agement ; the cam- 
paign haded to a decifion, and it 
was evident, that nothing far<^er 
could be done by marches and 
choice of polls. The fangui^e tem- 
per of other generals has often ob- 
liged them to fight under difadvan- 
tages ; but the" King of Pruffia's 
circumflances were fuch, that from 
the multitude, of his enemies, he 
was neither able to confult times 
nor fituations. Rafhnefs could hard- 
ly didlate anything, which, in his 
condition, would not have been re- 
commended by prudence. 

When the attack was re- . 
folved, the King's troops ^^' '^' 
put themfelves in motion at two in 
the morning, and having formed 
themfelves in a wood, advanced 
towards the enemy. It was near 
eleven before the adlion began. 
The principal effort of the King 
of Pcuffia was againft the left wing 
of the Ruffian army. He began, 
according to his ufual method, 
with a fierce cannonade; which 
having had the efreft he defired 
from it, he attacked that wing with 
feveral battalions difpofed in co- 

The Ruffian entrenchments were 
forced with great fiaughter. Se- 
venty-two pieces of cannon were 


A N N U A L R E G I S T E R 

taken. But flill there was a defile 
to be pafTed, and (everal redoubts 
to be maiiered, which covered the 
village of Cunnerfdoi T. Theie were 
attacked with the fame refolution, 
and taken one after another. The 
enemy made anc/thi r Hand at tl e 
village, and endeavoured to pre- 
ferve their ground there, by pufting 
forward feveral battalions o^ hone 
and foot ; but their refiilance theje 
proved not more efFeftual than it 
had done every where elfe ; they 
were driven from poft to poll quite 
to the lafl redoubts. For upwards 
of fix hours fortune favoured the 
Pruffians, who every where broke 
the enemy with an unparalleled 
ilau:,,hter. They had driven thorn 
from alnoft all the ground which 
they hsd occupied before the battle, 
they hud taken mere than half their 
artillery ; fcarce any thing feemed 
wanting to the moii. complete de- 

The King in thofe circumflances 
wrote a billet to the Queen, to this 
eftedl, " Mad<im, we have beat 
*• the Ruffians from their entrench- 
*' ments. In two hours exped to 
•' hear of a glorious vidlory." This 
news arrived at Beilin, jurt as the 
pofl was going out, i:nd the friends 
of the King or Prufiia throughout 
Europe, exulted in a cer:ain and 
concliiilve victory. Me;.n time i or- 
tune was preparing tor him a terri- 
ble reverfe. 

The enemv, defeated in almoft 
ever) quarter, found their left wing, 
Ihattered as it was, to be more en- 
tire than any other part of the ar-j 
my. Count Sohikoif therefore af- 
femblcd the remains of his right, 
and gathered as many as he could 
from the center, reinforced that 
wing, and made a Hand at a re- 
doubt, which had been eredled on 
an advantageous eminence, in aplace 

called the Jcw! burying ground. No- 
thing was wanting tc* fiinih matters 
in favnur of the King, but to drive 
the Ruffian" tmm this their laft hope.. 
But tins cnterprize was difficult. 
It i> confidenily faid, that th- Pruf- 
fian gtnerais weie unanimous in 
their opinion, that they fhould not 
endeavour at that time to pufh any 
farihei the advantages they had ob- 
tained, "^i hey repreleiucd to the 
King, that the enemy was flill very 
nuinerou."., their artillery was very 
confiderabie, and the pofl which 
they occupied of great flrength ; that 
his brave troops, who had been en- 
gaged fo long a time, in the feve- 
retl action perhaps ever known, and 
in one of the hotteft days ever felt, 
were too much exhaufled for a new 
attempt ; an attempt of fuch ex- 
treme diliiculty as might daun; even 
troops that were quite frefh. That 
the advantage he had gained would 
be as decifive in its confequences as 
that at Zcrndorf ; and whilfl the 
enemy filled the gazettes of their 
party, with frivolous dilputes of 
the field of battU, he would be 
reaping, as he did then, all the ef- 
fects of an unqueftioned vidiory. 
That the enemy would be obliged 
to re'iie immediately into Poland, 
and tn leave him at liberty to aft in 
other quarters, where his prefence 
was full as neccffary. 

1 hcfe reafons were very cogent ; 
and for a few moments they feemed 
to have fome weight with the 
King. But his charafter foon de- 
termined him to a contrary refolu- 
tion. He could not bear to be a 
conqueror by halves. One eflbrt 
more was aione wanting to that 
viftory, which would free him for 
ever from the adveriary which had 
leaned heavieft on him during the 
whole war. 

Once more he put all to the ha- 

For the Y 

zard. H's infantry ftill refolute and 
fupporicd by their latefuccels, were 
readily brought to atl again. They 
drew on their bodies tainting with 
heat and labour to a new attack. 
But the enttrprize was beyond 
their ftrength. The fituation of the 
enemy was impregnable ; and their 
artillery, which began to be fuperior 
to that of the Prullians, on account 
of the difficulty of the ground, 
which made it impoflible for the lat- 
ter to bring up any other than a few 
fmall pieces, repulled thefe feeble 
battalions with a great {laughter. 
With an aftonifhing, perhaps with 
a blameable perieverante, the 
Pruffian infantry was b:ought to a 
fecond attack, and were a fecond 
timerepulfed, and with alofs greater 
than at firll. Thefe efforts being un- 
fnccefsful, the affair was put to the 
cavalry. They made redoubled, but 
ufelefs attacks ; the horfes were 
(pent, as well as thofe they carried. 
It was jull at that time when the 
Pruffian horfe was wafted by thefe 
unfuccefsful efforts that the greateft 
part of ihe Ruffian, and the whole 
body of the Aultrian cavalry, which 
had been hitherto quite inadlive, 
and vvhich was therefore quite frelh, 
ruflied down upon them, broke 
them to pieces, forced them back 
upon their foot, and threw the 
whole into irreparable diforder. 
The whole army was feized with a 
panic ; and in a few minutes thofe 
trcops fo lately vidlorious and irre- 
liflible, were totally difperfed and 
defearcd. The Ring did every thing 
to reiiore the field, hazarding his 
perfon even beyond his former da- 
ring, and prodigal of a life he feem- 
ed to think ought not to be fepa- 
rated from con quelt. Thrice he led 
on his troops to the charge ; two 
horfes were killed under him ; feve- 

E A R 1759. 27 

ral balls were m his cloaths. The 
efforts of fkill, courage and defpair 
were made, and proved ineffectual ; 
a fingle error outweighed them all. 
Scarcely a general, hardly an infe- 
rior officer in the army was without 
fome wound. That of General 
Seidlitz was particularly unfortu- 
nate ; for to that wound the failure 
of the horfe which he commanded 
was principally attributed. It was 
to the fpirit and condudl of this able 
officer, chat a great part of the fuc- 
cefs at Zorndorf was owing, in the 
lail campaign. It is known, that 
if it had not been for a feafonable 
movement of the horfe, the whole 
Pruffian army had then been in 
great danger of a defeat. 

The night, and the prudent ufe of 
fome eminences, which were de- 
fended as well as circumftances 
would admit, preferved the Pruffian. 
army from total deftrudlioa. How- 
ever their lofs was far greater than 
any which they had fultained from 
the beginning of the war. All their 
cannon was taken. The killed, 
wounded and prifoners, by the moft 
favourable accounts, were near 
twenty thoufand. General Putkam- 
mer was killed on the fpot. Thefe 
generals whofe names are fo difrin- 
guiffied in this war, Itzenplitz, 
Hulfen, Finck, Wedel, and Seid- 
litz, were among the wounded ; as 
was the Prince ot Vv'urtemberg, and 
five major generals. The enemy 
could not have fewer than ten thou- 
fand killed on their fide. For 
hardly ever was a more bloody 

When the King of Prufiia found 
himfelf obliged to quit the field, he 
fent another difparcti to the Queen 
expreffed in this manner : " Re- 
" move from Berlin with the royal 
" family. Let the archives be 
*' carried 


" carried to Potzdam. The town 
*» may make conditions with the 
" ent-my." We fhould in vain at- 
tempt to draw the pi6\ure of the 
court and city, on the receipt of 
iuch news in the midli of the joy, 
which they indulged for that which 
they had received but a tew hours 
before. The terror was increakd by 
the indiftinft relation that foon fol- 
lowed, which gave them only to 
underiland, that their army was to- 
tally routed ; that there was no ac- 
count ot the King, and that a Ruf- 
fian army was advancing to take 
pofTeflion of their city. 

The day after the battle the King 
of Fruliia repaffed the Oder, and 
encamped atRetwin. From thence 
he moved to Fulienwalde, and pla- 
ced himfeil m fuci:; a manner, that 
the Ruffians did not venture to make 
any attempt upon Berlir.. Heconti- 
nually watched their army ; a part 
of which, inllead of turning to- 
wards Brandenburg, marched into 
Lufatia, where it joined that of the 
/^ultrian?. Here the victorious Ge- 
neral SoltikofT, for the firJl time, 
met M. DauH, and an.idrt rejoi- 
cings and graiulations, confuited 
about the meafures for improving 
their fuccefs. 

The Ruffian and Auflrian armies 
thus united, fcarce fteoied from 
their firength and their vi^lories to 
have any other deliberation left, 
than ci' what part of the Pruliian 
dominions they fiiould take imm.e- 
ciate poflefiicn. The King was 
twice defeated, with a vaft lofs. He 
was cut off from all communication 
u'ith the army of h""ii brother Prince 
]-?cnry ; yet, to the alloniJhment of the world, the fuperior, the vic- 
torious, and united army aiied up- 
on the dcfenfive, and were curbed 
in all their motions, and frultrated 

in all their defigns by the inferior, 
the beaten and divided. Nothing 
ever fhtAed the genius of the King 
of PrulHa more luliy than his con-, 
dudt after the b;.it'e of Cunnerfdorf. 
In a few days after fo teirible a 
defeat, every thinjr v/as in order in 
his camp, lie fupplicd the lofs of 
his artillery from his llores in Ber- 
lin. He recalled Gen ral Kieift 
with about five thoufand men from 
Pumerania ; in prefence of •wo 
fuch armies as thofe of M. Daun 
and Count Soltikoff, he detached 
{ix thouland men from his fmall 
body, to the relief of Saxony, 
where the army of the Empire had 
availed itfelf. of his abfence to re- 
duce the whole country. Hall, 
Wittemberg, Lsipfic, Torgau, and 
at lafl Drefden itielf had opened 
their gates to the Imperialifts. With 
the remainder of his troops he put 
hiinfelf between the Rulfians and 
Great Glogau, covered that city, 
which was the objedt of the 
enemy's defigns, and faw them 
foon after, notwithftanding their 
two vidtorics, obliged to return 
apain into Polnnd ; and to leave 
him frefi for the rell of the cam- 

What was done by the King of 
PrufTia fince that time, will be the 
fubjeit of another chapter ; after 
we have related the proceedings of 
th.i Englifh and French in America, 
to which the order of time direds 
our prefent attention. But we can- 
not difmifsthe affairs of Germany, 
in which two fuch battles as thofe 
of Minden and Cunnerfdorf were 
fought, with events fo dilFcrent 
for the common caufc, withvJut ob- 
ferving fomething concerning the 
two generals who conduced them. 

They are certainly in reputation 
the firll in Europe, which probably 


never produced two greater men ; 
though they differ as much in their 
charaders, and in ihe kind of ta- 
lents they poffefs, as they agree in 
the greatnefs of their abilities for 
war. The King of Pruffia rapid, 
vehen^.ent, impatient, often gives 
decifive blows ; but he often mifles 
his flroke, and wounds himfelf. 
Prince Ferdinand is cool, deliberate, 
exadl and guarded ; he fees every 
polfible advanta8;e, he takes it at the 
moment, purfues it as far as it will 
go, but never attempts to pulh it 
further. Nothing in the man dif- 
turbs the commander. In him we 
do now fee a perfon who is a great 
foldier ; it is the idea of a perfect 
general ; it is a general in the ab- 
ftrafl:. Ferdinand fuffers his temper 
to be guided by his bufinefs. He 
never precipirares matters ; he takes 
them in their order and their courfe, 
and trufts nothing to fortune. The 
King, on the other hand, leads, and 

For the YEAR 1759. ig 

even forces circumftances ; he does 

not endeavour to remove, but to 
overleap obftacles ; he puts all to 
the rifque ; and by fuffering fortune 
to play a part in his defigns, he ac- 
quires a fplendor and eclat in his 
adions, which mere wifdom could 
never give them. Prince Ferdinand 
is famous for never committing a 
fault. The King of Pruffia is above 
all the world in repairing thofe 
he has committed. Like fome 
of the great mafters in writing, 
whenever he makes, or feems to 
make a miftake, it is a figna! to the 
obferver to prepare for fome great 
and admirable ftroke of fpirit and 
conduft., His errors feem to be 
fpurs to his abilities. He commits 
an error ; he repairs it ; he errs 
again, and again aftonifhes us by his 
manner of efcaping. We fhould of- 
ten condemn the commander, but 
that we are always forced to admire 
the hero. 

C H A P. VI. 

P/an of the campaign in North America. Three expeditions. Ticcnderoga 
and Croivn Point abandoned. Col. To<vi'nJhe/id killed. Expedition to Nia- 
gara. Col. Prideaux killed. Sir William Johnfcn defeats the French. 
Takes the Fort of Niagara. Confequences of this. 

^"r^H E theatre of our operations another method was followed. It 

X in America is of fuch a vail was propofed to attack the French 

extent, that if we had perfevered in all their I'lrong ports at once ; to 

in the courfe we purfued for fome fall as nearly as poffible at the fame 

time, in attacking but one place at time upon Crown Point, Niagara, 

once, the war would inevitably be and the forts to the fouth of Lake 

fpun out to an extreme length, Erie, whilfc a great naval ar'ma- 

without bringing on any thing de- ment, and a confiderable body of 

cifive ; and it would have rendered land forces fhould attempt Quebec, 

cur natural fuperiority of very little by the river St. Lawrence. 

ufe, by fuffering the French to col- This plan was very advifesble, as 

ledt, as they had hitherto done, it tended to weaken by dillrafting 

their itrength into one fingle point, the refinance of the enemy; and 

which enabled them to contend with whill!: v.'e adhered to it, it was clear- 

us, with a force fufficient for the ly impoffiblefor the French to main- 

fervice of that country. This year tain their ground in any of thofe^ 




places which were attacked, with- 
out very weakly defending, or even 
deferting fome of the others ; and 
if by the meat-s of fuch diverfions 
any one of thofe places fliould fall 
into our hands, the campaign could 
not be faid to be fpent to no purpofe. 
But befides the end in diilracting 
the enemies defence, tiiere was 
another propofed of no lefs confe- 
quence ; which was to make a con- 
carrence in all the various ope- 
rations, {o that .vhilft they divided 
the enemy, they might mutually 
fupport one another. 

General Amherll who commands 
the American forces in chief, with 
the molt confidcrable body, a- 
mounting in regular and provinci- 
als, to about twelve thoufand men, 
vvas to attack Ticonderoga and 
Crown Point by Lake George ; the 
reduftion of thofe forts would na- 
turally lay open the Lake Cham- 
plain, where having ellablifhed a 
fufficient naval force, he was by the 
rivei Sore!, which forms the com- 
rnunication between this lake and 
the great river St. Lawrence, to pro- 
ceed direftly to Quebec the capital 
of Canada. ' Here he was to make 
a junction with General Wolfe and 
Admiral Saunders, who having en- 
tered the river St. Lawrence at the 
oppofite quarter, would probably 
have commenced the fitge of Que- 
bec, by the time that General Am- 
herit might find it pradicable to 
join them. It was not doubted that 
if this junftion could be efFeded, 
the reduifiion of that city would 
follow of courfe. 

The third of the grand opera- 
tions was againft the tort, near the 
falls of Niagara ; a place of /ery 
great confequence both in war and 
in peace. The redudion of this was 
committed to Brigadier General Pri- 

deaux, under whom Sir William 
Johnfon commanded the provinci- 
als of New York, and fevcral Indi- 
ans of the Five Nations, who wer6 
engaged in our fervice by the credit 
that gentleman has obtained amo;ig 
their tribes. 

The objeft of this operation lay 
too remote from the others, to ex- 
pe£l with any great confidence, that 
they would be affilted by its fuccefs 
in any other manner than by v/eak- 
ening the enemies forces. How- 
ever it was hoped that if they fliouid 
be fortunate enough to take Niaga- 
ra, early in the feafon, the troops 
might be embarked on the Lake 
Oniario, and finding no longer any 
obllrudion from Fort Frontenac, 
which was deftroyed lafl year, might 
fall down the river St. Lawrence, 
and probably either m^ke them- 
felves mailers, of Montreal, or by 
their approach at leaft, draw fuch a 
force to that part as greatly to faci- 
litate our defigns upon Quebec and 
Crown Point. But if this Jcheme, in 
addition to its own end, fhould not 
facilitate either of the other two ca- 
pital undertakings, it woukl pro- 
bably, as it was the moil important 
place the French had in that part of 
the world, draw all the troops they 
had upon the lake to attempt its 
relief, which would leave the forts 
on thoi'e lakes expofed to a fourth, 
though inferior expedition, which 
was made againil them by General 
Stanwix. In reality it afterwards 
had that efFed. 

The army under General Atn- 
herll vvas the firil in motion. The 
Lake George, or as the French call 
it, Lake Sacrament, is a long, but 
in proportion narrow water, about 
forty miles in length, and enclo- 
fed on either fide with marfhy 
grounds. This communicates by 


For the Y 

another long and very narrow 
ftreight wich'^ - 'ceChamplain. This 
Hrei^ht is fecureci at e fide by a 
foit; t!-at to the fide of Lake George 
is caii'.;d Ticonderoga ; chat to the 
Chaniplaiii Lake is Called Fort Fre- 
derick, or Crown point; both ex- 
tremely ftrong in their ficuacion ; 
and the former of which had repul- 
fed our troops with very confider- 
able flaughter, as has been related 
amongll the events' of laft year. 

Amhcrft, after he had pafTed 
Lake George, arrived with very 
liule oppofition frcm the enemy be- 
fore Ticonderoga ; at lirlt the 
French made fome appearance, as 
if they meant to defend the place; 
but as they knew the ftren^ch of 
our forces, as they law that the pre- 
parations for the attack were mak- 
ing with as much judgment a.-, vi- 
gour, and as the enterprize which 
was preparing again ft Quebec did 
riot leave them a force fo confider- 
able as they had there in the pre- 
ceding campaign, they abandoned 
their fort in the night, having da- 
T J maged it as much as they 
^ ^ '' could, and retired to Crown 

General Amherft immediately fet 
himfelf about repairing the fortifi- 
cations of this poll, which eifevilu- 
ally fecured the Lake George ; co- 
vered our colonies, and was of 
fuch vafl: importance to enable him 
to pufh forward his ofFenfive opera- 
tions, or to favour his retreat in cafe 
of a reverfe of fortune. The only 
lofs of any confequence which the 
Englifh army fuffered, in making 
this valuable acquifition, was the 
death of Colonel Townfhend, who 
was killed in reconnoitring, by a 
ihot from the fort. The fteady 
bravery, the promifing genius, and 
the agreeable manners of this of- 

E AR 1759. 31 

ficer, caufed his lofs to be confi- 
dered as a very great one. They 
compared this melancholy event 
with the death of Lord H we ; they 
remembered how much tnefe young 
foldiers refembicd each oiher, both 
in their virtues and in the c:rcum- 
llances of their fate. Both dear to 
the troops, and having both loft 
their lives on an expedition againll 
this place. 

Although the general had reafon 
to imagine, that the fame reafons 
which had induced the enemy to 
abandon their forts and their lines 
at Ticonderoga, would perfuade 
them alfo to relinquifh Crown Point; 
he took all his rneafures with the 
fame care, as if he expecled an ob- 
ftinate defence at the fort, and an at- 
tempt to I'urprize him on his march. 
He remembered how fatal fecurity 
had proicd to us in that part of the 
world upon many occafions. 

The French abandoned the fort 
as it had been forefeen. 1 he ge- 
neral retired with about three thou- 
fand five hundred men to the bot- 
tom of Lake Champlain, and port- 
ed himfelf at the ifiand called Ifle 
du Noix. He was fiill pretty rtrong 
on the lake, having feveral armed 
boats and floops, with which he 
hoped to prevent the progrefs of the 
Englifh into the interior parts of 
Canada. Amherft, as foon as he 

had taken pofTeiTion of , 

/-> D • 5 r J Aug. 14. 

Crown roint, uled every *» ^ 

endeavour to attain a naval fuperi- 
ority on the lake, and in the mean 
tim.e began to fortify this poll as he 
had that at Ticonderoga. To this 
time the French were actually efta- 
biifhed in the heart of our territo- 
ries ; fo that during a war of three 
years, we had in efled been only 
afting on the defeniive. It was on 
the day on which Mr. Amherft took 



pofTtfllon of C;own Point, he fcii, that witbouta fcmewhat hazard- 
received the agreeable news cf the ous voyage, the Indians carini^t aiiy 
redudion of i\iag;;ra by the tioops othervsifc pufa froin the norch-wert 
under Sir William Johiifon ; and he to llie foith-eall parts of North- 
had the pleafuie and encourage- America for many hundred rriiles. 
ment of feeing two of the great cb- The fore of Niagara thus naturally 
jeds of the campaign accompli Oitf^, coaimands all the Five Nations, and 
whiift he prepared himfelf to co- all thole Indian tribes that lie to the 
operate in the accomplifiiRierit cf northward of the lake>, as well as 
the third, which was to be decilive thofe that are fcattered along the 
of the whole. T'he body which banks cf the Ohio, Guabache and 
had been appointed for Niiigara un- MJ/Tifippi, and, according as it is 
derGeneiai Prideaux, wiihoutany poffclVed by the Englilh or the 
accident arrived a: the fort, which French, connects or disjoints the 
lies at the bottom of the lake to- colonies of Canada and Louifiana, 
wards the fouth-weil. protcds or lays open our own, and 
This is, without exception, the is in all refpecfls of fo much confe- 
moil important poll in An.erica, quence. that it was the opinion of 
and fecures the greateH number of perfons the moil converfant in Ame- 
communications. For it is fituated rican bufinefs, that this attempt 
at the very entrance of a Ibeight, ought to have been made much 
by which the ; ake Ontario is join earlier ; and that if fuch an attempt 

• ed to that of Erie, which is con- made at fuch a time had fuccecded, 
necled with the other three great it would have contributed very much 
feas of frefh water, by the courfe cf to the fecurity of hofe parts of our 
the vafl river St. Lawrence, which colonies which were the nioft ex- 
runs through them all, and carries pofed, and would have at the fame 
.off their fuperfluous wa:crs to the time greatly facilitated all ouroffen- 
ocean. A little above the fort is tr.e five meafures, and fhortened the war. 
catara6l of Niagara, which is eiieem- From the time that liie French 

*ed themoAremaikable in the world, wercacquainted with thisplace, they 
for the quantity of water, and the were fally pofTeiTcd with an opinion 
greatnefs of the fall. Ihis fall of its importance, both ,vith regard 
would interrupt the commerce be- to commerce and to dominion, 
tween the lakes, but for a road They made feveral attempts to efia- 
which the French have m.ade up the blifh themjelves here ; but the In- 
hilly country that lies by the dians, who feemed mere fenfible 
llreight ; fo that there is here a good of the confequences than we were, 
carrying-place, and not very tedi- conflantly oppofed it. 1 hey obliged 
ous ; for, after a portage of about them to relinquiili a fort, which 
eight miles, you re-imbark, and they had built, and guarded this 
proceed, without any interruption, fpot tor along time with a very fe- 
lo the Lake Erie. vere and prudent jealoufy. 

As the great communication of But whilll we negledled, confid- 

thcfe who go by water it along ing in our llrength, to cultivate the 

this ftreight, and carrying-place, fo Indians; and the French, fenfible of 

thofe who traiei by aic obliged .heir weaknefs, omitted no endea- 

lo crofs it. The lakes arefo dilpo- vour to gain thefe favage people to 

2 their 

For the Y 

their intercils, and they prevailed 
£t lall, under the name ol:"a trading 
houfe, to erect a ftrong fort al the 
mouth of the ftreiglit, on the very 
belt harbour, not oaly on this but 
on any of the lakes ; an harbour 
which is fafe from every wind, and 
open for the whole year. A French 
officer, an able and enterprifing 
man, had been a prifoner among 
the Iroquois for a long time, and 
having, according to their cuftom, 
been naturalized, he grew extreme- 
iy popular amongil them, and at 
Iriii: acquired his liberty. He com- 
municated to the then governor of 
Canada, the plan of an eUablilh- 
ment at Niagara, and he himfelf 
undertook to execute it. He re- 
turned amongrt the Iroquois, and 
pretending great love for their na- 
tion, which was now his own, told 
them that he would gladly come to 
make frequent vifits to his brethren, 
but it was proper for that purpofe, 
that they fhould allow him to build 
an houfe, where he mipRt live at 
eafe, and according to his own 
manner ; at the fame time he pro- 
pofed to them advantages in trade 
for this ertablilbment. A rcqucil 
which feemed a compliment to 
thofe to whom it v/as made, was 
readily granted. The houfe was 
built. By degrees this houfe ex- 
tended itfelf; it was ftrengrhened 
by various additions ; and it grew 
at lait to a regular fortrefs, which has 
ever fince awed the Five Nations, 
and checked cur colonies. 
J . The iiege of this place 

•' ^ ■ had not been long formed 
before General Prideaux was kilhd 
in the trenches by the bunting of a 
cohorn. As foon as this accident 
happened, which threatened to 
throw a damp on the operations, 
an exprefswas fent to General Am- 

iAR 1759. 33 

herft, who, always attentive to the 
fervice, loll no time to fend an 
officer of character to command in 
his place. But the command v^'hich 
in tae interim devolved npcn Sir 
William Jchnfon, could not have 
been better bellowed. He emitted, 
nothing to continue the vigorous 
meafures of the late general, and 
added to them every thing liis own 
genius could fuggeu. Refpcilcd 
by the regular troops, dear to the 
provincials, almoft adored by the 
Indians, poflefied of that genius 
for acquiring popularity anior.cjll 
all kinds- cf men, and that verfanls 
difpofition, which we fo feldora 
Jce united with difmterefiednefs and 
integrity, he employed thofe talents 
iolely for the benefit of his country. 
The troops remembering that it was 
under that general, the firil: ad- 
vantage had been obtained over the 
French, puflied on the iiege with 
{o much alacrity, that in a few days 
they had brought their approaches 
within an hundred yards of the co- 
vered way. 

The French were alarmed at the 
im.minent danger of this intereuing 
place. They therefore collected all 
the rrgular troops and previnciais, 
which they could draw from all 
their polls about the lakes, and to 
thofe joined a large body of favages, 
in order to give the Engliib battle, 
and to raife the fiege. They amount- 
ted in all to 1700 men. 

\yhen General Johnfon was ap- 
prized of their approach, he order- 
ed his light infantry, fupportcd by 
fome grenadiers and reguhr foot, 
to take poll on the road to his lefc, 
by which the French were to take 
their route. He placed his Indians 
on hisfianks. Wliilit he took me;:- 
fures to receive the French, v/lio 
came to relieve the place, he polled 
D a iucns: 



a llrong body in fuch a manner as 
to fecure his trenches from any at- 
tempt of the garrifon during an 

in this difpofition he wfiited to 
receive the enemy. At nine in 
the morning the engagement be- 
gan by a violent and horrid fcrearn 
of the enemies favages, according 
to their barbarous cuilom. It was 
this fcrearn, perhaps the moft hor- 
rid found that can be imagined, 
which is faid to have ilruck a 
panick into the troops of Gene- Braddock, and was one of the 
principal caufes of that defeat, by 
which our endeavours in America 
were fo long fruftrated ; but on 
this occafion it had no effeft. 
The enemy was fo well received 
by the troops in front, and by the 
Indians on their Hanks, that in lefs 
than an hour's time their whole 
army was ruined. The purfuit was 
hot and bloody; and it continued 
for five miles. Seventeen ofEcers 
were made prifoners, among whom 
were the firft and fecond in com- 

, , This aftion was fought 

J" y 25- •„ f^^Yii of the fort; and 
it was no fooner concluded in 
favour of our troops, than the 
j:;cneral fummoned the garrifon to 
Surrender ; fending in a lift of the 
prifoners, and remonftiating on the 

ill cffeifls of their holding out long- 
er, pr.iticularly with regard to the 
Indians. The capitulation was 
fjgned that night, 'ihe gprrifon, 
confiiliijg of about 600 men, fur- 
rendered prifoners of war, and were 
conducted to New York. The fort 
and flcres were given up to the 
Eno-lilb troops. 

This was the fecond very impor- 
tant fcrvice performed by Ge- 
ner;il Johnfon in this war, and a 
fecond time he had the good 
fortune to make the commander 
in chief of the enemy his pri- 
foner. It muft not be omitted, 
to the honour of this gentleman, 
that though he was not regularly 
bred a foldier, the moft compleat 
officer could not have made more 
excellent difpofitions for the battle, 
or have conduced the flege from 
the beginning to the end, with a 
more cool and fteady refolution, or 
with a m.ore compleat knowledge 
of all the neceifary manoeuvres of 
war. The taking of Niagara broke 
off effectually the communication, 
fo much talked of and fo much 
dreaded, between Canada and 
Louifiana; and by this ftroke, one 
of the capital political defigns 
of the French, which gave occa- 
fion to the prefent war, was de- 
feated in its direft and immediate 


For the YEAR 1759. 


C H A P. VII. 

Th expediiicn aga'infi ^ehec. The IJIe of Orleans occupied. Defcription 
of the tovjn and harbour of !^:bec. Situation of the French army., 
Adion at the Falls cf Mont'morenci . General ii'ofe fickens. The camp 
remoued to pdnt Le-ji. The troops go up the ri'ver. The battle cf 
^ebec. Cjemral V/olfe killed. 'French dfeated. M. de Montcahn 
killed. ^ehec Jurrenders. Mo'vements cf General Amhcrfl on Lake 

TH E confequences which at- 
tended the redutlion of the 
fort at Niagara, as well as thofe 
upon Lake Champlain, were very 
intereRing ; but the great and cen- 
tral operation to which all the reft 
tended, and to which even thofe 
were to be fubfervient, was 
that againfc Quebec, the capital of 
Canada ; and as this was to be the 
decifive ilroke, it v/as proper that 
the greateft force Ihould have been 
employed againll; it. If we reckon 
the maritime force, there is no 
doubt that we employed a greater 
number of men againfl Quebec, 
than againft the Champlain forts ; 
but the land forces, from fome 
caufe, fell much fhort of the num- 
ber originally propofed, for they 
did not exceed 70C0 men, regu- 
lars and provincials, though the 
original plan intended 9000 for 
that expedition, independent of the 
junftion of thofe under General 
Amherft, whofe affiilance on the 
occafion was taken for granted. In 
this expedition general Wolfe com- 
manded the land forces. The fleet 
was under Admiral Saunders. 
^ , The whole embarkation 

arrived in the latter end of 
June at the lile of Orleans, a few 
leagues from Quebec, without any 
.^ccident whatfoever, notwithitand- 
ing the ill fame of the river St. 
Laurence, and the reports of its 

dangerous navigation, probab-y 
fpread for political purpofes. They 
landed upon the ille of Orleans, 
v/hich is formed by the branches 
of the river St. Laurence. This 
ifland is about twenty miles in 
length, and feven or eight in 
breadth, highly cultivated, and af- 
fording every kind of refremment to 
the foldiers and failors ai'ter their 
tedious voyage. 

As this illand extends quite up 
to the bafon of Quebec, it was ne- 
ceffary to pofTefs it in order to aft 
againll: the town ; for the moft 
wefterly point cf this illand ad- 
vances towards an high point of 
land on the continent, called Point 
Levi. Beth of thefe Ihut up the 
view of the northern and fouthern 
channel, which environ the ifle of 
Orleans, fo that the harbour of 
Quebec appears to be a bafon land- 
locked upon all fides. The pofTefnon 
of both thefe points were necefiary, 
as they might be employed either 
with great advantage againft the 
town, or much to the annoyance 
of the befiegers ; for vvhillt the 
enemy continued mafters of thofe, 
it uas impofiible for a (hip to lie in 
the harbour of Quebec. V/hen 
thefe pofts were poifefted, v/hich 
was done with little dificuky, the 
harbour and town of Quebec ap- 
peared full to the view, at once a 
tempting and difcouraging fight. 
D 2 For 


A N N' 1 1 A L R E G 1 S T E R 

For no place fcems pofleficd of 
greater benefits of nature: and none 
of which nature fecms more to have 
CO ifultcd the defence. 

Quebec, f:iys F. Charlevoix, can 
boaft of a frelh water harbour, ca- 
pable of containing an hundred 
men of war of the line, at one hun- 
dred and twenty leagues dillance 
from the fea. It lies on the inoll: 
navigable river in the univerfe. The 
river St. Laurence up to the ifle of 
Orleans, that is, fcr about a hun- 
dred and twelve leagues from its 
mouth, is no where lefs than from 
four to five leagues broad ; but 
above that ifle it narrows, fo that 
before Quebec it is not above a 
mile over. Hence this place got 
the name of Q^eheis or Quebec, 
which, in the Alogonquin tongue, 
lignifies a llrait. 

The city is the feat of the go- 
vernor and the intendant, and the 
fupreme tribunals of juflice for all 
the French North America; it is 
alfo an epifcopal fee, and a place 
of confiderable trade. It is large 
in extent, and elegant in many of 
its buildings both public and pri- 
vate. It confifts of an upper and 
lower town ; the lov/er, which is 
narrow, is built upon a (Irand, at 
the foot of a lofty rock, upon which 
the upper town Hands. This rock 
extends itfelf, and continues with 
a bold and fteep front, weihvard 
along the river St. Laurence for a 
confiderable way. Another river 
from the north-wed, called St. 
Charles, falls here into the former, 
walhing the foot of the rock on 
which Quebec Hands ; the point on 
which the town is built thus be- 
comes a fort of peninfula by the 
junction of thefe rivers ; fo that 
whoever attacks Quebec, nujll ei- 
ther make his approaches above the 

town, and overcome the precipice 
which I have mentioned, or crofs 
the river St. Charles, and attempt 
it upon that fide. The former of 
thofe methods mud appear to a 
prudent commander wholly unad- 
vifeable, and the latter extremely 
difficult. If the former method 
(hould be attempted, they would 
have that dangerous precipice to 
overcome, defended by the enemies 
whole force, which the attack would 
draw to this quarter. On the other 
hand, the country from the river St. 
Charles to the northward for more 
than five miles is extremely rough, 
broken and difiicult, full cf rivulets, 
gullies, and ravines, and fo con- . 
tinues to the river of Montmorenci, 
which flows by the foot of a deep 
and woody hiil. On the fide of the 
river St. Laurence is a bank of fand 
of great extent, which prohibits 
the approach of any confiderable 

In this advantageous fituation 
was the French army ported, upon 
what was deemed the only accefli- 
ble fide of Quebec, all along from 
the river St. Charles to that of Mont- 
morenci, entrenched at every attack- 
able fpot, with the river and fand- 
bank above mentioned in their front, 
and thick impenetrable woods upon 
theirrear. It is impofiible to imagine 
a dronger pod; a poii at once more 
defenfible in itfelf, or bettercalculat- 
ed for fucccuring the city, on which 
fide foever it O^ould be attacked. 
Thus poded, they greatly exceeded 
in number the befiegers, beingabout 
ten thoufand m.en, under iin able, 
and hitherto fortunate commander, 
M. de Montcalm, who though he 
was fuperior in number to the Eng- 
lidi, refolved to rifque nothing, and 
wifely relied on the natural Ilrength 
of the country. 


For the YEAR 

When V/olfe faw the fituation of 
the town, the nature of the country, 
the number of the troops, and their 
pofition, though of a fanguine tem- 
per and highly adventuroiis, he be- 
gan to deipair; but, however another 
commander might have thought in- 
aclionin fuch circuniutUices juiiified 
to himfelf or even to the wcrld, by 
fuch ftrong appearances, Wolfe re- 
folved to leave nothing unattempt- 
ed, but amidlt the choice of difficul- 
ties v.'hich lay bet'ore him, to pitch 
upon thofe where the valour of his 
troops might be employed with the 
bel^ profpectof fuccefs. 

As foonas he had fecuredthe weft 
point of the ifle of Orleans, and 
that of Levi, he erefted batteries 
there of cannon and mortars, on the 
high ground, from the point of Le- 
vi, which looks towards the town ; 
thefe fired continually upon the 
place ; Admiral Saunders was fla- 
tioned below in the north channel 
of the ille of Orleans, oppofite to 
Montmorenci ; Admiral Holmes 
was Rationed above the town, at 
once to divert the enemy's atten- 
tion, and to prevent any attempts 
from the enemy againft the batteries 
that played againft the town. 

After this Vvife difpofition was 
made of the fleet. General Wolfe 
caufed the troops to be tranfported 
over the north channel of the river 
St. Laurence, to the north-eaft of 
Montmorenci, with a view of pafT- 
ing that river, and bringing the 
enemy to an engagement. Some 
heights which commanded the ene- 
my's intrenchments, and a ford 
above, and another below the falls, 
encouraged him to this attempt : 
butjuponreconnoiteringthe ground, 
the cppofite ihore was found fo fteep 
and woody, that he could not hope 
to put his defign in execution, which 

11S9- 37 

was by moving towards the enemy's 
flank, to draw them to an engage- 
ment. To bring the French to an 
action was his Angle object. He had 
found that any attempts to afiault 
the city would prove to nopurpofe, 
whilft the fleet could only batter the 
lower town, and muft fuffer greatly 
by the cannon and bombs of the up- 
per, whilft they were employed in 
this ineffeftual fervice; for after the 
reduAion of ihe lower town, thepaf- 
fages to the upper were extremely 
fteep, and moreover fo well entrench- 
ed, that this advantage would 
prove little towards the redudtion 
of the place. 

The only point left therefore, was 
by every means to intice or force 
the enemy to an engagement ; and 
to this end no means were omitted 
by fending detachments up the ri- 
ver, and by every appearance of a 
defign to attack the town on that 
fide. But the Marquis de Montcalm 
in chufing his poft, w-as well apprif- 
ed of its importance. He knew 
fufficiently the nature of the coun- 
try up the river, and he trufted to it; 
and therefore kept himfelf clofely in 
his poft, difpoflng his parties of 
favages, in which he was very ftrong, 
in fuch a manner, as to make any 
attempt upon him by furprize abfo- 
lutely impoflible. In the mean time, 
from the town firefhips and boats 
were let down the ftream to deftroy 
the ftiipping, which as they almoft 
wholly filled the channel, weregreat- 
ly endangered. But by the extraor- 
dinary flcill and vigilance of admi- 
ral Saunders, every veflel of this kind 
fent againft them was towed afliore 
without doing the leaft mifchief. 

The general finding that all his 
efforts to decoy the ensmy to an en- 
gagement had proved unfuccefsful, 
r.nd, fenfible that they defired no- 
D 3 thing 



thing more than to act defenfively, 
untilthe fcafon itfelf fhould (ight for 
them, and oblige the Englilh to re- 
tire, he came at laft, in ipite of ail 
difiicukies, to the lefolutinn of at- 
tacking them in their entrcnchnients 
on the fide of Montniorenci. The 
place where the attack was to be 
made, as chofen with great judge- 
ment, was the only place thereabouts 
in which the artillery could be 
brought into ufe; as there, and there 
only, the greateft parr, cr even the 
whole of the troops, might acl at 
once, and that there the retreat in 
cafe of a repulfe was fecure, at leaft 
ibr a certain time of the tide. Having 
determined upon the place where the 
attack was to be, which was at the 
mouth of the uiver Tvlontmorenci, the 
beft difpoliticns for it were made, 
i ] , „ both on the part of the ad- 
J j' ^ ' miral and of the general. 
But notwithftanding that the whole 
was conduclied with equal vigour and 
prudence, it was totally defeated by 
one of thoi's accidents which fo fre- 
quently intcrpofe to the difgrace of 
human wifdom, and which uemon- 
flrates that ihe is far from being the 
foie arbitrefs of war. 

The Englifh grensdifrs, who led 
the attack, had orders, immediately 
after their landing, to form them- 
felves on the beach ; but inftead of 
forming themfelves as they were di- 
Tcdled, from the hurry and noife of 
their landing, or from an ili-govern- 
ed ardour, they rufhed impetuoHiiy 
towards the enemy's entrenchments 
in the utmoft difcrderandconfuiion, 
without waiting for the corps which 
were to fuitain them, and join in 
the attack. In this difordcr, they 
were met by a violent and ueady fire 
from the entrenchments, by which 
they were thrown into more con- 
fnfion, which obliged them to fncitcr 

themfelves behind a redoubt, which 
the French had abandoned on their 

The general perceiving that it 
was impofiible for thefe grenadiers 
to form under fo fevere a fire, that 
the night drew on, a violent tempeft 
was gathering, that the tide began 
to make, faw clearly that he had no- 
thing further left than to order a 
retreat, with as little difadvantagc as 
polTible. He therefore called offthofe 
troops, and having formed them be- 
hind Brigadier Monkton's corps, 
which was on the beach in excellent 
order, the whole repaffcd the river 
without molellation, the general ex- 
poiing his perfon with that intrepi- 
dity, which diftinguilhed him both 
during the attack, and the retreat. 
The lofs in this check was not 
inconfiderable ; and the event on 
the whole was fuch, as to difcou- 
rage any further attempts upon that 
fide. They returned to the old 
meafures. The general again fent 
fom.e bodies above the town, and 
fome men of war failed up the 
ftream for more than twelve leagues. 
They received intelligence that the 
enemy had ania.Ted fome magazines 
cf provifions in the interior country, 
and they propofed, by getting be- 
tween them and the town, to draw 
the French army from their entrench- 
ments, to the long deiired engage- 
ment ; but if they failed to compafs 
this, they might at leaft deftroy the 
Ihips of war which the enemy had in 
the river, and help to open a com- 
munication betv^een them and Ge- 
neral Amherft, on whom their lail: 
expedations were fi::ed, and who, 
they flattered themfelves, was on 
his march to their afliftance. 

But though they fucceeded in de- 
ftroying fome of the enemies maga- 
zines, there was nothing of great 


For the YE 

moment in this. They could not 
come near the men of war. How- 
ever thev received intelligence from 
feme prifoners, of the fuccefs of Sir 
William Johnfon againft Niagara ; 
they learned likevN'ife , that rbe French 
had fraoocbed the difficulties in the 
way of General Amherft, by aban- 
doning Crown Point and Ticonde- 
roga. But this intelligence, otherwife 
fo phafing, brought them no prof- 
peci of the approach of any anulance 
from that quarter. The feafon waft- 
ed apace. The general fell violent- 
ly ill, coni'umed by care, watching, 
and a fatigue, too great to be fup- 
ported by a delicate confritution, 
and a body unequal to that vigo- 
rous and enterprifing foul that it 
lodged. It was not enough for him 
to efcape from fo great an expedi- 
tion uncondemned and unapplaud- 
ed ; to be pitied, was, he thought, 
but a milder cenfure ; and he knew 
that no military condudi can Ihine, 
unlefs it be gilded w i:h fiiccefs. His 
own high notions, the public hope, 
the good fuccefi of other comman- 
ders, all turned inward upon him, 
opprefled his fpirits, and converted 
difappointment into difeafe. As focn 
as he had a lirde recovered, he dif- 
patched an exprefs with an account 
of his prcceedir;gs to England, writ- 
ten indeed in the fille of defponden- 
cy ; but with fuch perfpicuity, clear- 
neis, and elegance, as would have 
ranked him among our beil writers, 
if his military e.vpioits had net plac- 
ed him anions our crrcate;: com- 

He rcfolved, when he fent away 
his account, to continue the cam- 
paign to the l.^it pcliible moment ; 
and after a deliberation with his of- 
ficers, determined, that any further 
attempts at Montmorenci v/ere to 
little purpofe, and that their princi- 

AR 1759; 39 

pal operations fhould be above the 
town, in order, if poCibls, to draw 
the enemy to an aftion. But the 
defign of Wolfe was deeper, and 
more particularly directed than it 
had been before. The camp at 
Ivlontmorenci was broke up, and 
the troops were conveyed to the 
fouth-ealt of the river, and encamp- 
ed at Point Levi. The fqusdron un- 
der Admiral Holmes made move- 
ments up the river for feveral days 
fucceilively, in order to draw the ene- 
mies attention as far from the town 
as poiTibie. This fucceeded in feme 
meafure; for, though it could not 
perluade the Marquis de Montcalm 
to quit his poii, it induced him to 
detach M. de Bougainvilie with 
1500 men to watch their motions, 
and to proceed along the weilern 
fhore of the river, whilft the Englifh 
army directed its march the fame 
way on the eaftern bank. 

When General Wolfe faw that 
matters were ripe for action, he or- 
dered the fhips under Admiral Saun- 
ders to make a feint, as if they pro- 
pofed to attack the French in their 
entrenchments on the Beau port fhore 
below the town, and by their mo- 
tions to give this feint all the ap- 
pearance of a reality which it pof- 
libly could have. This difpofition 
being made below the town, the ge- 
neral embarked his forcesabout one 
in the morning, and with Admiral 
Holmes's divifion went three leagues 
further up the river than the intend- 
ed place of his landing, in order to 
amufe the enemy, and conceal his 
real defign. Then he put them intp 
boats, and fell down filently with the 
tide, uncbferv^ed by the French cen- 
tinels polled along the fhore. The ra- 
pidity of the current carried thefe 
boats a little below the intended 
place of attack. The fhips followed 
P 4 theiu 



thc-m, and arrived juft ar the time 
which had been concerted to cover 
their huiiling. Confidcrin^ the dark- 
refs of the night, and the rnpidity 
of the current, this was a very cri- 
tical operation, and it rtc|uired ex- 
cellent heads both on the part of the 
marine, and the land fervice, lopre- 
ferve a communication, and to pre- 
vent a difcovery and confulu^n. 

As the trocps could not land at 
the fpnt propoied v.hen they were 
put on fliore, an hill appeared be- 
fore them extremely high and fteep 
in its afcent ; a little path winded 
up this afcent To narrow that two 
could net go a breail. Eventhis path 
was entrenched, and a captain's 
guard defended it. Thefe difnculties 
did not abate the hopes of the gene- 
ral, or the ardor of the trocps. The 
light infantry under Colonel Howe 
laying hold of flumps and boughs 
cf trees, pulled themfelvcs up, dif- 
lodped the guards, and cleared the 
path ; and then all the troops fur- 
mounting every dimcuhy, gained 
the top cf the hill, and as fdll as 
they afcended formed them felves, fo 
that they were all in order cf battle 
at day-break. 

Montcalm when he heard that the 
^ Engiifli had afcended the 

i^ept- 13- hill, and vere formed on 
the high ground at the back of the 
town, fcarcely credited the intelli- 
gence, and hill believed it to be a 
feint to induce him to abandon that 
ftrong poft, v.'hich had been the ob- 
jeft of all the real attempts that had 
been made f:nce the beginning of 
the campaign. But he was foon, and 
fatally for him undeceived. He faw 
clearly that the EnffliflV fle^t and 
army were m fuch a fituation, thr.t 
the upper and lower town might Le 
attacked in concert, and that nothing 
but a battle c(;uld poflibly fave it. 
Accordingly he determined to give 

them battle, and quitting Beauport 
pafTed the river St. Charles, and 
formed his troops opnoritc to ours. 

He filled the bulh'cs that v.-ere in 
his front with detaciinients oi Indi- 
ans and his bell markfmen, to the 
number of about J qoo ; his regular 
forces formed his left ; his right was 
conipofed of the troops of the colo- 
ny fupported by two battalions of 
regulars. The re(t of the Indians 
and Canadians extended on that fide, 
and attempted to outflank the left 
of the Englilh, which was formed 
to prevent that defign, in a manner 
which the military men call Po- 
tence ; that i:, in a body which 
prefents two fices to the enemy. 
Here Brigadier General Townfhend 
commanded fix regiments, and the 
Louifbourg grenadiers v/ere difpof- 
ed in aline to the right of of this 
body, extending to the river. A 
regiment was drawn up behind the 
right for a referve. It was formed 
in eiffht fubdii/ifions with lar.;je in- 
terv^als. The light infantry under 
Colonel Howe protected the rear 
and the left. The difpofitions on 
both iides were judicious, and the 
engagement on both lides began 
with fpirit. 

The Englifh troops were exhorted 
to referve their fire ; and they bore 
that of the enemy's light troops in 
front, which was galting, though ir- 
regular, with the utmolt patience 
and good order, waiting for the main 
body of the enemy, which advanced 
fall upon them. At forty yards dif- 
tance cur troops gave their fire, 
which took place in its full extent, 
and made a terrible havock among 
the French. It was fupported with 
as much vivacity as it was begun, 
and the enemy every w'lere yielded 
to it ; but juft in the moment v/hen 
the fortune of th'e field began to de- 
clare itfelf, General Wolfe, in whofe 


For the YEAR 1759. 4^ 

life every thing feemed included, In this decifive aclion our troops 
tell ; Generai Monkton, the next to loH about 500 men ; on the fide of 
hinri in comraand, fell immediately the eaemy at lealt 1500 were killed, 
after, and both were conveyed out But however glorious this victory 
of the line ; the command now was, and however important in its 
devoiv-ed on General Townlhend. conlequences, it muft be admitted 
It wa.- at a very critical time. For, that it was very dearly bought, 
though the eiiCmy began to fall back, Soldiers may be raifed ; officers will 
and were much broken, the lofs of be jbrmed by experience ; but the 
ihe two g«-nerals was a very difcou- lofs of a genius in war, is a iofs 
raging circumftance, and it required which v/e know not how to repair, 
great temper and great exertions The death of Wolfe was indeed 
to fiipport the advantages that had grievous to his country, but to him- 
beea gained, and to piiih them to felf the moll; happy that can be ima- 
their proper extent. General Town- gined ; and the moil to be envied by 
ihcnd ihewed himfclf equal to fo ar- all thole who have a true reliili for 
duous a duty ; tlie troops preferved military glory. Unindebted to fa- 
iheir fpirit, and each corps feemed mily, or connections, unfupported 
to exert itfelf widi a view to its pe- by intrigue or faction, he had ac- 
culiar character. The grenadiers complilhed the whole bufinefs of life 
with their bayonets, the Highlan- at a time when others are only be- 
ders with their broad fvvords,andthe ginning to appear ; and at the age of 
reii of the forces with a fteady and thirty-hve,vyithout feeling the weak- 
continued fire, v-lrove the enemy in nefs of age, or the vicifficude of for- 
great diforder from every poll, and tune, having fatisfied his honell am- 
compleated their defeat. During the bition, having compleated his cha- 
whole aclion, CnloncIHowe with his ratter, havir.g fulfilled the expecta- 
iight infantry covered the left wing tion of his country, he fell at the 
in fuch a manner, as entirely to fruf- head of his conquering troops, and 
trate the attempts of the enemy's In- expired in the arms of vidlory. 
dians and Canadians upon that flank. The circumftances that attended 
The field now feemed to be com- the death of fuch a perfon, are too 
pleatly decided, v.-hen a new enemy interefting to hs pafTed over in fi- 
appeared, which ihreafened to biing lence, and they were indeed fuch as 
on a frefh engagement, and to put fpoke the whole tenor of his life, 
all again to the hazard. M. deBou- He frll received a wound in the 
gainvilie, whom the feigned move- head ; but, that hs might not dif- 
ments of the Englifli troops had courage his troops, he wrapped it 
drawn up the river, turned back on up in his handkerchief, and en- 
difcovcring their real defign, and couraged his men to advance ; foon 
now appeared on the rear of the after he received another ball in his 
army with a body of 2000 men. belly j this alio he dilTembled, and 
Eat fortunately the main body of the exerted himfelf as before ; when he 
French was by this time fo broken recciied a third in his breaft ; under 
and difperfed, that the general was which he at laft funk, and fuffered 
able to eitabliih his rear, and to turn himfelf, unwillingly, to be carried 
fuch an oppofuion on that fide, that behind the ranks. As he lay ilrug- 
the enemy retired after a very feeble gling with the anguiihand weaknefs 
attempt. of 




of three grievous wounds, he Teemed religion, and the pofreirmii of their 
only foUicitous about the fortune of civil ri;:Thts, until a general peace 
the battle. He bcf^ged one, who -fiiould decide their future condition, 
attended him, to fiipport him to The fortifications of the. city were in 

view the field ; but as he fjund that 
the approach of death had dimmed 
and confufed his fight, he defired an 
officer who was by him, to give 
him an account of what he faw. 
The officer anfwered, that the ene- 
my feemed broken ; he repeated his 
queilion a few minutes after with 
much anxiety, when he was told 
that the enemy was totally routed, 
and that they tied in all parts. Then 
faid he, ♦' I am fatis.^.ed ;" andim- 
jnediately expired. 

Without the fame advantages, the 
enemy alfo had an heavy lofs in this 
battle, which no doubt, contributed 
to their defeat. M. de Montcalm, 
ccmmander in chief, was killed on 
the fp ^t ; an officer who had done 
the hi[;heft fcrvices to his country, 
throughout the whole American war, 
and pcrfedly fuppnrtLd his reputa- 
tion in this l:iit fcciic of it, having 
made the niofc perfeft difpolitions 
that human prudence could fuggeft, 
both before tlic battle and in the en- 
giigement. It is fomething remark- 
able that in both armies, the firlt in 
command Oiouid be killed, and the 
fecond dangeroufly v.cunded. But 
General Monkton happily recover- 
ed, the Frencji otficer died a little 
after the battle. 

Five days after the atlion, the 
enemy feeing that the communica- 
p ^ r, tion between the town 
^ and the army was cut 

ol7, and that the Englilh fleet and 
troops v.CTS preparing with all vi- 
jji;our for a nege, furrc.ndered the 
city of Quebec upon terms of ho- 
n';ur to tise garrifon, and advantage 
to the inhabitants, who were pre- 
fcrved in the free exercife of their 

tolerable order ; the houfes almoft 
totally denioUihed. A garrifon of 
5C00 men, under General Murray, 
were put into ihe place, with a plen- 
ty of provifions and ammunition for 
the winter. The fleet failed to Eng- 
land foon after, fearing lell the fet- 
ting in of the :rol's Ihould lock them 
up in the river St. Laurence. 

7'hus the capital of French Ame- 
rica vi'as rendered to the Engiifli, af- 
ter a moil fevure campaign of near 
three month: , and perhaps, if the 
whole be cor.lidered, there never v/as 
an enterprize of fuch difficulty car- 
ried on v.'ith a more gallant perfcve- 
rance, or accomplilhed with more 
vigour and ability. A city llrong in 
fttuation and fortiiications, was to be 
attacked. An army greatly fuperior 
in number to the beSegers, was 
poded under the walls of that city 
in an i.mpregnable fituation. That 
army was to be forced ■ to battle 
againll the inclinations of a wife and 
cautious com.mander. A theatre of 
more than five leagues was to be' 
filled, and operations of that extent 
to be carried on in the eye of the 
fuperior army, by lefs than 7000 
men. In this contelt with fo many 
difficulties, one may fay, with, nature 
itfelf, the genius of the commander 
ihcwcd itfelf fuperior to every thing. 
All the difpofitions to that daring 
but judicious attempt near Siilery, 
which at lait drew Montcalm from 
his entrenchments, were fo many 
mader pieces in the art of war. But 
it is certain, that thefe things, noi- 
withftanding the extraordinary abi- 
lities of the general, could never 
have been compaiicd, had not the 
marine co-operated with an unani- 


For the YEAR 1759. 43 

mity, diligence, and fkill, which even amongft perfons of education 

never could have taken place, but 
from that perfecl love to their 
country, that animated all thofe 
that were concerned in this expe- 
dition. Here was no murmuring 
nor difcontent, nor abfurd jealoufy; 
no mean competition between the 
land and fea-fervice ; but the moft 
zealous endeavours to fecond each 
others elforts, and the mo[t ge- 
nerous inclinations on each fide, to 
give a due praife to their mutual 

The mother of General Wolfe was 
an object marked cut for pity by 
great and peculiar diftrefs ; thepub- 
lic wound pierced her mind with a 
particular ariiiclion, v/ho had expe- 
rienced the dutiful fon, the amia- 
ble domeftic character, whilft the 
world admired the accomplifhed 
officer. Within a few months ihe 
had loft her hufband ; fhe now loft 
this fon, her only child. The po- 
pulace ct the village where ihe 
lived unanimcufly agreed to ad- 

When the news of this decifive mit no illuminations or firings, or 

action arrived in England, we all any other f:gn of rejoicing v.'hatfo- 

remember, though it is very diffi- ever near her houfe, left they fhould. 

cult to defcribe, the various and feem, by an ill-timed triumph, to 

mixed emotions with which every infult over her grief. There was 

one was alFeded. But two davs be- a juftnefs in this, and v/hoever 

fore this came, was received the ex- 
prefs which General Wolfe had fent 
off after the affair of Montmo- 
renci. When the general doubted, 
the public thought they had reafon 
to defpair. Biit v/hilft this gloom 

knows the people, knows that they 
made no fmall facrifice on this oc- 

The nation, which never fuiiers 
any public fervice to pafs unre- 
warded, proceeded to honour the 

w'as frelh, and in the midft of the merits of the living and the dead, 

general defpondency, a fecond ex- The miniiler himf^If made the mo- 

prefs arrives, and brings all at once tion for this purpofe in the Houfe of 

an account of the victor)', the Commons, and all the force of elo- 

taking of Quebec, and the death of quence was difplayed in fetting 

General Wolfe. The effeft of fo off thefe fervices in their proper 

joyful news, immediately on fuch a light. A magnificent monument 

dfjeftion, and then the mixture of was voted for the deceafed general 

grief and pity, which attended the in Weftminfter Abbey ; the living 

public congratulations and applau- generals and admirals received the 

fes, was very fngular and affecting, greateft of honours, the thanks of 

The fort of mourning triumph, that their country by their reprefenta- 

manifefted itfelf on that occafion, tives. 

did equal honour to the memory of It is not known with certainty in 
the general, and to the humanity of what manner the French difpofed 
the nation. of the remainder of their army 
A little circumftance was talked after the battle of Quebec. It 
of at that time, and it deferves to is probable that they retired to- 
be recorded, as it Ihews a fine- v/ards Montreal and Trois Rivieres, 
nefs of fenciment, and a juftnefs of the only places of any confequence 
thinking, in the lower kind of which they have left in Canada, 
people, that is rarely met with In order to deprive them of fub- 

ii Hence 



nftence in any attempt they might 
be induced to make tovvards the 
recovery of Quebec in the winter, 
the country along the river was 
laid walle for a very conliderablc 
extent. -A meafure, which for the 
fake of humanity, we cnuld have 
wifhed not to have been found ne- 

Whilll the operations were thus 
fuccefsfully carried on in the river 
St. Laurence, General Ainherft was 
not wanting in his endeavours on 
the fide of Lake Champlain. Though 
the retreat cf the French from 
Crown Point and Ticonderoga had 
left him entirely mafter of Luke 
George, he found that the com- 
mand of Lake Champlain was 
full an object of fome difficuky. 
Mr. Bourlemaque, who command- 
ed in that part, had retired to the Ille 
de Noix, at the bottom of the lake, 
where he had three thoufand five 
hundred men, ftrongly entrenched ; 
he had likewife four ftout armed 
iloops, by which he could eafdy de- 
feat any attempt by boats. 

General Amherft found it necef- 
fary to maintain a naval fuperiori- 
ty upon the Champlain, before he 
could hope to pulh his operations 
any further ; but this was a work of 
fo much time, that it made it abfo- 
lutely impolTible to attain the great 
end of the campaign, the com- 
munication with General Wolfe, 
who was left in the manner we 
have feen to the exertion of his 
fingle Urength. The naval prepa- 
rations were not perfectly accom- 
pliflied before the end of October. 
They coniiiled of a great radeau, 
eighty four feet in length, and 
twenty in breadth, v;hich carried 
fix twenty-four pounders ; tae reft 
corifilled of a brigautine and a 


Covered by thefe the ar- ^^ 
my was embarked in boats 
in a mort excellent difpofition, and 
proceeded a confiderabie way upon 
the lake ; but as the feafon was 
far advanced, and the weather 
growing cold and tempeftuous, he 
judged it liighly dangerous to ven- 
ture his troops much upon the wa- 
ter in open batteaux ; for the waves 
run as high on this lake as at fea in 
an hard gale of wind. Bsfides, he 
could not hope at this advanced 
feafon to ad at fuch a diftance as 
the Ifle de Noix with any elFecl , 
he therefore wifely poftponed his 
operations on that i\ds to another 
year, and contented himfelf for the 
prefent with the efforts of his little 
marine, which exerted itfelf with 
great adivity ; they blocked up 
two of the enemies Itrongeft veffeis 
in a bay, but the French ^^^ 
abandoned them in the " * ^' 
night, and funk them in a deep wa- 
ter, the crews making their efcape ; 
thefe they were in hopes to weigh 
up. The French appearing no where 

to oppofethem, the armed ^-, 

/T J » r- OA, 21. 

Iloops returned to Crown 

Point foon after the troops, which 
were difpofed in wiqter quarters. 

The memorable and vigorous 
campaign of 1759, which made full 
amends for the inadivity of the 
former, was thus happily rlofeJ. 
By the taking of Niagara, Ticon- 
deroga, and above all Qj.ebec, the 
French, in the little remaining part 
cf Canada, are inveited upon every 
fide. The troops which they have 
under Mr. Levy at Montreal, and 
thcfe under Mr. Burlemaque at 
Ille de Noix, can neither bs re- 
cruited with men, nor properly 
fupplied v/ith military ftores, all 
communication with France being 
cut off". So that in the opening of 


For the Y E A R 1 759. 

;hc next campaign, if they are at- 
tacked with vigour from the fide of 
C^ebec, whiiit General Amherlt 
aavances with his body by Lake 
Champlain, of which he has now 
the entire dominion, the rcHliance 
will be no more than fuihcient to 
give reputation to the conqueft ; 
and it will depend more upon our 


own fentiments of convenience 
what part of North America we 
fnall leave to France, than to any 
eltorts they may make in tliat part 
of the world ; happy if our Eu- 
ropean fyll:em fhculd fo far concur, 
as to leave U3 free to conclude a 
peace in America upon its own 

CHAP. vm. 

Prince Henry's march into Saxony. General Vehla defeated. King of 
Priijjia enters Saxcny. Prufjians defeated at Maxen. Again dcjeated 
at MeiJJen. M. Daun occupies the camp at Pima. Munjier furrenders 
to the allies. Hereditary Priiice of Brunf-jjick defeats the Duke of 
IVurteniberg at Fidda. March of the Hereditary Prince of Brunfvjick 
to Saxony. 

WE took notice in the pre- 
ceding part of our narrative 
of that movement of the King of 
PrufTia, by which he got between 
the Ruilians and Great Glogau, and 
thereby baffled their defigns upon 
that important place. This move- 
ment, at once daring, prudent, and 
necelfar}', hindered the Ruffians 
from taking winter quarters in 
liis dominions ; but at the fame 
time it unavoidably cut oif all com- 
munication with the army of Prince 

That Prince, feeing that he could 
not fecond the operations of the 
King his brother on the fide of 
Silelia, contrived another expedient 
of co-operating with him, v.'iiich 
was immediately to diredl his march 
towards Saxony. There was no 
objedl, the poiTeffion of which was 
more intereiling ;- on that account 
it was very proper; but this march 
anfwered alfo another end ; for it 
drev/ the attention of M, Daun to 
the fide of Saxony, and dilabled 
him from aiiiiting the defigns of 
the Ruffians againlt Glogau, either 

with his whole army, or with any 
conliderable detachment from it. 
The whole country of Lufluia, 
through which this projeded march 
lay, was in a manner overfpread 
with the enemy. M. Daun with 
the main army of the Auftrians 
lay at a place called Sorau, oppofite 
to the Prince's camp. Five bodies 
of Ruffians occupied as many ad- 
vantageous pofts between the Bober 
and the Neifs. General Laudohn 
poffefTed the whole country along 
the Spree with feveral Auilrian 
corps. To get ground of M. Daun it 
was neceffary to make a vaii circuit, 
and to march between the Aultriaa 
and Ruffian armies for more thaa 
fixty EngliHi miles. 

Before the Prince entered upon 
this arduous defign, by feveral 
bqjd movements he obliged M. 
Daun to retreat from Sorau to Gor- 
litz, and from Gorlitz as far as 
Bautzen, keeping himfelf as much 
as poffible between the Prince and 
Saxony. But his royal highnefs 
having perceived the direfdon in 
which M. Dau.a was moving, made 

s com- 




a compafs to the northward of 
the Auftrians, into the Lower Lu- 
fatia, paffed the Neifs at Rotlien- 
burg, and marching with the ut- 
moft expedition, arrived at Hcyers 
- Werda in two days from 

^ ' ^^" his leaving his polls near 
Zittau. This rapid march brought 
them quite unexpecled upon a body 
of five or fix thoufand Auftrian 
irregulars, commanded by Ge- 
neral Vehla, who were fituated 
in all fecurity behind the town. 
They were routed with no fmall 
flaughter Having diflodgcd this 
corps, the Prince's army had leifure 
to repofe themfelves after fuch a fa- 
tiguing march, for two days ; and 
then continued their progrefs to- 
wards the Elbe, which river they 
^„ croffed at Torgau, having 

^' received nonce that M. 
Daan had croffed it before them near 
Drefden. Thus was the grand thea- 
tre of thfe war once more transfer- 
red into Saxony, and that miferable 
country, continually harralTed, con- 
tinually tofll-d from hand to hand, 
the fport of violence and fortune, 
fufFered equal dilbefTes from its de- 
liverers and its enemies. 

The Pruflian army, from the be- 
ginning of this war, has been par- 
ticularly diftinguifhed for its march- 
es ', and there is certainly nothing, 
in all the various operations of war, 
which more particularly dlftinguifh- 
es good troops and able and fpirited 
leaders. But this march cf Prince 
Henry over fuch a trail of country, 
almoft every where occupied by the 
enemy, in lb fhort a time, and with 
fo little lofs, is perhaps one of the 
moit extraordinary, and the beft 
conduced, of the marches chat have 
been made by the Pruiiiaii, or any 
other army. 

This fortunate ftrokc, together 

with the retreat of the Rnflian?, 
aiforded fome hope, that notwith- 
ftanding his repeated difafters, the 
Kingof PrulHa might ilill conclude 
the campaign to his advantage. 
The detachments under Fincic 
and V/uiifch had no fooner en- 
tered Mifnia, than they attained 
a fuperiority over the united ar- 
mies of Auftria and the Empire ; 
all the plsccs which in fo fliort a 
time they had feized, in as fliort a 
time were reduced to the obe- 
dience of their former mailers. 
Wunfch had engaged their army, 
and defeated one of its wings. 
This viclory gave them the poffef- 
fion of every thing to the gates of 
Drefden, the only town which re- 
mained to the enemy of all thofe 
they had taken. They found them- 
felves un?.ble to prevent Prince 
Henry from pafling the Elbe ; 
they found themfelves unable to 
prevent General Hulfen from 
coming to his relief with a con- 
fiderable detachment ; they found 
themfelves unable to prevent the 
King from joining him- ^^^^ 
felf to thole ; when after ' ' 

obliging the Ruffians to evacuate 
Silefia, he marched to their relief, 
leav'ing General Jtzenplitz with a 
part of his army, to keep the Ruf- 
fians from availing themfelves of 
his abfence. On this the army cf 
the empire retired. Marfhal Daun 
fell back towards Drefden. All 
the King of Prufiia's polls were 
left unmolefied, and after all his 
lolics, and all his neceffary detach- 
ments, he Itill faw himfelf at the 
head of a gallant army of fixty 
thoufand men, in high fpirits, and 
ready to execute the molt dcfperate 
of his orders, notwithftanding the 
advanced lealon, and the great ex- 
tremity of the cold. 


For tlie Y I 

It IS true that M. Daun wr.s fu- 
pcrior to him in numbers, and yet 
more (o in fituation. He could at 
any time take pofTeilion of the fa- 
mous camp at Pima, where he could 
not be attacked with any prcfpecl 
of fuccefs ; but then the freezing 
of the Elbe, the fr.ow on the moun- 
tains, which divide jjohemia from 
Saxony, and the continual molefta- 
"tion which might be expecled from 
the Fruman parties, made this litua- 
lion as dangerous, in fome refpects, 
as it was dclirable in others. 

It was the opinion of many, that 
thefe advantao-es en the fide of the 
Kingof Pruflia, weli purfued, with- 
out aiming at more, would in a 
fhort time infallibly have obliged 
M. Daun to rclinquilh his ilrong 
poll, and to retire into Bohemia, 
abandoning Drcfden, and with it 
all the fruits of his viftorious cam- 
paign. But the King, pofTei'ied by 
an idea of the ill fituation of the 
Aullrians, thought that advantages 
of greater moment and more deci- 
five, might be drawn from it. Ke 
knew that the palies into Bohemia 
were fo dilncult, that by fome polls 
properly chclen and ftronglv guard- 
ed, the fubfiftence of the Aullrians 
might be made impraciicable, and 
even their retreat rendered {o diffi- 
cult, that M. Daun would find him- 
felf obliged to fight at a difad vant- 
age, and to put to the hazard of 
the field all that his caution and 
prudence had been fo long and fo 
painful iy procuring. 

Upon this plan, the King having 
obliged i^.'I Daun to retreat as far as 
Plauen, advanced himfelf as far as 
Keffeldorf ; and ordered General 
Finck with a llrcng corps to turn the 
Aullrians, and feize the defiles of 
Maxen and Ottendorf, through 
which alone it feemed poflible tor 

:ar 1759. 47 

the Auftriar.s to communicate with 
Bohemia. This was fo lucceistuily 
executed, that there appeared no 
doubt that the King had ertcclually 
fecured one of his principal objects, 
and placed Daun betv/een two hres. 

Whilfl the Pruliians er.joyed this 
fecurity, M. Daun, who was aware 
of their defign, had fo occupied ail 
the eminences about this rough and 
dangerous place, and all the pafies 
into it, that the Pruflians were hard- 
ly attacked, when their defeat feera- 
ed inevitable. It is probable that 
thev had pot too far into thefe de- 
files, and had not taken proper 
mcafures to fecure a retreat, or any 
fort of communication with the 
grand army. They became too late 
fenfible of their fituation, and they 
made, for a whole day, the moil 
intrepid efforts to difengage them- 
felves from it ; but they were foiled 
in every attempt, with confider- 
able lofs of men, and of the molt 
part of their artillery. 

Night put a ftop to the engage- 
ment ; the Aullrians employed it 
eftedtually to entangle the Pruliians, 
by guarding v/ith double flrength 
and vigilance, every avenue through 
which it was poflible for them to 
efcape. So that when the ^.r ^ 
morning appeared, they ^ ' ''' 
faw the hills covered on every fide 
v-fith great bodies of their enemies, 
and every defile prefented a wall of 
bayonets, through v/hich it was im- 
pofuLle to penetrate. Thus galled 
with the loiTes of the precedir;»j 
day, in v/hich it is faid they exhaull- 
ed almoft all their ammuniticn, 
flripped of the greatell part of the> 
cannon, farroanded by the enerry 
on all quarters, no refource, no prc- 
fpeft of relief appearing, the army 
loll all hope, and ail fpjrit To 
make any efrcrts in this condition, 


General Finck thought would only 
be to throw away unprofitably the 
lives of fo many brave men, which 
might be relerved for a more hope- 
ful occafion ; he therefore, notwith- 
ftanding tiie known rigour of his 
mafter, the apparent ihame of the 
thing, and the thoufand circiim- 
ftances of embarraffment that nuilt 
have arifen to a man of honour at 
fuch a juncture, came to a refola- 
tion of lurrendering the whole army 
prifoncrs of war. Nineteen batta- 
lions and tliirty-five fquadrons, com- 
pofmg near t^venty thoufand men 
by the Aullrian account, above 
twelve by the FruiTian confefTion, 
iixty-four pieces of cannon, many 
ftandards and colours, were taken 
on this occafion. 

It was unqueftionably the greateH 
blow which the Prulfians had felt 
from the beginning of the war; con- 
fidering the critical time, the num- 
bers taken, and the lofs of reputa- 
tion, which arofe from the manner 
in which they were taken. It is no 
wonder that fuch an extraordinary 
advantage, thus cheaply obtained, 
Hiould greatly have elevated the 
friends of the houfe of Auilria. They 
had put the change upon the Pruf- 
lians, they had caught their enemy 
in the very trap which they had 
laid, as they thought, with fuch 
addrefs for them. They had now 
received a full indemnification for 
the capture of the Saxon army, 
which had furrendered in much tlie 
fame manner, and very near this 
place, in the year 1756. 

The King of Prufiia had no time 
to recover from this ftroke, under 
which he was yet daggering, when 
he received another blow, and a 
feverc one. General Durcele was 
pofled at the right of the Elbe, op- 

Dec. 4. 

pofite to Meiffen ; but on 
the approach of a large 

body of Auflrians, they prepued 
to retreat over the river into that 
place into which they thought their 
retreat fecure ; but having been 
obliged by an hard frolt to witli- 
draw their bridge of boats, a thaw 
fupervening, when they attempted 
to lay a bridge of pontoons, fo 
many great fragments of ice floated 
in the river, that they found it im- 
prafticable ; they were theref(jre 
under the neceliity of palling over 
their army in boats. Vvhilil they 
ftruggled with thefe difiiculties, 
their rear guard was attacked by 
the Auflrians with great fury, and 
all the men that compofed it, to- 
gether with the general, were killed 
or made prifcners. The lofs of the 
Prulfians on this occafion is faid to 
have been three thoufand killed 
and taken ; and this fecond fur- 
prize brought a new difcredit, as 
well as great detriment to the Pruf- 
fian arms. 

M. Daun was not fo carried away 
with this flood of fuccefs, as to de- 
part in the Icail degree from his 
ufual cautious management. Tv.o 
advantages were now obtained, 
which, with a very few eiiorts, might 
be improved to the entire destruc- 
tion of the King of Prufiia. At 
leaft, many generals would have 
thouoht fo, but M. Daun thought, 
that the fame condufi, which, with 
no rifque, and with little lofs, had 
reduced the King fo low, was the 
molt likely, ifpu.^fued, to bring on 
his entire ruin. He refolved to give 
that monarch no fort of chance to 
recover his fortune ; Daun, after 
the two great vidories of the Ruf- 
fians his allies, after the two great 
victories he had himfelf newly ob- 
tained, retired behind Drefden ; and 
as if he had been beaten, as often 
as he was victorious, he took refuge 
in the impregnable camp at Pima, 


For the YE 

having fo difpofed matters, that the 
King of Pruffia, now too weak to 
icnd out any great detachments, 
cnuid not prevent liis communica- 
tioa with Bohemia. 

Whilit the King of Pruilia carried 
on his unfuccefsful campaign in 
Saxony, through all the rigours of 
the fevcrell: winter for many years 
felt in Europe ; the army of the 
allies kept the field with better for- 
tune. It is true, things had been fo 
difpofed by the obllinate refiftance 
of Munller, and the reinforcements 
which arrived in the French army, 
that Prince Ferdinand did not fir.d 
himfelf in a condition to force them 
to a decifive aftion ; and therefore 
the fituation of the two armies had 
continued much the fame for a con- 
fiderable time. At length MunRer, 
after a feries of operations, fome- 
times a fiege, and fometimes a 
blockade, now broken off, and 

-^T now refumed, at laft fur- 

Nov. 20. J J 'j , 

rendered, and the garn- 

fon capitulated for their liberty. 

Not long after this, the Hevcdi- 
tary Prince of Brunfwick, all whofe 
enterprizes are diRinguifljed with a 
peculiar eclat and fplendor, that 
mark them for his own, performed 
a fervice that curbed the French, 
even more than the lofs of Munfier. 
Prince Charles of Bevern was alio 
engaged in this defign. 

The Duke of Wurtemburg had 
renewed his treaty of fubfidy with 
France, and having recruited and 
augmented his troops, he lay at 
Fulda, a great way to the right of 
the French army. The Hereditary 
Prince formed a defi^n to attack 
him at that dillance. 

On the 28th of November, tak- 
ing a imall, but well-chofen corps of 
horfe and foot, and direnpa''in2 

r 1 - 000 

them from their baggage, he arrived 
in two days at Fuida, where the 
Vol. II. 

A R 1759. A3 

Wurtemburgers enjoyed themfelves 
in full fecurity, A feu de joye had 
been ordered for that day ; the 
troo'ps were all in their beft cloaths ; 
liie Duke had invited all the ladies 
in the town to his table, and to a ball, 
wliich he intended to have given 
that \ery day ; but the Hereditary 
Prince difconcerted their meafures, 
both of war and diverfion. A 
large party of the Wurtemburg 
troops were pofled in a plain before 
the town. The Hereditary Prince 
fell upon them unawares in their 
front and flank, and drove them 
into the tov/n, into which he clofe- 
ly purfued them. Here they made 
iome appearance of maintaining 
their ground for fome minutes, but 
they were foon drove out on the 
other fide, and hotly purfued by 
the Prince of BrunAvick ; vvithouc 
the town they were met by Prince 
Charles of Bevern, who had made a 
compafs about the place, and at- 
tacked them vigoroufly as foon as 
they had got out of it. Four bat- 
talions made feme refiftance, and 
v.-ere all cut to pieces, or made pri- 
foners ; the reil, with the Duke; 
himfelf, covered by the refillancei 
of thefe battalions, made a fliift to 
efcape. Above a thoufand prifoners 
were made on this occafion ; and 
the Prince returned to the camp of 
the allies, after having effectually 
difabled this corps from performing 
any thing confiderable ; and this 
adiion was of the greateft confe- 
quence, as by the dilpofition of the 
corps at Fuida, thers was an ap- 
pearance as if the French meant to 
form a communication with the ar- 
my of the empire, for the mutual 
excenfion aiid fecarity of their win- 
ter quarters. 

This enterprise was only the pre- 
lude to another, which promiffd to 
be miich more exttnfive in its con- 
£ fequer.ccs. 



fequenccs. The feafon was now 
gro\vn too (evere to fiifFcr the allies 
to pu!b any further the advantages 
they had obtained over the French ; 
at the fame time it difabled the 
French fioni attempting any thing 
confiderabie aTainll them. Befides 
thefe advantages of the feafon, by 
potiefling Munfter, the allies were 
no longer ol'liged to keep fo large 
a body of men in VVelij.haiia. 
The(e were the confiderations which 
fuffered Prince Ferdinand to turn 
hii e\es to the uiiirtiTed ilate of the 
King of Pruliia's. afrairs, After the 
twogrcat blows which that Monarch 
had fuffered ; there was no hope of 
diflodging M. Daun with his fing.'e 
force ; and he was utterly unable to 
avail hiniielf, as heretofore, of the 
rigour of the feafon, to ftrike a de- 
cifive blow. Prince Feidinand, dif- 
tant as he was from his diftrelfed al- 
ly, and fo near to an enemy fupe- 
rior in numbers, did rot hefitate to 
fend him fuccours, to enable him, 
if poflible, to n)ake a final eiFort. 
He detached therefore i2,coc of his 
belt men, and placed them under 
the commar-d of the Hereditary 
Prince, with whofe vigour and dili- 
gence he was perfectly acquainted, 
and under whom he knew the t'ol- 
diers uoald endure any hardlhip 
with chearfulnefs. They maiched 
from KorfdorrT, and in the 
depth of the late levere 
feafon, without lofing a man by 
fickhels or delertion, iu fifteen days, 
marched near three iiundred miles, 
and joined the King of Pruflia at 

Ihis junction raifed for a while 
the fpirits and hopes ot the Prufiian 
army ; but, in effect, it did mOie ho- 
rour to the abilities of ti.e i-Icre- 
ciitary Prince, than fervice to the 
King. The feafon, which foi'ghc 

Ca. 11. 

equally againft all fides, the inzcciC- 
fiblc camp at Pima, and the caution 
of M. Daun, rendered it impoflibic 
to the King, notvvithftanding this 
reinforcement, to make any attempt, 
^o that alter feveral m.ovements in 
hopes of bringing the Aullrians to 
an engagement, he was obliged at 
length to dcfilt, and to fufier the 
fnattered remains of his army to re- 
pofe in winter-quarters alter the 
fruitlefs fatigu' s of fo long, fo la- 
borious, and fo bloody a campaign. 
The King of Piufiia did not de- 
rive the benefits that v»ere expefted 
from this detachment; the French 
had no fooner notice of it, than 
they attempted to avail themfelves 
of the weaknefs it caulVd in the 
allied army. The Duke of Broglio 
was now at the head of the French 
troops ; he had lately returiiedfrom 
Verfailies, having ruined the cha- 
rader of M. de Contades, ef^a- 
blifhedhis own, removed his rival, 
and, in fpite of fenioriiy, had ac- 
quired the marllial's ilafi-', and the 
command of the army. He thought 
he had now an opportunity for an 
af^ion of eclat to diltinguilh his er>- 
trance into command. He attempt- 
ed to attack Frioce Ferdinand- by 
fiirprizj. But finding him j. 
perfealy prepared, and all ' ■*' 

his pofts well guarded, he thought 
it moll prudent to retire to his for- 
mer quarters ; and with this abor- 
tive attempt clofed the operations 
of the German campaign, from 
whence FrancehadentL-rtained (uch 
fanguine hopes ; leaving to Priiice 
Ferdinand the glory of taking 
Munfter in the prefence of one uf 
their armies, and of fecuring his 
own polls againft all their efrbrt.s 
after he had, from an inferior num- 
ber, difpatched 12, ceo men three 
hundred miles from his camp. 

C H A P. 

For the YEAR 



C H A p. X. 

The f reparations at Vannes and Brejl. The EngUJh Jleet dri'ven frcm their 
Jiation. The aiiion near BdleijJe. French feet defeated. War in the 
Eajl Indies in 17^ S. French fleet under M. d' Jch' tavice beaten. M. de 
Laily takes Fort St. David'' s, and repuljcd at Tanjour. Lays fleg£ to Ma- 
drajs. Obliged to raije the Jiege. Conclujion of the annals of i-j^(^. 

0J~^ H E fcverirv of tlie winter 

^ could not put a llop to the 
opL-ratior.s of the land armies ; it 
had no more efTecl upon the opera- 
tions at lea, which went on with 
vigour, in Tpite of the inclemency 
of the feafon. The invafion pro- 
jecled by France, which the en- 
gagement off Cape Lagos had re- 
tarded, was by no means laid afide. 

The preparations for a naval 
equipment in the harbour of Breft, 
and for tranfporting a body of 
forces from Vannes, went on conti- 
nually. The winter did not delay 
the'e preparations, becaufe it was 
hoped that, in that feafon, the Bri- 
tifh fleet might be obliged to take 
refuge in their ovvn harbours ; ar.d 
thus might afford an opportunity 
for the French fleet to come out 
unoppofed, and to execute the ob- 
jedl of their deftination before the 
Britifh navy could be in readinefs 
to encounter them. ' 

In fad, they were not wholly 
difapp anted in their expectations. 
A violent llorm forced Sir Edward 
Hawke to quit his ftation off Brell. 
He came with his whole fleet to 
anchor in Torbay. 
xi The French fleet availed 

'^' itfelf of his abfence to 
put to fea. The whole Hnglifh na- 
tion was alarmed, but it was an 
alarm which produced no hurry or 
dirtuibance, but vigorous, cool, and 
fettled methods for its defence. 

And new the event of the whole 
war was pur to the iiTue ; for u^:^on 

the good or ill fuccefs of tin's ftroke 
every th'ng depended. »t 
Admiral Hawke loft not ^ ' '■^' 
a moment's time to put again to 
fea, and to feek the French fleet. 
Both fqcadrons put to fea on the 
fame day ; Sir Edward Hawke from 
Torbay, M. deConflans frcm Brelh 
There was a difference of but one 
fhip of the line in their forces. 

It is impolhble here to pafs over 
the gallant behaviour of one of our 
admirals, as it helps to mark the 
genius and Ipirit of this hapry time, 
and as this is one of the fineft inilan- 
ces of it. Admiral Saunders came 
into port from his Quebec expedi- 
tion immediately after Hawke had 
failed. After fuch a long voyat^e 
and fo fevere a campaign, unbroken 
by tatigue, and llill infa.iated with 
glory, he determined immediarely 
to fet fail again, and partake the 
honour and danger of the coming 
eiigagement. For this purpofe no 
time was to be loft, and he had no 
orders. But he thought the exigence 
of his country fuflicient orders ; and 
he knew that at this time the letter 
of military dlfclpline would never 
be iet againlt its ipirit. He the.'-e- 
fore fet fail, without waiting for or- 
ders, with ten fhips ; but fortune did 
not favour the generofity cf his in- 
tentions, and he did not join the 
Britiili fleet time enough for the 

As Sir Edward Hawke conclud- 
ed that the hrlt rendezvous of ihe 
enemy's fleet would be at Quiberon, 
E 2 h« 


he direclcd his courfe with all diii- 
[fcnce for that bay. But here again, 
fortune for a wliile feemed to de- 
clare for the French ; for a ftrc ng 
wind blown in an cafierlv point, 
drove the Knglifh fleet a great way 
to the welhvard ; but at length it 
became more favourable, and bote 
them in direiHly to the flvoe. A- 
boiu eight o'clock the head moll 
fhips dilcovered tiie enemy be;*r- 
ing to the northward, between the 
JHand of Belleifle and the main land 
of Fiance. 

Hawke faw at lafl; what he had 
fo long, and fo ardently wifhed for, 
(though hitherto in vain) the ene- 
my in his reach. But yet there 
were fuch diniculties in his way, as 
would have checked a very cautious 
commander, or perhaps any com- 
mander in circumllances lefs critical 
to the public fafety. On the flight- 
eft infpcelion of the chart it will 
appear, that all tliis fea is fown 
thick with fands and flioais, and 
fhallows and rocks ; our pilots were 
by no means well acquainted with 
it ; and the wind blew little lefs 
than a violent ilorm, and the waves 
ran mountain high. In ihefe cir- 
cumllances they were to attack a 
very llrong fquadron of the enemy 
on their own coall, with which they 
were perfedly acquainted. All 
thefe difiiculties only animated the 
Englilh admiral. In one of the 
tinelt ihips in the world, command- 
ing the flower of the Britiih navy, 
and feconded by fome of the molt 
tried and brjveiL oflicers in the fer- 
vice ; and above all, not dubi»^us of 
hinifelf. He ordered the fiiips near- 
cfl the enemy inuv:edi;.tely to chafe, 
and, by engaging them, to give 
time for the reft of the iicet to 
come up. 

• IVl. ConSans h.ul two choices, 
cjtavf ic {'V, Of 10 Uand and light it 

out. But he followed neither per- 
fectly ; for fome time he appeared 
as if he meant to fight ; but after 
giving theBritifh fhips time to come 
near him, when it was too late, he 
croudcd all the fail he could carry ; 
at the fame time he fliewed an at- 
tention to keep all his fquadron 

At half an hour aftc r two, the ac- 
tion began with great fury. In two 
hours die enemy had loft three ihips 
of the line ; one ftruck, two were 
f'ink outright. Hawke ordered hi? 
fnip to refcrve her fire, to pafs by all 
the others, and to be laid alongfide 
of the Soleil Royal, the beft fhip in 
the French navy, and commanded 
by M. dc Conflans ; the malter re- 
monftrated on the almoil inevitable 
danger of the coaft. Kawke an- 
fwered, " You have done your duty 
" in this remonftrance ; now obey 
*' my orders, and lay me alonglide 
" the French admiral." A French 
fhip of 70 guns generoufly put him- 
ft'lf between them ; Hawke was 
obliged to bcftow here the fire he 
had referved for a greater occafion, 
and at one funk her to 
the bottom. The headmoft of the 
I^nglifli Ihips fired on the enemy as 
they came up to them, and then paft 
on to otlvers, leaving thole behind 
to improve their fuccefs, and de.boy 
or take them ; and by this method 
they had got up quite to the van of 
tlie enemy, and would have totally 
deftroyed their fleet, had not ni(»ht 
interpofed to fave them. Before 
night came on, the enemy's fleet 
wa^ much difperfed ; but in the 
eagernefs of the purfuit, two of the 
Engliih fliips unfortunately run up- 
on a fand, called the Four, and were 
loft. The enemy fled in to their 
own coaft. Seven fhips of the line 
threw over board all their guns, 
and efcaped into the river V'iilaine ; 


For the YEAR 1759. 


about as many more got out to fea, 
and made for other ports. 

Nothing could be conceived more 
dreadful than the night which luc- 
ceeJed this action. A violent florm 
blew all iiight long. It was a 
pitchy darknefs ; a dangerous coall 
iurrounded thtrm on almoft all fjdes. 
A continual firing of diflrefs guns 
was heard, without knowing whe- 
ther they came from friend or ene- 
my ; and on account of the badnefs 
of the coaft, and the darknefs of the 
night, our people wereequally un- 
able to venture ta their afiiltance. 

Wi en morning ciime on, ihcy 
found the French admiral had run 
his Ihip, and another cai'ed the 
Heros, on fnore ; the fir;l was fet 
on fire by the enemy, the other by 
our feamcn. 7 hus concluded this 
remarkable aflion, in which the 
French had four capita! 'hips de- 
llroyed, one taken, and the whole 
of their formidable navy, in which 
tonfifted the lad hope of their ma- 
rine, fhattered, difarmed, and dif- 
pcrfed. The long threatened inva- 
lion, which was to repair their lofles 
in every part of the world, was 
diilipated, and t;.e credit of thtir 
arms broken along with their forces. 
The behaviour of the Engliih cap- 
tains and feamen, on the contrary, 
added as m'.ich to the glory of the 
Britilh arm', as the fafcty of their 
country. Perhaps there never was 
a naval engagement of fuch extent, 
in which no capiain was accufed, 
nor even in any degree fufpefted 
of mifbehaviour or cowardice ; in 
vsliich thofe who engaged, and thofe 
who did not, gave proofs that they 
were equal ly ardent in the lervice 
of their country. 

Thofe who think fuch matters 
deferving of their notice, have ob- 
ferved, that this decinve naval en- 

gagement, the furrenderofthe Pruf- 
iian troops at Maxen, and the taking 
of Muniler, happentd en the fame 
dav, the 20th of November. 

This was the conclufion of the 
French affairs in Europe. The iffue 
of the c-mpaign in America had 
not been mere favourable to thea;. 
Although the events in theEaft-In- 
dies belong properly to the laft year, 
yet, as the accounts did not arrive 
until this, and that the actions there 
were of great importance, and 
equally fortunate on our fide, it is 
proper that we Inould take feme 
notice of them here. 

The Englifh had by no means 
that fuperiority ever the French in 
the Eait Indies, which they had in 
America. It was here the French 
feemed to have made thofe efforts, 
by which they hoped in fome degree 
to balance their lofi'es in other parts. 
They had a very ftrongfquadron un- 
der Monf. de Ache in tiiofe feas. M. 
de Lally, an oiHcer of credit, and of 
greater rank than had ufually been 
fent on that fervice, commanded a 
body of 2COO Europeans, a great ar- 
my, in a country where the name of 
an European is itfelf a firength. In 
the beginning;, their fucceis feemed 
proportionate to their forces ; they 
took the fort and city of St. David's. 
But in a very fliort time the ill (lar 
of France, which in no part of the 
world fers well on their affairs, be- 
gan ro influence them here. M. 
d'Ache in two naval engagements 
was woriled, and prevented from 
CD-operating with the land forcesfor 
the reft of the campaign. And had 
the fpirit and conduit of admiral 
pococke been as well feconded by 
icSiC of his captains as it was by 
others, there is great reafon to be- 
lieve, that the French naval power 
had been as effectually deftroyea 
E 3 ia 



in thofe Teas, as it had been in thofe 
of Europe. 

♦ Notsvi'hftanding thefe checks, it 
was necefTciry that M. Lally Ihould 
act. But it was not only the d f- 
grace of the French fleet, hut an ex- 
treme want of money which de- 
layed his operation. A Prince of the 
country, the King of Tanjour, ap- 
peared the oii)y refource wliich was 
open. 1 o this Prince he applied 
for a confiderahlc fum of money, 
which being refolutely refufv.'d, he 
carried tl.e war into his dominions, 
and laid ficgc to his capital city. 
}>ut af;er lyiDg feveral days before 
it, and after having even made a 
practicable breach, the ncill of fome 
Engli(h gunners, the want of prow- 
iions and ammunition, and the dif- 
orders which reigned in his army, 
t^bligcd him to return without the 
ir.ony, and with the mortihcation 
of being beaten from a place, only 
fortified after the Indian manner. 

This failure in iheir pecuniary 
expectations, and their repuliefrom 
an Indian town, were bad encourage- 
ments to the undertaking of an en- 
terprize againil an European ene- 
my, and a fortification in fome de- 
gree regular. But having feized 
upon a Dutch veJl'el, as it is thought 
muc.i with its own confent, which 
contained a large treafure, they fet 
out at length to befiege Madrafs. 
But here their fuccefs was no better 
than at Tanjour, though their 
ihength was greater, and their ef- 
forts much more obliinate. 

Colonel Draper and Major Brere- 
ton defended the place with the ut- 
moll fkill and bravery. Mr. Pigot 
'likewife, with equal gcncrofity and 
prudence, fecondtd their endeavours 
by the fupplies of llores and ammu- 
nition, which were admirably dif- 
inbutel, and co-operated with the 

military with a firmnefs and Intre- 
pidity, by which he obtained an 
honour equal to any in the defence 
of the place. VVhilll the town was 
deftndtd with great fpirit within ; 
parties were continually fent our, 
whicii fo inferted the roadb throut>h 
which the enemy's convoys wtre to 
pafs, that their army in the trenches 
was infinitely weakened by the de- 
tachments which they were objiged 
to fend out. After a fiege of more 
than two months, they were obliged 
to abandon their enterpiize, and by 
that means renounce for ever all 
thofe fanguine hopes, which they 
had entertained from the forces in 
thi« part of the wojld. The Eng- 
liili, en the contrary, went on from 
fuccefs to fuccefs. WhiHl they de- 
feated the French on the Eallern 
coall of the great peninfula of India, 
on the Wellern they took the great 
and opulent city of Sujat from the 
pov-. ers of the country, \\ith very 
little lofs. 

General I. ally left Madrafs in the 
utmoil tranfport.sof rageanddefpair, 
which a man of honour and ability 
in his profeflion can feel, who is ill 
feconded by his troops, neglected 
by thofe who ought to fupport him, 
and cheated by the villainy of con- 
traftors, and of all thofe who turn 
war into a low trafhck. His letter 
is a Hrong and veiy ilriking picture 
of thefe agitations ; and certainly 3t is 
worthy of remaik, that every wheie 
there flaould appear foireihing more 
unaccountably wr^ ng and weak in 
the management of the French, than 
has been in the conduft of that of 
almoft any other nation at any time. 
It fecms to argue an eiTcntial and 
radical fault in fome fuperior part of 
their govcinmcnt, more eafily in- 
deed vifibie in its confequences, 
than difcoverablein its caule. 


For the YEAR 1 759. 55 

Tn Europe they received ofFers of fo confiderabie a part of their fub- 

•peace from the Kings of Grcat-Bri- ftancc at the inliant when they law 

tain and Pruffia. But as they did it fo notorioufiy break its faiih in 

not expert, from their fituution, other particulars. 

very advantageous or honourable However, thefe refources, fuch as 

terms, they refolved to aft, in one th.ey are, will enab'e them to keep 

inftance, the Roman part, and ftiil the war on foot. They turn their 

liold out, determined to hazard the whole attention to Germany, where 

Jiift extre.mities ; perhaps, hoping they have very greatly au^^mented 

fomething favcurabie from the for- their army, and placed it under a 

tune of their allies, lince their own gen"ra!-, from whom they have fome 

had deferred them ; and refolvirg hopes, after their repeated dilap- 

to con trad their plan, and to make pointments and the frequent changes 

one Ilrong effort in one part, rather ihey haie made. They propofe 

than unprofitably to vvaile their alfo another army under the Pnnce 

ftrength upon feverai ii^fcrior ob- de Soubife : if they can compafs this 

je-ds. This effort oould 'he made latter projecl, as it i-s believed they 

with any profpecl of fuccefs or.Iy in may, the fyllem of Germany is liill 

Germany. But the fupplies nccef- in very imminent danger, ror not- 

ikry for this great charge, were dit- withlfanding the tried goodnefs of 

iicult to a nation, w-liofe trade was our troops, and the admiriible com- 

v.holly deliroyed. On this ccca- mander at the head of them, it is 

lion they did not fcruple to break in certain, even with any reinforce- 

upon the public faith, and to find ments we may be able to fend, we 

iupplies lor one year in an expe- fhai! find it very diliicult to contend 

d'ient, that flruck at the fouiccb of with two armies, fupp? fing that we 

ail future credit. They ftopped fhall have no other than hrench ar- 

the payment on many public bills mies to eoBtenJ wlth^ and that the 

and funds*. The King threw in King -of Prullia ihould be able, as 

his own plate into the public ilock he has hitherto been, to find em- 

as an example, and a requell tliat pioyment :or the m-'iny, the power- 

ochers fhould contribute in the fame fiii, and the implacable enemies 

nianner from their private fcrtune, that furround him. 

to the nece'.Iities of the Il&te ; tho' It is certain, he is mich reduced ; 

leveral of the ncbiliiy, and many and that his rei'ources are nearly 

churches and convents fent in their exhaufted. Thefe are fafts which 

plate, thee was yet a general back- cannot be concealed ; and yet fome 

vvardneis to give into this meth''d of glimmering of nop-- s may be Ifill 

fupply, and to trail the public with prefer ved, when we coniider the 

* The French ccut have ftopt payment cf the /oISowLn-g ptiWlic -debts, viz. 
s. The thiee kinds of reits crcateJ on the ports. 2. Tlioie conllitmed upon 
-tiiechell of recicmptione. 3. Tlie cjiipens ot bills on the fame chi-ih 4. T. ol'e 
(•t ^il^' tv'o r<>\ai iottene?. 5. The reiinbnilemer.t oi bills diawn to l>e ir an ihje 
Jame chtlt. 6. The bil'sof the two royal lotieiies. 7, Tlie rents created cm 
ri:e tvo Ibis per pound of th.*.' tenth penny. S. The rfimbui fement ot tlie capt- 
f.'iiS of lenis, (j. Tiie payinenis of bills difcliargeable in nine years, known un- 
der ilie natiie of annuities. 10. Thofe of the new anions on tlie benefit of tlie 
tanr,^, ji. Ail the bills dr..wn by (he colonies upon ttte government, aniouiu- 
iv,^ to 1,333,00^ L 

E 4 admirable 



admirable talents for war and go- may be imagined ; efpecially if 

vernment, which that monarch pol 
fefies ; and when we conlider even 
the events of the laft (to him) un- 
fortunate campaign ; where, after 
ha\'ing fuffered four capital defeats, 
and having obtained no one conii- 
derable advantage, he has yet conti- 
nued in Tome fort luperiorin the field; 

we connder, that, highly as we are 
taxed lOr the necefTary charges of 
the war, we have not been prevented 
from great and expenfive voluntary 
exertions of public fpiric and bene- 
ficence. The cities of London and 
Vertminiler, and after their exam- 
ple oiher tov\/ns, made a large fub- 

the enemy has not been able to make fcription for enlifting foldiers. Sub- 

the leall imprefiion upon his do- 
minions ; and lie has, at lait, more 
than divided Saxony with them ; the 
city of Drefden is all that they pof- 
fefs in that country, and theacqui- 
fition of which has been the only 
fruit of four campaign?, and four 
vidories in one campaign, and the 
eForts of the united forces of Au- 
llria, Ruliia, and the Empire, to fay 
nothing of France and Sweden. 

As for GreatBritain, H-iehascnly 
to fear from her connefiions. In 
fio one year fince fhe v/as a nation, 
has flie been favoured with fomany 
fuccelles, both by fea and land, and 
in every quarter of the globe ; nor 
have her ofiicers both by fea and 
land, ever done more honour to 
their country, by their fkill and 
bravery. And with regard to the 
internal adminiftration, itfufiices to 
fay, that whilil France became bank- 
rupt, without delay or murmuring 
there has been more than fix millions 
borrowed in England at a very eafy 
rate ; and that the intereft on this 
immenfe fum has been made wood 

fcriptions were alfo carried on to a 
great amount, for cloathing the 
enemy's prifoners, abandoned thro' 
the neglett or porerty of their fove- 
reign ; and for adnuniilering to the 
relief of the families of thofe who 
had fallen in the battles of Qu'jbec 
r.nd Mindcn. Thus aduated by the 
warmed patriotifm, which, far froni 
extinguilhing, feemed to kindle a 
beneficence towards our enemies in 
their dillrefs. 

The condition of Europe, which 
all people thought would have 
been decided in this campaign, is 
nearly as dubious as ever ; and the 
diiHculties which oppofe themfeives 
to a peace are rather augment- 
ed than diminifhed. Here then we 
clofe the fccne, and conclude the 
events of the prefent year ; in the 
r.cxt we hope, notwithilanding ap- 
pearances, after fo many fcenes of 
horror, to have the more pleafing 
tafk of relating the fleps taken to 
a general peace, on terms as par- 
ticularly advr.ntagcous to our own 
country, as the mixed interefis of 

by a iingle tax upon malt, which Europe, and the various fortunes of 
will fcarce be telt by the people, the powers embarked in the fame 
By this the refources of England c^ufe, will admit. 


For the YEAR 1759. 





ift. ^ g * H E fociety for pro- 
_|_ moting; of arts and ma- 

nufndtures, in the Strand, prefen/Ced 
his Grace the Duke of Ikaufort 
with a gold medal, for fowing the 
preatcil quantity of acorns. Phi- 
lip Carteret Webb, Efq; with a fil- 
ver medal, for fovving the next 
quantity. And John Eerney, E'q; 
\v!:h a filver medal, for the third 

A fiiver medal was alfo prefented 
to Lady Louiia Grevillc, for the 
iineft dravvino-. 

Severr.l houfes were confuted by 
fire at Limehoufe. 
Extrail of a letter from St. J-go 

de la Vega, in Jamaica, dated 

Oftober 7. 

On Monday lafi: was publifhed in 
council, his majclly's repeal of the 
-ad pafTed in this iiland, in the year 
1754, fcr removing the feveral re- 
cords, books, papers, Sec. belong- 
ing to the feverai olnees, from the 
town of St. Jago de la Vega to the 
town of Kingiion. In confequence 
of wnich, thirty wains laden with 
the records, and efcorted by a party 
of foot foldicrs, left Kingfton, at 
one o'clock on Wednefday morn- 
ing, and being met in the Feny- 
road by a detachment of the troops 
of this town, we-^-e by them con- 
ducted here, where they arrived a 
little after nine, amidfl. tlie accla- 
Riations of a multitude of people. 

On this occafion a grand entertain- 
ment was given, an ox was roailed. 
for the populace, and at night a 
general illumination, and fundry 
hre-works. The following places, 
viz. Kingfton, Savanna la Mar, 
Montego Bay, and Port Antonio, 
are ordained legal ports of entry 
and clearance for {hips for the ifland 
of Jamaica. 

Extraft of a letter from the fame 
place, dared Ociober 21-. 

This week the governor, council, 
and a/Tembly, paiTed an aft f^r di- 
viding the ifland of Jamaica into 
three counties, and for appointing 
juilices of aifize and oyer and ter- 
miner, in two of the aforefaid 

Letter from New Jerfey, dated 
Oftober 28. 

This day his excellency our go- 
vernoi- returned from the treaty at 
Eallon, where he had been attend- 
ing with the governor of Penfylva- 
nia near three weeks. There v/ere 
prefent at the treaty joo Indians, 
about 2CC of whom were chief war- 
riors, aiul of thirteen different na- 
tions. There were alfo prefent two 
Indian meffengers from the Indians 
fettled on the Ohio, who brought 
a meflage in writing figned hy fif- 
teen chiefs of the Oiiio Indians, ex- 
preiTing their defire to have peace 
with theEnglifh, and their intention 
to accede to tliis treaty. 

The conferences were carried on 

with great harmony. The Indians 




Solemnly promifed to return all the 
Rnglilh pnlcners. A meffage was 
i'^tn to the Ohio Indians, accompa- 
ried by two Englifli officers, a 
chief of the confederates, and feve- 
ral other Indians, informing them 
what had been done at this treaty, 
and inviting th«m to accede to it. 
And peace was folcmnly ratified by a 
large piece of belt, which was de- 
livered by the two goverr.ors to the 
coiiffiier.ue cliiefs, and by them 
handed rocnd to iall the Indians 

in the courfe of this treaty, his 
excellency our governor iatisfied all 
Indians that had, or pretended to 
have, any claim of land in the pro- 
vinces of New jerfey, except Eng- 
lilli or private rights ; and reieafes 
thereof wer^ executed and acknow- 
ledged in prefence of fcveral of the 
chiefs of t-iie confederate nations, 
who atielled the fame, and were 
afterwards puulilhed in open coun- 
cil ; and his excellency governor 
Bernird gave a large belt to the 
con federate chiefi, to be a per- 
petual memorial, that the pro- 
vince of New Jerfey was now 
wholly difcharged from all Ind'an 

Comm-^dore Keppel failed from 
Kinfale in Ireland, November 12, 
with the following forces, viz. 

Foiweux man of war. Captain 
Knight, of 74 guns ; Naflau, 
Capt. Seyer, of 70 ; Dunkirk, 
• Capt. Digby, of 60; Litchfield, 
Capt. Barton, of 50 ; Prince Ed- 
ward, Capt Fortefcue, of ^o; Ro- 
man Emperor, Capt. Newfon, of 20; 
Saltaih floop, Cap:. Sterling ; Fire 
Drake bomb, Capt. Orrock ; Fur- 
nace bomb, C:ipt. halkner ; Cam- 
brid"e and Lydia tenders, and 
ports having on board Forbes's and 
anpther regiment. 

Extradl of a letter from New York, 
dated November 20. 
A proclamation is iffued by the 
governor of Halifax, importing, 
that as the enemy have been codi- 
pclled to retire from bt. John's rn er 
in the bay of I'undy ; a favourable 
opportunity is thereby given lor the 
peopling and cukivnting, a.i well 
the lands vacated by the French, as 
every other part of that valnabie 
province. He thereio/e declares, 
that he will be ready to receive any 
propofals that may be hereof er 
made to him, for efleclually fettling 
(he vacated, or other lanJs in t a: 
province ,• loo.cco acres of which 
produce wheat, jye, barlev, oats, 
hemp, flax, X:c. which never need 
manufaduring, as no part has failed 
of crops thele hundred years. Ano- 
ther 1 00, coo acres are cleared, and 
flocked with Englifii grafs, planted 
with orchards, gardens, i^c. The 
timber on the whole is beech, black 
birch, afii, oak, pine, f.r, &.c. The 
lands are fo intermixed, that every 
fingle farmer may have a propor- 
tionable quantity of arable land, 
grafs land, and wood land, and 
they arc all fituated about the bay 
of ^undy, upon rivers navigable for 
fhips ol burthen. 

We hear from Dublin, that the 
remarkable meteor m.cntinned from 
lo many dillant parts, was feen at 
Ifland-Bridge, near that city, on 
Sunday the 26th of November, at 
fifteen minute^ pad eight at nighr, 
almoft at due eall ; it feemed like 
a pale moon, moved from fouth to 
north with a prodigious velocity, 
and difper'cd or broke into many 
flarry fparkles ; its duration was not 
above three (econds. 

A Dutch fhip was lately brought 
into Stangate Creek, that refufed to 

For the YEAR 1759. 


hrivg tc, snd engaged the Maid- 
flone privateer a long time, snd 
killed three of her people : her fire- 
ing as a neutral fnip makes her a 
good prize. — Had cot the \^olun- 
teer privateer been at hand, of much 
lupeiior force, Ihe had deftroyed 
the other privateer entirely. 

L Late at night, died greatly 

lamenied, her Royal High- 
nefs, Ann, Princefs Royal of Eng- 
land, Princefs Dowager of Orange 
and Naflau, and governante of the 

children ; and that In confequcnce 
ol it, he had taken care of their 
perfons, and would provide for every 
thing belonging to them. This ce- 
remony being over. Prince Lewis 
was likewife invited to the affembly 
of the States General. A refojution 
was prepared and taken by their 
High Mightinelfes, whereby they 
acknowledge and agree to the refo- 
iution of Holland, relative to Piii.ce 
Lewis's reprefenting the Captain- 
General. Every thing pafled w;th 

tjnited Provinces in the minority of great order and tranquility, ard to 

the prefent Stadtholder. 
* Her Royal Highnefs was in her 
fiftieth year. She was married 
March 25, 1738, to the late Prince 
of Orange, by whom Ihe hath ifl'ue. 
Prince William, Hereditary Stadt- 
holderof the United Provinces, born 
March 8, 1748, and Princefs Caro- 
line, born February 28, I743. By 
her will, the King her father, and 
the Princefs Dowager of Orange, 
her mother-in-law, are appointed 
honorary tutor and tutorefs to her 
children, and Prince Lewis of Crunf- 
wick ading tutor. 

The morning after her Royal 
Highnefs'sdeceafe, the States Ge- 
neral and the States of Holland 
were extraordinarily aire!T;bied,and, 
upon the notification of this event 

ilie fatisfaction of the people. 

In the evening, the different col- 
leges of the government made for- 
mal deputations to the Prince of 
Orange and Princefs Caroline, who 
were aflilied by Pjince Lewis as 
their guardian and reprelentative, 
and u ho aniwered in their prefence 
for them both. 

Juil before her Royal Highnefs 
d'ed, flie gave a key to one of her 
court, defjring him to bring her a 
paper, which he would hnd in a 
place fl;e named ; which beir»g 
brought accordingly, fhe figned jt. 
This was her daughter's contract of 
marriage with the Prince of Naflau 
\VeilboL«g. She afterwards caufed 
another paper to be brought to her, 
which ihe alfo fiQ;ned ; and defired 

being made to them, they proceeded that it might be delivered according 

to confirm the regulations that had to its addrefs as foon as fhe fhould 

been made for the minority of the leave the world. This fecond paper 

Stadtholder ; and his t^ighnefs was a letter to the States General, 

Prince Lewis of Brunfwick v.'as in- in which Ihe intreated all the confe- 

vited to afiifl in the affembly of Hoi- derates to confent to the marriage of 

land, where he was received and her daughter, and not to make any 

feated with all the refpefl pofhble, 
and took the oaths, as rep'-efenting 
the Captain-General of the Union. 
Af:er which, his Highnefs c.mmu- 

change in the regulations fhe had 
made, with regard to the tutelage of 
the young Prince and his education. 
This letier alfo mentioned, that 

nicated to the affembly, the aft of as the Prince of NafTau Weilbourg 
her Royal Highnefs, by wiiich he was not of the eftablifhed religion, 
was appointed guardian of her [that is, a Lutheran, not a Calvinift] 




it was fiipulated in tnc contrrift of 
niairiage, that all the* children born 
of" the marriage, fxiould bebaptifed 
and educated m the cllabiiihcd re- 
lioion of Holland. 

Thcfe tv,o papers being fi^"^*^ 
and fealed, flie I'cnl for her children, 
exhorted them to make a proper 
improvement of the education fhe 
had caafcd to be given thern, and 
to live in good harmony, then em- 
bracing them with the utmoft ten- 
tiernefsj flie gave them her bleffing. 
After this, ll.e converfed with the 
greatefl calmnefs with her principal 
courtiers for a few hours, and foon 
after expired. 

The oay btfore thePrincefs Royal 
died, ilie afiembly of the Stales of 
Holland palfed a foimal iefolution 
to fit out 25 men of war, inflead of 
i2i and orders were immediately 
difnatched to the officers of the ad- 
miralty to get tliens ready as faft as 

Mrs. Borret, of Bunting- 

{o:\i, in Hertford fi^ire, v»'as 
brcught to bed oi" three fons. 

A^vefiel in the iervice of theord- 
nance, laden with llores for tbeord- 
nance-oinipe, lying at anchor a little 
belc'w Gillingham, took £re, and 
iiotwitaiianding all pofllbleaiTiitance 
was fet:t from the dock-yard at 
Chatham, fne was burnt to the 
water's edge, and all the itores, Sec. 
ciiieiiy cordage, conlumed, to the 
value of 3 or ^oco I. 

, Two Eiiglifn olHcers, in 

5 '■ qoality of commifl'aries, ar- 
rived ai Oilend, in order to treat 
with the governor of Dunkirk con- 
cerning; a general exchange of French 
and Englifh prifoners. 

Six piiptes fro;n SufTex were 
brought under a Ihong gunrd of 
foldiers, and in the Ivlar- 
fhalfca prifon, upon the oaths of 

their accomplices, having piratically 
plundered a Darifh (hip, fome time 
fince, which had on board the Mar- 
quis Pignatelli, ambaflador extraor- 
dinary from his Catholic Majeily 
to the court of Denmark Tiie 
lords of the admiralty had prof- 
fered a reward of 500 1. for thedif- 
coveryofany of the perfons con- 
cerned in this fafl, 

John Watiiins, known by , 

the name of Black John, died ' '' 
atBriftol,aged 78, who on his being 
prevented from poflefiing an edate 
in Glouceilerihire, to ivhich he is. 
faid to have been heir, made a vow 
never to be fhaved, which he kept 
to his death, and a little before his 
exit, deiircd he might not be (haven. 
Ke was a beggar for about fifty 
years In'.l pad, and often lodged in a 
glafs-hcufe, though he had a room 
in the city, in which tv.'0 hundred 
weight of filver and halfpence, and 
a confiderable quantity of gold was 
found, all acquired by begging. 

An order from the fecre- ^ , 
tary's office at Whitehall, '"'"; 
was fent down to all the fea ports 
in England, to examine all paf- 
fengers that may arrive in any (hip 
which comes from Portugal, on ac- 
count of the late aiFalr at Lifbon. 
All the jefuits collcL-es in that city 
aje invelfed by troops, in order to 
cut o(t"fr :m thofe fathers, all man- 
ner of accefs and communication 
with one another. 

The Count d'Affry pre- , 

fented his credentials to the " 
Slates General, as ambalTador fro.Ti 
the court of France. 

Mr. Secretary Pitt, by his Ma- 
jeily's command, preicnted to the 
Houfe of Commons the copy of a 
cciivcniion between his Majtlly and 
the King of Prufi'ia, concluded and 
fignedatLondpn, January 17, 1755; 


For the Y E 

and alio t'he copy of a convention 
between his r^j'ajefly and the Land- 
grave of Kefi'e-CafTei, figned the 

fame day. By this convention, 

19,000 cf the troops of Heffe are 
to be taken into the pay of Great- 
Britain, inltead of 12,000, the num- 
ber lately enr.ploycd in the Eritifii 
fervice ; and the Landgrave is to re- 
ceive, befitics the ordinary pay cf 
thcfe troop;, the fum of 60,000 I. in 
confideration of his immenfe Icil'es 
in fupportof the common caufe. 

Died lately Samuel Cox, of Han- 
flope, in Bucks, aged 93 : his re- 
li£b is 99. 7"hey had been married 
70 years, and their children, grand- 
children, and great grand children, 
amount to 153. 

Admiralty OfHce, Whitehall. 

Extrad of a letter from Captain 

Tyrrell, cf his's fhip 

Buckingham, dated in the Old 

Road, St. Chriftopher's, thegth of 

November 17 5 8, to John Tv^oore, 

Efq; commander in chief, .5^c. at 

the Leeward Iflands. 

" Agreeable to your orders, I 

failed on Thurfday night from St. 

John's Road ; the next morning I 

^ct between Guadalupe and Ivlont- 

lerrat, and gave chace to a fail we 

ei'pied in theN.W. which proved 

to be his Majedy's iloop theWeazJe; 

nnd upon enquiry, having found 

that (he had not met iiis Majeily's 

fhipEriilol, 1 ordered Captain Boles 

to comern board, for directions for 

his further proceedings. 

While his orders were v/riting 
out, we difcovered a fleet of nineteen 
fail, W. S W. Handing to S. S. W. 
upon which we immediately gave 
chafe, with all the fail we could 
poifibly croud. About tv.o o'clock 
we difcovered that they were con- 
\'oyed by a F.'-ench man of war of 
7^ guns, and two frigates. 

A R 1759. 6t 

About half an hour after two, the 
Weazle got fo ciofe, as to receive a 
whole broad Hde from the 74 gua 
(hip, which did her little or no da- 
mage. I then made the (if^na! to 
call the Weazle oft, and gave her 
lieutenant orders not to go near the 
74. gun (hip, or the frigares, as the 
lea![ of the latter was vaftly fuperior 
to him in force, by followiug which 
advice, he could not come to fire a 
ihox during the whole aflion, neither 
indeed could it be of any fervice. 

Whiill i made all the fail I could, 
thev were jogging on under their 
forefails and topfails ; and when we 
came up within half a gun's (]ior, 
they made a running fight, in (iring 
their (iern chafe, and the frigates 
fometimes raking fore and aft, an- 
noved ir.e pretty much, but re- 
tarded their way fo much, thatlgot 
up with my bowfprit almoil over 
the FIoriiTant's (Iern. Finding I 
could not bring him to a general 
action, I gave the Buckingham a 
yaw under his lee, and gave him a 
noble dofe of great guns and fraali 
arms, at about the dillance of half a 
inuucet ilict, which he icon after re- 
turned, and damaged my rigging, 
mads, and fails, pretty much. The 
largeft frigate being very trouble- 
forne, I gave him a few of my 
lower deck pills, and lent him a 
fcouting like a lufty fellow, and he 
never returned to the action again. 
The Fioriiiant likewife bore away, 
by v/hich means hegot under my lee, 
ar,d exchanged three or four broad- 
fides, (he endeavoured to keep at a 
diilance from me" which killed and 
wounded fome of my men ; ?nd I 
prefume we did them as much da- 
mage, as our men were very cool, 
took good aim, uere under very 
good difcfpline, and fought with a 
true Engliih fpirit. 




An unlucky broadfide fiom the 
f rench niade fome llaiighter on my 
quarter-deck, in which! got wound- 
ed, lofing three finacr> of my right 
hand, and a. fmall wound over my 
right eye, which, by the eiyuficn of 
blood, blinded mc tor a little while : 
I at the fame time got leveral con- 
tufions over n)y body by fplinters ; 
but i recovered immediately, and 
would not go off the deck till the 
lofs of blood began to weaken me. 
The mailer and lieutenant of the 
marines got dangeroully wounded 
at the fame rime. 

I called to my people to ftand by 
and do their duty, which they pro- 
ir.ifed with the greateft chearfulnefs. 
Ijull ran down, and got the blood 
ftopped, and ran upon deck again ; 
but finding the ftraining made my 
■wounds bleed afrefli, I fent for my 
£rlt lieutenant, and told him to take 
the command of tJie deck for a 
while. Heanfwered, that he would, 
and run alongfide the i'lorilTant, 
yard-arm andyard-arm, and fought 
to the lall gafp ; upon which I made 
a fpeech to the men, exhorting them 
to do their utmoll, which they 
chearfully promifed, and gave three 

I went down a fecond time much 
more eafy than before. Poor Mr. 
Marshal was as good as his word, 
he got board and board with the 
Floriffant, and received a broadfide 
from her, which killed him as he 
was encouraging the men ; and thus 
he died, an honour to his country, 
and the fervice : the fecond lieu- 
tenant then came upon deck, and 
fought the (hip bravely, yard-arm 
and yard arm. We. filenced the 
Floriffantfor fome time, upon which 
Ihe hauled down her colours, and 
after that, fired about eleven of her 
lower tier, and gave us a volley of 

fmall arrr"!, which our people re- 
turned with great fury, giving her 
three broadfides, flie not returning 
even a fingle gun. Capt.Troye, at 
the faiiic time, at the head of his 
miirines, performed the fervice of a 
brave and gallant ofiicer, cleared her 
poop and quarter deck, r-nd diove 
her men like (hecp down the main 
deck; our top-men were nrt idle, 
they playing their hand grenades 
and fwivels to excellent puruofe. It 
is impolabk- to dcfcribe the uproar 
andconiution the French were in. 

It being now dark, and we hav- 
ing every bit of rigging in the ftip 
cut away, Ihe feeing our condition, 
took the opportunity, fet her fore- 
fail and top-gallant-fails, and ran 
away. We endeavoured to purfue 
her with what rags of fails we had 
left, but to no purpofe. 1 hus we 
loll one of the finelt two-deck fnips 
my eyes ever beheld. 

1 cannot give too great enco- 
miums on the people and officers be- 
haviour, and I hope you will flre- 
nuoufly recommend my officers to 
the Lords of the Admiralty, as they 
richly defcrve their favour. Not- 
withltanding the great fatigue the 
fhip's company had had all day, 
they chearfully (laid all night, knot- 
ting and fpHcing the rigging, and 
bending the fails. 

I flatter myfeif, when you relledl, 
that one of the (hips of your fqua- 
dron, with no more than 65 guns, 
(as you know fom: of our guns 
weredifabled laft January, and not 
fupplied) and butj<|.72 well men at 
quarters, fhould beat three French 
inen of war, one of 74 guns, and 
700 men ; another of 38 guns, and 
3-0 men; and one of 28 guns, and 
2^0 men. If we had had the good 
luck to join the BriRtH, it would 
have crowned all. 


For the Y 

Capt. Boles being on board the 
Buckingham, I gave him directions 
{o go down and fuperintend the 
lower deck, which he performed 
with great alacrity. 

As we have been fo greatly da- 
maged in cur mads, yards, /ails, 
and rigging, particularly our malls, 
I thought proper to fend the car- 
penter of the Buckingham, as he 
can better give you an account, by 
word of mouth, of what filhes we 
ih^il want, than many words of my 

Before I conclude, I cannot help 
repreferting to you tb.e inhuman, 
ungenerous and barbarous behavi- 
our of the French during the action. 
No rafcaliy piccaroon, or pirate, 
could have fired worle Ibafi' into us 
than they did, fuch as fquare bits 
of iron, old rulty nails, and, in 
fhort, every thing that could lend to 
the deltrucTiion of men ; a fpecimen 
of which, pleafe God, 1 ftiall pro- 
duce to you upon my arrival." 

I fend you inclofed a lilt of the 
flain and wounded. 

Killed, I ofHcer, ^ feamen, i ma- 
rine. Much wounded, 3 oiiicers, 
9 feamen, 3 marines. Slightly 
wounded, z midliiipmen, 26 fea- 
men, 3 marines. Died of their 
wounds, 1 midrhipman, i fcaman. 

N. B. The officer killed was Mr. 
George Marfnal, firfl lieutenant; 
and the officers wounded v/e:e, 
Capt. Tyrrell ; Mr. Matthew Vv'in- 
terborne, mailer ; and Mr. Harris, 
lieutenant of the marines. 

Admiral Bofcawen laid be- 
fore the parliament, (purfu- 
ant to order) an account of the 
number of men prell into his Ma- 
jefiy's fervice from Chrillmas 1754, 
toChrillmas 1757 ; alfo an account 
cf the number of men and boys pro- 



EAR 1759. 63 

tefled during that time. This was 
done with a view -o the framin-r a 
bill novv depending for the more ef- 
leftaal manning the roval navy. 

The news fro.m Holland, • , . 
by the mail of this day, is, ^^^"• 
tKj,t a formal declaration hath been 
n:ade. That if either the province 
of Holland, or the trad^ng towns 
in it, Ibould, without the confent 
of the States Geneial, fit cut and 
fend to fea, 18 or 75 lliips of war, 
to protedt theif trade, as they may 
pretend, (which they are not ini- 
powered to do by the act of Union) 
iuch ftips of war will be treated as 
pirates : and that, if the States 
General fhould fend a fleet to (ea, 
for the fame pretended purpofe, it 
will be confidered as a declaration 
of war. 

The following letter was re- , 

ceived from the Honour- ^7''*' 
able Commodore Keppel by the 
Right Hon. Mr. Secretary Pitt. 

SIR, ' 

I arrived here with the fquadron 
under my command the 28th of 
December pail in the evening ; 
and the next morning, agreeable 
to his Majelly's inilruflions, I at- 
tacked v.'ith the Ihips the fort and 
batteries on the ifland cf Goree, 
which were foon reduced to delire 
to capitulate ; and the governor'^ 
demands v.ere, to be allowed to 
march the French troops out of the 
garrifon with the honours of war. 
His terms I abfolutely rejedted, 
and began a frefh attack ; it was, 
however, but of very Ihort dura- 
tion, when the iiland, forts, gar- 
rifon, &c. furrendered at difcretion 
to his Majelly's fquadron. 

Lieutenant Colonel VVorge had 

his troops embarked in the fiat- 

bo'.tcmed boais, in good order and 




jeadinefs, at a proper dillance, vmiIi 
the iranrports, to attempt a dcl'c^nt, 
when it fliould be found practicable 
or requifite. 

'1 v/o days after the furrender of 
the ifland, I ordered it to be deli- 
vered up with the cannon, artiJltry 
Itores and provifions, &c- found in 
3t, to the officer and sroops, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Worge thought fit 
to garrifon the place with ; and the 
Colonel is taking iM imaginable 
pains to fettle and regulate the gar- 
rifon in the heft manner, and as fait 
as things will admit of. 

The inclofed, Sir, is the ftate of 
the ifiand, with the artillery, am- 
munition, and provifions found in 
the place at its farrenocr, 

French, made prifoners of war, 

Blacks in arms, a great nurnoer ; 
but I am not well enough infortncd 
as yet to fay precifely. 

The lofs the enejny fuHainedj as 
to men, is fo ve:y differently ftated 
to me, by thofe that have been alked, 
that I muft defer faying the number 
till another opportunity. 

Iron ordnance, of diiferent bores, 
93; one brafs 12 pounder; iron 
fwivels mounted on carriages, 1 1 ; 
brafs mortars mounted on beds, two 
of 13 inches ; ditto, one of 10 in- 
ches ; iron, one of lo inches. In 
the magazine, powder, ico barrels. 
Provifions of all fpecics for 4.00 
men for four months. 

[The ifle of Goree is about two 
Englifli miles in compafs. It lies 
N. W. and S. S. E. within cannon 
ihot of the continent. It is aimoll 
inaccefiible, being furrounded with 
rocks, or inclofed with a ridge of 
black and round pebbles and Hones, 
except a fmall bay to the E. N. E. 
The anchorage is good round* the 
ifle, efpecially in this little bay. 

The foil is a red fandy mould, and 
unfit for pafturc.] 

Letter from Capt. Barton, of the 
Litchfield nsan of war, flranded 
on the coa.1: of Barbaty, at a 
place called Vendore, about nine 
leagues to the northward of SafFy, 
dated December ^. 
I am forry to inform you, that on 
the 29th of November his Majrfty's 
fhip Litchfield, of 50 guns, and 
350 men, was caft away here. We 
have loll the iirii lieutenant, captain 
cf the marines, and his lieutenanc, 
vvith fcveral ofiicers and fiamen, 
amounting to the numbsr of 130. 
There is of us on fhoietwo of my 
lieutenants, and other ofiicers and 
feamen, amounting to 220. It blew 
fo hard when we came on fhore, 
that the fnip foon went to pieces, 
and we could not fave provifions or 
any other nece/Taries. For thefe 
iv.'O days pafl we have been on 
fhore, and have fubfifledon drowned 
fneep and hogs, and water and 
flour hardened on the fire. A 
great number of men are lamed by 
the bruifes received sgainft the rocks 
by the violence of the furf. The 
poor fuiTerers were extremely ill 
ufed by the natives when they got 
aOiore. The Soraerfet, a tranfport 
with troops, and a bomb ketch, 
which were in company vvith the 
Litchfield, are faid to have fhared 
the fate. 

Letter from Samuel White, Efq; 
the Britiih coniul at Vigo, dated 
December ij. 

Four days ago came in here a 
French privateer called la Favorite, 
Capt. Saurnel, who, on the 27th 
part, fell in with an Englifh brig, 
pink Hern, about 100 tons burthen, 
boarded her, and found only two 
Genoefe. Seeing the vefTel all 
bloody on the deck, and that all the 



For the Y E 

papers had been thrown overboard, 
he Tufpecled they had murdered the 
captain and crew ; and taxing them 
v/lth the fad, they confeffed that 
they had killed the captain, his fon, 
and every foul, being feven in all. 
The cruel way they perpetrated this 
malTacre was as follows : Each 
of thefe villains was in different 
watches, one in the mailer's, the 
other in the mate's. He that was in 
the mate's watch went down with 
them to fleep, and waited till he 
found them all fad, then cut all 
their throats, ftabbed them, and left 
them all dead. The captain, being 
on the deck, knew nothing of this. 
This fellow then came upon the 
deck, and told his comrade what he 
had done below ; upon which, they 
both at once fell on the captain, and 
cleaved him down with a hatchet ; 
being not quite dead, they finifhed 
him with a mulket ; and the man 
at the helm they cut in two ; and 
fo made an end of them all but the 
captain's fon, who was left three 
days crying for his father. The 
third day they faid, that, as he 
fqualled like a cat, they would dif- 
patch him likewife ; fo they cue the 
child in two. The fent to 
Bayeaux in France, with thefe two 
villains in her. She was, they fay, 
the Peggy, Capt. Forman ; was 
coming from Carolina to Lilbon ; 
and had got within fixty leagues of 
the rock of LiH^on, when this hor- 
rid barbarity was perpetrated. 
^ ^^ His Majeiiy's (hips Royal 

^■^ ' George and Namur, failed 
from Spithead, in order to come 
into harbour ; but jull as they got 
abreaft of the platform, the wind 
took them fhort, and the Namur 
ran aground ; the lighters and boats 
in the harbour came inllantly to 
her affiftance ; the upper deck guns 
V©L. ir. 

AR 1759. 6s 

were got out, the water and beer 
aboard ftaved, and the Ihip made 
as light as poflible, and Ihored ; but 
as the water left her, it being ebb- 
ing tide, (he took a litrle to the ftar- 
board fide, and lay in that man- 
ner till eleven at night, when they 
v/arpt her into the channel without 
much damage. 

At Mr. Bray's, a founder , 

in Hofier-Lane, near Weft- 3 •■* • 
Smithfield, a Spanifh Ihell, by ly- 
ing too near the forge, as they were 
melting copper, burft with an ex'- 
plofion fo extraordinary, that five 
men who were at work, tho' they 
were no otherwife hurt, did not re- 
cover their hearing for fome mi- 
nutes. The whole neighbourhood 
were alarmed by the report, and the 
glafs in fome windows were much 
Ihattered. When the pieces w^re 
collected, they weighed 3 16. lefs 
than when the Ihell burft. 

The lateft accounts from n 

Spain fay, that ever fince ^ ' 
the death of the Queen, the King 
hath kept himfelf immured at Villa 
\^iciofa, where he fti'jts himfejf up 
in a cha.mber, abanccninghimfelf to 
grief and melancholy in a manner, 
of which there are few examples. 
He v^ill not; hear of any bufinefs. 
He often paffes thirty, fometimes 
fi;:ty hours, withouttaking any food, 
or even the leaic reft, but by inter- 
vals ; laying himfelf down acrofs 
chairs. His conftitution, naturally 
good, is daily impaired by this kind 
of life. He is much wafted ; and 
a fiow fever, which fometimes in- 
creafes much, wears him inlenfihiy. 
He hath never fufFered himlclf to 
be fhaved, nor put on clean linen 
fince the fifth of September. He 
remains unm.oved by the mofl: re- 
fpes^lful, and the moft vehement re- 
prefentations. I'he care and {kill of 
F the 



the ablefl phvficians have produced 
no efiedl. Tlie nation, naturally lie- 
voiit, hath recourJc to fainis and re- 
licks. Arnidil thtie melancholy cir- 
cun)ftanccs, he hath* however, be^n 
prevailed with to make his will. 
The count of Valdeparailo per- 
formed the office of notary on that 
occafion, and the Duke of Bejar, 
hi^h chancellor, fij-ried it for the 
King. The infant Don Lewis flays 
conllantly at the palace of Villa Vi- 
ciofa ; but he doth not fee the King, 
who will fee nobody. His Royal 
Highnefs amufes hinifelf, from time 
to time, with hunting, to avoid, per- 
haps, falling into his dif rder. 

The mountain, called General's- 
Berge-Sund, near Stockholm, in 
Sweden, lately tumbled down wi;h 
a dreadful concuflion ; it overwhelm- 
ed two loaded waggons, with their 
drivers, and the enormous pieces 
that fell from it rolled to the diftance 
of many hundred paces. 

There was fold lately in Smith- 
field market, a calf, only nineteen 
weeks old, for five pounds feven 
Ihillings and fixpence, and weighed 
3161b. This calf was bred by Mr. 
Sutton, of Downham, near Billeri- 
cay, in EfTcA. 

Kis Maj^-Ay hath beeii pleafed to 
order, that s form of thankfgiving 
for the ceafing of the dillemper 
amongft the cattle, be conipofed, 
and fent throughout the kingdom, 
to be ufed in ail churches and cha- 
pels on Sunday the 8 th of February 

As a fin^ular inflance of the ex- 
ceedmg great luxuriancy m vegeta- 
tion Gt fome plants tSiis laft wet 
fummer, the following account of a 
radifli now in the pcfiefiicin of Roger 
North, Efq; of Rougham, in Nor- 
folk, may julUy merit the attention 
of the public. The diamctei- of the 

fpread of the leaves crofs the tuft 
or top, meafured th"ce feet eleven 
inches ; the length of the root is two 
feet fix inches and a half; the girt, 
near the tup of the root, twenty 
inches and a half; at the bottom 
ten inches ; and the whole plant, 
when frefh, weighed lixteen pounds 
four ounces. Ihis grew in the gar- 
den of Mr. William Davy, oflngle- 
thorp, in Norfolk. 

A gentleman in the county of 
Galway, in Ireland, hath kept, at 
his own expence, for above thirty 
years paft, eighteen poor children, 
whom he compleatly cloaths, and 
gives them their education, in read- 
ing, writing, and arithmetic, at the 
expence of only twelve pounds a 
year, which is a lefs colt than a 
imall pack of hounds. 

As the importation of Irifh pro- 
vifions is continued by aft of par- 
liament, it may be uleful to many 
poor families to' know the method 
cf making the fait butter palatable, 
by taking from it any^ranknefs or 
difagreeable talle, it may acquire 
by long keeping. The quantity 
propofcd to be made ufe of, either 
for toafts or melting, mufl be put 
into a bowl filled with boiling wa- 
ter, ^nd when the butrer is melted, 
flcim it quite oft; by this method 
it is fo feparated from any grofs 
particles, that it may require a imall 
addition of fait, which may be put 
into the cold water, that is made 
ufe of in melting butter for fauce ; 
and though the butter is oiled by 
hot water, it becomes a fine creani 
in the boiling for fauce. 

Letters from Lifbon of the 30th 
ult. advife, that a mofl dangerous 
and wicked confpiracy againll the 
life of his moll faithful Majsfty, 
having been happily difcovered, a 
number of perfons had been arrelled 


fcy tlie King's order, of whom the 
following are the principal, viz. 

Duke de Aveiro, marquis of Ta- 
vori, Kirher ; marquis of Tavora, 
fon ; Jofeph Maria, fon of the faid 
marquis : Jofeph Maria, brother to 
the iaid marquis ; the Count dc A- 
touguia, Manuel de Tavora, mar- 
quis de Ailoria, Don Mauuel De 
Souza, Nuno de Tavora, John de 
Tavora, with all their families. 

A placart has been publilhed, in 
which the King makes known his 
niofl providential efcape on the 
third of September lafl:, when he 
was attacked, at eleven o'clock at 
night, near the palace, by three of 
the ccnfpirators, armed with three 
blunderbuifes, loaded v^ith large 
fliot; one of the blundcrbufies n^if- 
fcd fire, but the others made two 
large holes in the back of the car- 
riage the King was in, and wounded 
him in the arm, of which his Maje- 
Ity is now happily recovered, with- 
out the leaft hurt remaining. 

The fame placart promifed cer- 
tain honours and rewards for the 
difcovery of any of the criminals, 
with a pardon to any of the accom- 
plices, except the principals. 

His moft faithful Majeily has 
refumed the government of the 

And the following perfons have, 
we hear, been fince taken up, viz. 
the Count de Harlogicj the Mar- 
quis de rOrne, Don Emanuel de 
Souza Caljary, and Don Antonio 
de Collar, grand juUiciary of the 
kingdom ; together with fome of 
the chief Jefuits. 

In the proclamation v.hich the 
King publilhed, to inform his fub- 
jecls of the confpiracy, it is faid, 
amongft other things, ' That the 
' authors of this horrible plot bad 
' fpread a report beforehand, that 
' the King would not live long, aud 

For the YEAR 1759. 67 

even fixed the time of his death ta 

' the month of September 1758.' 

The write from Franckfort, that 
on the fecond inftanr, at ten in the 
morning, the regiment of Nafiau 
prefenting themlelves as if they 
only wanted to pafs through the 
city, a detachment of the garrifoa 
went to meet them, by way of ce- 
remony, asisufual, and conducted, 
them as far as Saxenhaufen-wate ; 
but, mftead of proceeding further, 
the faid regiment took poll there, 
feized the grand guard, and likewifs 
maftered the gunners guard. Sooa 
after, the regiments of Beauvoifins. 
Rohan, Rochfort, Bentheim, and 
Roy Deux Fonts, came and occupied 
the principal places ; and thus> 
while the inhabitants leail: fufpefted 
it, the French troops made that im- 
perial city the head quarters of the 
Prince of Soubife. 

This treacherous incroachment 
upon the privileges of a free im.- 
perial city, is highly refented 
throughout Germany : and evert 
the court of Vienna feems difpleafed 
at itj the Emprefs having wrote in 
very llrcng terms upon the fubje^, 
to the court of Verfailles ; but as city has always appeared fa- 
vourable towards the King of Pruf- 
£a, her imperial Majefty's fincerity 
may be fufpecled, eipecially if the 
French fliould hold the poiTelHcn 
they have thus taken. 
There died lately the following re- 
markable perfons. 

IMr. Vilant, profeffcr of civil hi- 
llory in the univeriicy of St. An- 
drew's, aged gg. 

William Barnes, at Brodie-houfe, 
Scotland, aged I09; he had beetl 
a iervant in the Brodie family ever 
fines 1681. 

Katherine Mackenzie, at Foxle?- 
Cafile, in Rofi.'hire, aged ii'6, cii 
December 14. 

F z Janet, 



Janet Blair, of MouimufiC, in 
Abcrdccnfiiirc, aged iiz. 

Alexander S'cj'hens,, in BamfT- 
ihire, aged ic8. 

Janet Harper, at L.iin's-Hole, 
Scotland, aged 107. 

Thomas "Bonn, at Litchfield, 
aged 82, faid to be the original 
from whom Mr. Farquhar took his 
chara£ler of Scrub, in the Beaux 
Stratagem. He was fervant in Sir 
Tho. Biddulph's family great part 
of his life. 

Katherine Mackenzie, in Rofs- 
lliire, aged 103. 

A certain arcifl at Vienna has 
conftrufted an automaton, drefTed 
in the habit of an Aultrian gentle- 
man, with a pen in one hand, and a 
flandilh in the other : after dipping 
the former in the latter, he ftrikes 
upon a fheet of paper a kind of 

The number of burials laft year 
in Paris, was 21,120: chrillenings 
19,369; marriages 40S9 ; found- 
lings 4969. 
Letterfrcm Whitby, dated Jan. 23, 

Yeilerday a very extraordinary 

fifli v/as brought in here by our 

hihermen, which broke into three 

pieces as they were hauling it into 

the coble. It was eleven feet four 

inches long, exclulive of the tail ; 

had a head like a turbot or bratt ; 

was about a foot broad near its 

head, but not above four or five 

inches near the tail, and not any 

where more than three inches thick. 

The thickeft part was its belly, 

and it gradually diminiflied away 

towards the back, which was fharp, 

and had all along it one continued 

fin, from the head to the tail. It 

fpiral line, and in the fpaces be- was covered with an infinite num- 
ber of white fcales, which fluck. 
to, and dyed every thing that it 
touched ; and might be faid in 
fbme fort to refemble the quick- 
filvered back of a looking-glafs. 
It appeared, when laid on the land, 
like a long oak plank ; and was 
fuch a fiih as nobody here ever faw 
before, which caufed a vaft con- 
courfe of people round it during 
the whole day. 

Lionel Charlton. 

tween appears the following in- 
fcription : Angufi/e domui Aufiriacrc 
13 imper atari Dais use met as ncc fi- 
nem ponet : That is, ' That God 

* has not fet either bounds or pc- 

* riod to the augull. houfe of Auflria, 

* or to the Emperor.' His impe- 
rial Majeily has bought the piece, 
and fettled a confiderable pcnfion 
on the inventor. 

There have died in the faid city 
and fuburbs, during the year 1758, 
1554 men, 155 i women, 2004 male 
children, and 1685 female; in all 
6798 ; the number of chriftenings 
amounts to 5267. So that the 
number of burials exceeds that of 
chrillenings by 1531 : the number 
of burials in the yi-"ar 1758 exceeds 
that in 1757 by 239; and that of 
the births is lefs by 117. 

The number of burials in Am- 
fterdam laii year was 71S9 (which 
is 900. lefs than the year before) 
chriftenings 4270, weddings 2417. 
VefTels arrived in the Texel 1326. 

F E B Pv U A R y. 

At fix this evening George « 
Guell of Birmingham, who had 
laid a confiderable wager that he 
walked a thoufand miles in twenty- 
eight days, finiflied his journey with 
great eaie. It iliould leem that he 
had lain by for bets ; for in the two 
lalt days he had 106 miles to walk, 
but walked them with fo little fa- 
tigue to himfelf, that, to fhew hi3 


For the YEAR 1759. 


agility, he walked the lad: f.x miles 
within the hour, though he had iix 
hours good to do it in. 

The following odd accident hap- 
pened on new-year's day lall : feve- 
ral gentlemen being out a fox-hunt- 
ing, unkennelled a fox near a place 
called Wellington, in Shropfnire, 
and purfued him as far as the Clee- 
hill, near Ludlow ; upon which hill 
are a nun.ber of coal-pits, fo that 
travellers are obliged to ufe much 
caution on fome parts of the hill, 
for fear of falling in. Upon the top 
of this hill the hounds had the fox 
in view, almoft tired, and clofe at 
his heels, when in the fight of num- 
bers of fportfxnen (who were ob- 
liged to keep off for fear of the 
pits) the fox threw himfelf into one 
of them, and the dogs being quite 
Joft on the fcent, no lefs than fix 
couple of the foremoft threw them- 
felves after him ; hve of them were 
killed on the fpot, and the reil much 
hurt. Several workmen were in 
the pit (which was near fixty yards 
diep) who were very much frighted 
at fo unufual an affair. 

Eight delperate fellows, part 
of a gang of fourteen, living 
in and near Thaxted in Effex, were 
committed to Chelmsford gaol; one 
of whom has fince lurned evidence. 
Thefe villains, befides robbing on 
the highway, have been the terror 
of the country round, by breaking 
into houfes in the dead of the night, 
ufing the frighted people cruelly, 
and taking from them plare, linen, 
jewels, and money. It is computed 
that this gang hasraifed by plunder 
upwards of io,o:ol. 

J Extrad: from this day's London 
-^ Gazette. 

Lilbon, Jan. 2g. On thelirftin- 
flant, the count de Obiros, and the 
count de Riberia-grande, were fent 


to the caule of St. Julian, and guards 
placed at the doors cf their refpec- 
tive d vvcUino;- houfes ; but in o-ene- 
ral, it is thoup-ht that thefe two 
gentlemen are not implicated m 
the confpiracy, but rather that they 
may have been too free of fpeech. 
On Thurfday the 4th inilant, the 
duchefs of Aveiro, the countefs of 
Atouguia, and the Alarchionefs of 
Alorna, and their children, were 
fent to different nunneries. On Fri- 
day, the i2th inflant, eight jei'uits 
were taken into cullody. A council 
was appointed by the King, for the 
trial of the prifoners, compofed of 
the three fecretaries of itate, the 
perfon adting as chief juftice ia the 
room of the duke of Alafoens, who 
is ftill indifpofed, and five other 
judges, the folicitor of the crown, 
being prefent. The whole procefs 
was clofed on Tuefday the 9th. 
inttant. The marchionefs of Ta- 
vora, wife to the general of horfe, 
was brought on Wednefday the 
10th, from the convent das GriJas, 
to the place where the other crimi- 
nals were confined ; this lady was 
one of the chief initruments in this 

Saturday the 13th inftant, being 
the day appointed for the ex-ecution, 
a fcaffold had been built in the 
fquare, oppofite to the houfe where 
the prifoners were confined, and 
eight wheels fixed upon it. On one 
corner of the fcaffold was placed 
Antonio Alvarez Ferreira, and oa 
the other corner the elngy of Jofeph 
Policarpio de Azevedo, who is fUlI 
miffing ; thefe being the two per- 
fons that fired at the back of the 
King's equipage. About half aa 
hour after eight in the morning, 
the execution began. The crimi- 
nals were brought out one by one, 
each under a llrong guard, The 
F 3 mar« 


marchionefs of Tavora v/as the firft 
that was brought upon the fcafrold, 
■where Ihe was beheaded at one 
ftroke. Her body was afterwards 
placed upon the floor of the fcafi'old- 
ing, and covered with a linen cloth. 
Young Jofcph Maria of Tavora, the 
young marquis of Tavora, the count 
of Atouguia, and three fervants of 
the duke of Aveiro, were firfl: Itran- 
gled at a ibke, and afterwards their 
limbs broken with an iron inftru- 
jnent ; the marquis of Tavora, ge- 
neral of horfe, and the duke of 
Aveiro, had their limbs broken 
alive. The duke, for greater ig- 
nominy, was brought bare-lieaded 
tvT the place of execution. The bo- 
dy and limbs of each of the crimi- 
nals after thev were executed, were 
thrown upon a wheel, and covered 
with a linen cloth. Bui when An- 
tonio Alvarez Ferreira was brought 
to the Hake, whofe f^-ntcnce was to 
te burnt alive, the other bodies were 
expoied to his view; the combufti- 
ble matter, v/hich had been laid un- 
der the fcaffolding, was fct on fire, 
and the v/hoie machine, with the 
bodies, were confumed to ailie?, 
and thrown into the fca. 

A reward of :o,ooo crowns is 
offered to whoever- ihrJi I apprehend 
the pcrfon of Jofeph Policarpio de 

'The embargo was taken off the 
faipping the i6th inftant; the three 
Englilh men of war, the merchant 
fhips under their convoy, and the 
Hanover packet, which failed the" 
3 I (I of December, are the only fnips 
inat have ganc out of this port from 
the lo'.h of December to the day 
the embargo was taken off. 

The K;ng and the royal family 
afnfted on Monday the ijthinllant, 
at a Te Deum fung at the chapel of 
Nofla Senhora do Livraintnto, in 
thankful ving for his rncll faithful 


majefty's happy recovery. As this 
vyas the firft time that his majelly had 
appeared abroad, great demonllra- 
tions of joy were Ifiewn by the peo- 
ple, to whom the King was pleafed 
to give the fatisfadion of waving 
his handkerchief, firft in one hand, 
then in the other, to fhew that he 
had the ufe of both. Te Deum, 
for the King's recovery, has alfo 
been fung in all the churches and 
chapels throughout the kingdom. 

We are likewife informed by 
private letters from Lifbon, that on 
the 6th ult. all the ellates and ef- 
feifts of the Jefdics in the kingdom 
of Portugal were fcquelteied, fince 
which they have begun to make an 
inventory of all the eftates, move- 
able and immoveable, money, jevy- 
els, &c. of the fociety, each of 
whom is allowed but ten fols a day 
for his (ubfiftence : and they have 
even already begun to fell ibme of 
their effefts by audion, and to let 
fome of their land eftates to farm, 
though none of thefe proceedings 
have as yet been authorized by any 
bull from Pvome. 

The fame letters add, that the 
duke d'xA.veiro confcffed, when put 
to tht- torture, and perafted in it till 
the luft, that he was drawn into the 
con (piracy againft the king by the 
three Jefuits (one an Italian, the 
others Portuguefe) who had been 
difmiireJ 'from being conftffbrs to 
the royal family. Thefe three are 
confined in feparate prifons, and 
■ have no rr.ercy to exped ; but the 
government will punifli none of the 
members of this fociety,^ till they 
know the whole number concerned 
in the plot, one of whom is, itfeems, 
the father redcr of the Jefuits col- 
lege of St. Patrick; for,- after a 
long examination by the fecretsry 
of ilate, he hvl been committed to 


For the YEAR 1759. 

Hague, Feb. 6. The firft of this 
month there came here a frefh de- 
puration from the merchants of Am- 
llerdam ; who, on receiving advice 
that the cargoes of the Dutch Weft- 
India fliips detained by the Engliih, 
which took in their caig 'es in the 
manner called overl'chipj^en, would 
be declared lawful prizes, as being 
French property, and that the ad- 
miralty had given them only till 
the 26th inltant to produce proofs 
to the contrary, have pititioned the 
States General to ufe their inter- 
celfion, reprefenting to them the 
impoffibilitv of their furniiliing the 
proofs required in a (hort time, and 
that as St. Euiiatiahas but one road 
where the Ihips have no other way 
to take in their cargo but that of 
overichippen, this is, to take the 
goods out of the French boats to put 
them on board the Dutch veflels, 
fuch a fentence of the admiralty 
would give the coup de grace to the 
trade of that colony. 
^ , At the court of King's 

^ ' Bench, the cafe was debated 
in relation to the affair of Mr. Bear^d- 
more, under fheriff for the county 
of Middlefex ; when he was found 
guilty of a contempt of court, in 
not difcharging the duty of his of- 
fice, by caufing the fentence of Dr. 

Shebeare to be duly executed. 

Thefaiftwas, Dr. Shebeare, by the 
fentence of the court of King's 
Bench pronounced upon him, was 
to have Acod in and upon the pil- 
Jory ; but it was proved that he ftood 
upon the pillory only. 

.1 Died Geo. Cha Emilius, 

■' poltnumous ion or the late 

prince of Prufiia, at Berlin. 

1 A court martial, General 

^ ' Noal prelident, was held for 
the trial of two officers of diftinc- 
tjon, who contefted the honour of 


heading the troops that were left at 
St. Cas, aft:r the death of General 
Dury. The oScers are the colonels 
Cary and Lambert. 

Notice was this day given from 
the war office, that, for the future, 
whoever intends to purchafe a com- 
miffion in the army, fhould firft in- 
form himfelf, whether the commif- 
fion, for which he is in treaty, may 
be fold with the King's leave : and, 
in all inftances, where it ihall be 
found that any money, or other 
confideration, has been given for a 
commiffion not openly fold with the 
leave of his majeRy, the perfon 
obtaining fuch commiffion will be 

The ftationers company , 

have given 50I. and the 
filhmongers company lool. to the 
marine fociety, their fecond fub- 
fcription. Each company gave lool. 

The Pvuby, a tranfport fhip from 
St. John's, with 400 French pri- 
foners, was lolt off the weftward. 
iflands. Only feventy of the peo- 
ple v.'ere faved. 

By the new treaty with the King 
of Pruffia, his Pruffian majefty is to 
receive the fame fubfidy as lait year, 
which was 670,000!. 

And by the treaty wirh the Land- 
grave of Heffe, that prince, in con- 
fideration of the immenfe loffes he 
hath furtained by his fteady adher- 
ence to the common raufe, is to re- 
ceive a fubfidy of 6o,oool. 

Amongil the variety of the un- 
comm.on vegetable produ<5lions ia 
the lall year, the following feems 
not the leaft extraordinary, viz. a 
turnip which was pulled up at or 
near Tudenham,in Norfolk, weigh- 
ed upwards of 291b. 

A gentleman who lately came 

from Chefler informs, that one Tho. 

F 4 Siddal, 



Siddal, a gardener in the Aiburbs talent of learning the dumb to 

of that city, has now in his poflcf- fpeak. 

fion a potatoe, which he lately dug In the evening between ^^j 

oat of his own garden, that weighs fevcn and eight o'clock, ^ 

fevcnteen pounds four ounces avoir- Mrs. Walker, wife of the late Mr. 

dupois, meafures in circumference Leonard Walker, timber-merchant, 

thirty-eight inchc5, and in length of Rotherhith, was baibaroufly 

forty feven inches and an half. murdered at her own houfe, by 

Reading, Feb. lo. Among the Mary Edmonfon, her niece, about 

many remarkable inftances of the 
forwardnefs of the prcfent fpring, 
we are well aflured, that in the pa- 
ri(h of Caverfliam near this town, 
there is now a ncft with young 
thrufhes nearly fledged. At Sunny- 
fidc and Bilhop Wearmouth, near 

twenty years of age. The particu- 
lars are as follows : Mrs. Walker 
fent into Yorkfhire the beginning 
of the winter, for this niece, to 
come and live with her as a com- 
panion; but her behaviour not an- 
fwering her aunt's expeftation, her 

•Sunderland, they have goofeberries aunt told her flie fliould go to fome 
as larqe as peas, upon the bulhes, good fervice as foon as the fpring 

which feoni to ftand and be in a 
thriving condition. 

Birmingham, Feb. 19. On Mon- 
day fe'nnight a mare of Mr. Stokes 
of 'Kiiifare, in Staffordfhire, died ; 
llie fell ill the day before, and, on 
being opened by Mr. Clewes, a 

came on. A fortnight before the 
murder, the niece, at night, went 
into the yard, and made a noife 
by throwing down the wafhing- 
tubs, and then run in and told her 
aunt, that four men broke into the 
yard; but upon alarming the neigh- 

farrier of the fame place, who had bours none cuuld be found. This 
the care of her, had in the reiilum, fata! evening the niece went back- 
er gut nearefl: the fundament, a wards and made the fame noife as 
ftone which weighed a pound and before, and the deceafed miffing 
ten ounces, being larger than the her niece fome time, and hearing 
parage would receive, and in the a noife, went backward to call af- 
colon or large gut was found an- finance; upon which her niece, who 
other ftone, which weighed one hr.d hid herfelf, feized her aunt, and 
pound fourteen ounces and an half, with a cafe-knife immediately cut 
and meafiued twelve inches round, her throat, and ihe died in a few 
Thoy arc like Brazil bowls, and, minutes ; her niece then draggea 
when llruck together, found like her cut of the wa{h-houfe into the 
pebble ftones. " parlour, took her aunt's watch from 
Tetters from France give an ac- her fide, fome filver fpoons, and the 
count that the count de St. Floren- Woody knife, and hid them under 

tine' was harangued on the Sth inft. 
iit his audience in the Lcuvrc, by a 
voung girl of nine years and a half, 
living on his ellate at Chatteau- 
iieuf, who was bcrn deaf and dumb, 

the water- tub ; her apron, being 
foaked with blood, fhe put under 
the copper, and put on a clean one ; 
and then, to hide her guilt, cut her 
own wrirt acrofs, and went out and 

and who had been by that mini- cry'd, her aunt was murdered by 
ftcr co.mmitted to the care of the four men, who gag'd her, and in 
Sieur Pereirc, remarkable for his endeavouring to fave her aunt, they 


For the YEAR 1759. 


cut her acrofs her vvrift. Buc the 
gentlemen in the neighbourhood 
having a flrong fufpicion of her 
being the ptrfon, they fecured her, 
and, upon examination, fhe con- 
feffed the faCt. The coroner's in- 
quell brought in their verdid wilful 
murder againft her ; upon which 
fne was committed to the new gaol 
in Southwark. 

, Came on at dodlors com- 

"•■ * mons, before Sir Thomas 
Salulbury, Knt. judge of the high 
court of admiralty, the trials of a 
number ofDutchlhips taken by men 
of war and privateers ; when the car- 
goes of upwards of 50 of them were 
condemned as legal prices. Appeals 
were lodged againil the fentence by 
the owners of moll of them. 

Died Mr. Bedal, late an iron- 
monger in Old-ftreet, aged 100. 

At ten at night was felt, at Lef- 
keard in Cornwall, a flight fhock 
of an earthquake, which extended 
north and fouth fix miles, and about 
four leagues eaft and well ; it was 
a vibratory motion, ^nd continued 
about two or three feconds. George 
Thomfon,efq; apprehenhve of what 
it was, went out to obferve the air, 
and faw multitudes of blood-red rays 
converging from all parts of the hea- 
vens to one dark point, but no lu- 
minous body. The ph;Enomenon 
difappeared in fifteen minutes. 
„ , The treaty between Eng- 

land and Denmark, which 
had for fome time been negotiating 
is broke off ; his Danilh majeily be- 
ing determined to adhere to his neu- 

The Pope has iilued a decree, 
allowing the bible to be translated 
into the language of ail the caiholic 

They write from Madrid of the 

6th of February, that the news they 
had received five or fix days before 
from Villa Viciofa, where the Kino- 
refides, had throv^n the whole city 
into the greatell confternation, by 
reprefenting the King at the very 
point of death ; but that this crifis 
had been followed with a calm which 
had diffipated their fears ; that the 
King had been for a whole day in 
as favourable a way as could be 
defired, and that the letters on the 
6th inltant had brought an account 
that his majefty had flept very 

One Sufanna Hannokes, an el- 
derly woman of Wingrove near 
Aylefoury, was accufed by a neigh- 
bour for- bewitching her fpinnino- 
wheel, fo that fhe could not make 
it go round, and offered to make 
oath of it before a magiHrate ; on 
which the hufband, in order to 
juftify his wife, infilled upon her 
being tried by the church bible, 
and that the accufer fhould be 
prefent : accordingly fhe was con- 
duced to the parilh church, whe^e 
fhe was llript of all her cloa'hs 
to her fhift and under-coat, and 
weighed againil the bible : when, 
to the no fmall mortification of 
her accufer, fhe out-weighed it, 
and was honourably acquitted of 
the charge. 

A very tragical affair happened 
fome time ago at St. Euitatia : A 
Negro, who was at work on a fhip 
in the harbour, having had fome 
words with a white perfon, in his 
paffion llabbed him ; upon which 
another Isegro told him, that he 
would certainly be put to death ; 
and that, if he had killed twenty, 
they could do no more to him ; 
thereupon the fellow,, in a fit of de- 
fperation, immediately jumped over- 



toard, and fwarh to fnnre, with a 
knife in his hand ; and the firft pcr- 
fon he met with happened to be an 
Engliili failor, whom the villain in- 
flantly cut acrofs the belly, fo that 
his bowels appeared : this done, he 
in a moment ran into a wollen- 
draper's Ihop, and flabbed a young 
fellow fitting behind the counter ; 
he then ran into the Itreet, and 
wounded defperatcly one or two 
others. By this time the people 
were jrreatly alarmed ; but the fel- 
low being defperate, every body 
ihunned him : the governor offered 
a reward to any one who would 
take him alive, and a failbr under- 
took it, armed with a muflcet ; but 
if he found it impradticable, he was 

to fhoot him. The Negroe, who 

was then at the wharf fide alone, 
faw him coming, and met him with 
great refolution ; he made an efTay 
to ftab the failor, by giving a fud- 
iien leap upon him ; but the tar 
avoided it, and itruck at him with 
the butt end of his muficet, and 
broke his arm : upon which, with 
great intrepidity, he got his knife 
into the other hand, and made an- 
other pufh at the failor, but with as 
little luccefs as the former : and by 
another blow he was, with the aflift- 
ance of fome other perfons who had 
gathered, fecured alive. He was im- 
mediately brought to trial, and con- 
demned ; and next day hung upon 
3 gibbet, in irons, alive, where he 
contini;ed in the greatell agonies, 
and fliricking in the molt terrible 
jmanner, lor near three days. His 
greatell crv was, water, water, wa- 
?cr ; it being extreme hot weather, 
j-.nd the fun full upon him. 

The city of Peterlburg has fuffer- 
cd prodigioufl)* from the niildnels 
cf the winter ; the fledges that ufu- 

ally fupplied the inhabitants with 
all the neceffaric« of life from im- 
menfediftances, have been rendered 
ufelefs for want of froft and fnow to 
Itvel the roads ; provifions have 
therefore riien to the moft extrava- 
gant prices, and the poor citizens 
have felt all the calamities of a far 
mine, r.otwithftanding the abun- 
dance with which the people in the 
country^re every where fupplied. 


The Hoa. Commodore Kep- , 
pel, with the Tor bay of 74, 
Nalfauof 64, Fougeaux of 64, and 
Dunkirk of 60, arrived at Portl- 
mouth. They failed from the illand 
of Goree about the 27th of January, 
and left all quiet. 

Died the Rev. Mr. Tate, reftor of 
Burnham, near Windfor, aged 98. 

Advice was received at the , 
Admiralty from Capt. Hood, ^ ' 
of the Teilal of 32 guns, and 220 
men, that on the 21ft of February 
he fell in with the Bellonaa French 
frigate of the lame force from Mar- 
tinico, with difpatches from the 
governor for the French court ; and 
that, after a defperate engagement 
ot four hou.T., he had taktn her and 
brought her toSpithead. TheVeftal's 
lieutenant found more than 50 dead 
upon the deck, when he took pof- 
fedion of the Bel Ion a, and the 
French acknowledged they threw 
10 or 12 overboard. When Ihe 
llruck Ihe had only her forenialt 
Handing, without either yard or 
top matt ; and when Capt. Hood 
brought to, all his own top-mad fell 
over the fide ; the lowermolt mail 
would likewife have gone, had not 
the weather proved verv fine. The 


For the YEAR 1759. 


Veflal had five killed and tv/enty- 
two wounded. When Capt. Hood 
firft gave chace, the Trent was a- 
bouc tour miles to leeward, and gave 
chace at the fairse time ; when the 
engagement began the Trent was 
out of fight ; vvhen the Bellona 
ftruck the Trent was about the 
fame diftance off as at firll fetting 
out. The Bellona left Martinico 
the 16th of January, in company 
with the FlorifTant, and a frigate 
of her own force. They were all 
chafed by a part of Commodore 
Moore's fquadron, from whom the 
Bellona got clear by a fuperiority 
of failing ; but did not know how 
it fared with her companions. The 
Engiifti troops landed on the very 
day that fhe fet fail. 

General Abercronibie arrived at 
Portfmouth, in the Kenfington man 
of war, from North- America. 

, Advice was received from 

^ Harwich, that the Dutch 

mail of the 23d ult. was unluckily 
thrown over-board by a miftake. 
The veiTel that brought it was 
Dutch, and being boarded by a 
privateer, haftily concluded it muil 
be an enemy ; but, upon enquiry, 
found it to be an Englifh cruizer, 
Capt. Gilby of London. 

A native of Norway has propofed 
a fcheme for catching cod in the 
open feas, and for caring them as 
fatt as they are caught, in fuch 
quantities as to load four fliips in 
as m.any days. 

M. Boreel, M. VanderPoil, and 
M. Meerman, the minilters from 
the States General of the United 
Provinces, arrived in town from 
Holland. Their fecret inftructions 
are, i. That thofe gentlemen are '-O 
iniirt on the fpeedy reieafe of the 
Dutch veflVls, 2. That thev are 

not to recede from a point of the 
draught of the declaration of Jan. 
25. And 3. Not to agree to any 
innovation in the article of contra- 
band, but adhere to what is ex- 
prelfed in the treaty of 1674. 

Gum Senegal, with which , 

the Dutch have for a long ' * 
time fupplied the Engliih at an ex- 
travagant price, is now purchafed 
by them to fupply the French ; and 
this day no lefs than 276 cwt. was 
entered at the cuflom-houfe on their 

Sandfort corn-mills, near , 

Hurll, in Berks, were con- ° ' 
fumed by fire; damage 15C0I. 

At the feffions of admiralty, at 
the Old-Bailey, Nicholas Wingfield 
and Adams Hyde were capitally 
coDvided ; Thomas Kent, Thomas 
Wingiield, Thomas Lewis, and 
John Ayre, acquitted. Dr. Hay, 
one of the commiffioners of the ad- 
miralty, and his iVIajeny's advocate- 
general, fat as judge of the court, 
in the room of Sir Thomas Saluf- 
bury, whofe lady is dead j Mr. Juf- 
tice Wilmot, and Mr. Juftice NoeJ, 
and feveral doftors of the civil law, 
were upon the bench. Thefe pro- 
fecutions were carried on at the ex- 
pence of the crown, in order to 
vindicate the honour of the nation ; 
and the council in ftipport of the 
indictments v/ere the attorney and 
folicitor general, Mr. Gould, Dr. 
Bettefworth, Mr. Hulfey, and Mr. 
Nafli. Mr. Stowe, and two other 
gentlemen, were for the prifoners. 
It appeared upon the trials, that 
Nicholas Wingfield and Adams- 
Hyde, the makers of two privateer 
cutters, had felonioufly and pirati- 
cally boarded the fhip De Reifende 
Jacob, affiiulted Jurgaa Muller, the 
mailer thereof, and robbed him of 



twenty caflcs of butter, value 20I. 
on Aug, II, 1758. Thomas Wing- 
tield and Thomas Kent weie acquit- 
ted, becaufe no evidence appeared 
againft them that could afFcit them, 
in relation to the fadt. Thomas 
Lewis and John Ayre were indict- 
ed for piratically and feloiiioufly 
boarding and robbing the fiiip Two 
Brothers, commanded by KlaasHen- 
derike Swartd, of five fats of indi- 
go, value lool. on November 17, 
1758. But as there was the Itrongelt 
and moft corroborating proof that 
they were not at fea on that day, 
nor could poffibly be guilty of the 
fad, they were acquitted. 

A fire broke out in his Majefty's 
rope-yard at Woolwich in the open 
day, which inilantly gained in fuch 
a manner upon the workmen, that 
had it not been for immediate help 
from the docks, the whole yard muft 
have been confumed, to the aimol't 
irreparable damage of this nation. 
It broke out by the boiling over of 
a tar kettle. 

, Joleph Halfey was tried 

* for the murder of Daniel 
Davidfon on the high feas, about 
100 leagues from Cape Finillerre, 
found guilty, and immediately fen- 
tenced to the ufual punifliment of 
fuch crimes- The court afterwards 
paffed fenter.ceon theforemcntioned 
convifts, and then adjourned. 

The fiiip which Halfey (who was 
but twenty- three years of age) com- 
manded, during the illnefs and af- 
ter the death of Capt. Gallop, failed 
from [aniaica in July lalt, in com- 
pany with a large fleet, under con- 
voy of two men of war, one of 
which was the Sphinx. Soon after 
they left Jamaica, the fnip proving 
leak"', they were obliged to keep 
t.\-.,c i.ruu; c.t work conitantly &t the 

pump. Davidfon being fickly, and 
not able to clear the fh'.p during his 
half hour, Halfey not only compel- 
ed him to pump till he had cleared 
it, but pump his [Halfey's] half 
hour befides. Soon after, Halfey 
put the Ihip's crew to fliort allow- 
ance of water and bread, giving 
three quarts to the hands that were 
well, and five pounds ot bread each, 
and but one quart to the fick, and 
five pounds of bread between two. 
He was continually beating David- 
fon, who defired to be fent on board 
one of the men of war, in exchange 
for one of their hands, which Halfey 
refuied, faying, he would torment 
him a little further before he (hould 
have any relief, and that he had 
no cloaths fit to go on board the 
man of war, to make the requell, 
and refufed the offer made by .two 
mailers cf vefTels, that had come 
on board, to lend him cloaths. 
Some time after, Davidfon, tired 
with being fo much beat, and want- 
ing neceilarics, threw hirafelf over- 
board ; which Halfey feeing, went 
over after him, and brought him en 
board again, faying, he lliculd not 
think to get off fo, and he wouLd 
have a little more tormenting of him 
vet. And the day before he died 
tied him up to the (hrouds for an 
hour, and beat him u-imercifully ; 
and afterwards ftruck him en the 
breaft v/ith a pitch mop, and beat 
him off the quarter-deck ; after 
which he was helped down below, 
and was found dead -the next day. 
Another bill of indictment was found 
againlt him for the murder of John 
Edwards, by flriking him with an 
handfpike on his breaft, belly, &c. 
of which he languiihcd and died ; 
but, being convicled of the other 
murder, he was not tried for thatfaft, 


Fcr the Y 

At the fame feflions Capt. Wil- 
liam Lugen was tried for the murder 
of a black infant ; he had iailed up- 
on the flaviug tracie from Brillol, 
and had taken in about 2co blacks, 
on the coaft of Africa, and was 
carrying them to Carolina, among 
whom was a woman with a young 
child. The woman, in the voyage, 
happened to die of a flux, and the 
child being very ill of chat diitem- 
per, the crew belonging to the ihip 
very naturally committed the care 
of the poor infant to the people 
of its own colour ; but they, like 
true favages, handed it upon deck, 
and refufed to admit it amongfl 
them ; their reafon was, becaui'e 
they believed the dillemper to be 
infedlious, and dreaded it as we do 
a plague. The infant, then, in a 
very miferable condition, lying ex- 
pofed to the broiling heat of the 
fun, and in the agonies of death, 
(for the furgeon declared it could 
not live the day out) the captain 
ordered it to be thrown overboard. 
The captain appeared to be a man 
of great humanity in other refpecls, 
though, in this inftance, he leems 
to have forgot the tendernejs of his 
nature, and, as the court very juftly 
obferved, took upon himfelf to de- 
termine upon a cafe of life, which 
Providence alone could only decide. 
He was however acquitted, as there 
could be no premeditated malice in 
the cafe. 

An additional duty of 5 per cent. 
is laid upon all dry goods, including 
all Eaft India goods, tobacco, fugar, 
grocery and brandy ; foreign fpirits, 
foreign linens, and foreign paper ; 
alfo I/, a pound on coffee, and 9.-/. 
on chocolate : all which duties are 
to be applied towards paying the 
intereft of the fums raifed, and to 
be raifed for the current fervice 
of the year* 


IlAR 1759. -j^j 

A violent ftorm did incredib^e 
damage to the Ihipping, as well as 
to the houfes and churches all along 
the weftern coaii, mere particularly 
at Falmouth, where many veiTels 
drove from their anchors, and fuf- 
fered ccnfiderably. Some loil their 
mafts, others went upon the fand, 
and one or two filled with water. 
In this ftorm nineteen perfons in a 
paffage-boat from Pool to Ware- 
ham, were forced upon the beach, 
thirteen of whom periihed in en- 
deavouring to recover the fhore. 
Nothing could be more difmal than. 
to fee the poor fouls half buried in 
the mud, v^ith the fea beating over 
them ; without being able to afford 
them any relief ; and their piercing 
cries were terrible. 

The Dorfetfhire man of 
war was paid at Spithead, 
when many of the failors, by means 
of the late act in their favour, were 
enabled to remit their money to 
their families or friends. It is faid, 
that no lefs than 16, cool, have been 
remitted in this manner, in little 
more than three months, by the few 
fhips crevvs that have been paid in 
that time, which fums ufed mo£ly 
to be fquandered in riot and de- 
bauchery. Bl'JJed be the good man 
that protnoted this bene-vclent lan.'j. 

About eighty Highland- , 

ers, wounded at the ba:tle ^^ 
at Ticonderoga in America, fet out 
from Portfmouth in waggons, in 
order to be fent, fome to ',iofpitaIs 
for cure, others to Cheifea hofpital, 
and the reft to return to their own 
country. Some of them were \o 
lacerated by the flags and broken 
nails which the enemy fired, that 
they are deemed incurable. 

The two gold medals; - t . 
givenannually by his Grace' •" ^ " * 
the Duke of Newcallle, chancellor 

. of 




of the univerfity of Cambridge, 
were adjudged to Mr. Hawes of 
]efus, and Mr. L'owper of Corpus 
Chrilli ColIep;e, bachelors. 

Jofeph Halfcy, who had been 
re<pited till then, was carried from 
Newgate to Execution-Dock, where 
he was executed about ten o'clock, 
purfuant to his fcnience. He be- 
haved, whilll under condemnation, 
with great intrepidity and refolu- 
tion, always perfifting in his in- 
nocence I whicii he did to the lalt ; 
and therefore could not be per- 
fuaded to think of death ; but when 
the warrant came down, he gave up 
all hope, and with great refignation 
fubmitted to his fate, though very 
dcfirous of life. His body was after- 
wards brought to Surgeon's-hall. 

_. One John Hilfcy, who had 

*5"^* been tried at Reading aflizes, 
and found guilty of an affault upon 
his own daughter, with an intent 
to commit a rape, was fentcnced to 
Itand on the pillory, and fuffer a 
year's impriionment. 

A fine brafs llatue of Ge- 
^'^ neral Biakeney, done by the 
celebrated Van Noft, was fet up in 
Dublin, on a marble pedclhil in the 
center of the Mall. 

The price of wheat, which 
^^ had rifen confiderably the 
week before, on account of the aft 
for taking oft the prohibition on 
exportation, fell 3^. a quarter. 

Nothing can yet be faid with 
certainty, with refpefl to the fate 
of the Jefuits, though it is reported, 
on the one hand, that the Pope has 
requelied that they may not fuffer 
jn \he habit of their order ; and on 
the other, that the Kingot'l'ortugal 
has requeued the Pope to to^ce upon 
himfelf the chartifing of the clergy 
under arrell, that are concerned in 
the late confpiracy againil his per- 

fon, but nothing, it fccms, ha? 
been determined as yet on ihi: 

Mr. Haynesj a carpenter , , 
in bt. John's ftrcct, being ^ " ' 
feizcd with a giddinefs, while his 
wife was employed in rubbing the 
part alfetficd, his hair came off from 
his head and eye-brows. — The fame 
accident happened fome years ago 
to Mr. Stanley, of St. Andrew's, 

Mrs. Mofs, of Broad-flreet- , 
buildings, was brought to bed 
of three fons. 

The following ads were ^ , 
figned by commilfion, Anaft '"^ * 
for taking off the prohibition of 
corn, malt, meal, flour, bread, 
bifcuit, and ftarch — for punifhing 
mutiny and defertion — for regu- 
lating his Majeily's marine forces, 
while on fhore — for indemnifying 
perfons who have omitted to qua- 
lify themfelves for employments — 
for explaining an acl of the 2zd 
of his prefent majefty, for the more 
eafy recovery of fmall debts in the 
borough of Southwark — to feven 
road bills, and feventecn private 

P'ifteen waggons with fmall arm? 
went from the Tower, for the ufeof 
the militia in the well of England. 

I'he fociety of merchants and in- 
furers of fhips, having received in- 
formation that feveral neutral fhips 
have been plundered of their car- 
goes by pretended Englifh priva- 
teers, have renewed their reward 
of lool. for detecting and convift- 
ing all fuch pirates, over and above 
the reward offered by the Lords of 
the Admiralty. 

Died, Mr. John Briflow, of Grief- 
dale, Cumberland, aged loi -, he 
was the f'urvivor of fevcn children, 
whofc ages amjuat 10 599. 


For the YEAR 1759. 


- , Nicholas Wingfield and 

* Adams Hyde, condemned at 

the late fcfTions of the high court of 
admiralty, held at the Old Bailey, 
were executed at Execution -Dock, 
where they behaved with a becom- 
ing decency. 

Auguil 17, 1758, the caufe re- 
lating to the capture of the Dutch 
fhip called the A'laria Therefa, came 
on to be heard before our court of 
admirahy, when the following fen- 
tcnce or decree was pronounced by 
that court, viz. 

" That the goods ought to be 
*' prefumed to belong to enemies, 
" or to be otherwiie conhfcable, 
" and condemned the fame as law- 
" ful prize ;" but pronounced the 
fhip to belong to the claimant, and 
decreed the fame to be reilored with 

From the firft part of this fen- 
tence or decree there was an appeal 
brough'i, which came on to be heard 
before the following lords, viz. 
LordSandys,Earlof Choln-iondeley, 
Lord Mansfield, Earl of Thomond, 
Earl Cornwallis, Vifcount Fal- 
mouth, Mr.Vice Chamberlain, Lord 
Prefident, Lord Lyttelton, Earl of 
Hardwicke, Earl of Holdernels, 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, Geo. 
Grenville,Efq; andDukeof Argylc; 
V/ho pronounced, that fuch part of 
the fentence be reverfed, as is com- 
plained of by the appellant; the fhip 
being reftored with the acquiefcence 
of the captor, and the cargo rot 
being proved to be the enemy's 
property, and appearing to belong 
to the fubjefts of the United Pro-* 
vinces ; with colls againft the captor, 
but no damages, as the appeal was 
brought fo late before the lords. 

, The embargo on fhips, 
2Qth. , J . , o^ . .^ ' 
^ laden with provihons in Ire- 
land, was ordered to be taken off. 

From the London Gazette, 
March 3 ! . 

We hear from Copenhagen, 
that letters, received there from 
Tranquebar, on the coaft of Coro- 
majadel, dated June 25, 1758, fay. 
That a fleet of eleven French men 
of war came on that coall the 27th 
of April : That the next day the 
Englifh fleet, under Admiral Pccock, 
palled by that port, on fight of 
which the French Iquadrcn weighed 
anchor and put to fea : That the 
Englifh purfued them, and in the 
afternoon a very brifk engagement 
began ; in which, it was faid, the 
French has loll 900 men, and the 
Englifh two faips, and a great many 
men ; and that after the action, a 
French fnip of 74 guns run aground : 
That the French, and all their mili- 
tia, under the command of Lieu- 
tenant General Lally, marched to 
Fort St. David's, and Goudelour. 
That the latter was taken by capi- 
tulation, and Fort St. David's was 
likewife obliged to farrender, after 
a fevere bombardment ; and that 
thereupon the French were making 
all necefTary preparations for attack- 
ing Aladrafs, after they had made 
themfelves mafters of Tanjour, or 
that their demands there fhould 
have been complied with. Subfe- 
quent letter.--, dated likewife from 
Tranquebar, of Auguft 27, farther 
fay, that the French marched the 
25th of June to Tanjour, where 
they arrived the beginning of Au- 
guft, and made an attempt upon 
that place, in which, to their great 
furprize, they v, ere not able to fuc^ 
ceed, thofe in Tanjour having car- 
ried on a negociacion with them for 
fome time, and taken thrir mea- 
fures fo well, that ihe French found 
ihemfclves in great difireisTor want 




of fubfiftencc, and were attacked 
fnrioudy on ;.I1 fides : and thouj^h 
they had made a breach fufficicnt 
for fifteen men to enter abreall, yet 
they were obliged, for want of pro- 
vifions and ammunition, to decamp 
and abandon 'I'anjour the i8th of 
Augull, leaving behind them five 
large pieces of cannon. Their lofs 
in men, however, was not very con- 
fiderable. I'hat during the fiege 
of Tanjour, both the French and 
Englifh fleets were craifmg off the 
coalt of Coromandel, and were al- 
ternately in the roadof Carical, till 
the 3d of Auguft, when they came 
to an engagement which lalled two 
hours, and was very brifk. That 
the lofs of the French therein was 
very great, and they found them- 
felves obliged to retire to Pondi- 
cherry, where they remained. That 
the Engliih were come to Carical, 
where they had taken two or three 
French barks, which were going 
by. And that, on the 20th of Au- 
gull, General Lally returned with 
his army to Carical, and on the 23d 
marched by Tranquebar, in his 
way to Pondi cherry, 

A court martial was held on 
^ n board the Torrington, at 
•^ ' Sheernefs, to enquire into 
the conduct of the Captain of the 
Dolphin, in her late action with the 
Marlhal BelleiHc privateer, on the 
coall of Scotland ; when it was fully 
proved, by the ofHcers of the Sole- 
bay, that he had done his duty as 
a good officer, and he was honour- 
ably acquitted of the whole and 
every part of the charge exhibited 
againlf him. 

Letters from the honourable Ed- 
ward H.iy, his majerty's envriy ex- 
traordinary at the court of Portugal, 
to the Right Hon. Mr. Secretary 
Pitt, dated Lilbon, March u, men- 

tion, that all was quiet there at that 

Warrants were ilTued out during 
the courfe of the month, for prelT* 
ing feamen, and able-bodied land- 
men; thefe warrants fet forth, that 
it is abfnlutely neceffary, in the 
prefent critical fi'.uation of affairs, 
when attempts may be made to in- 
vade thele kingdoms, that no time 
fliould be loft in the immediate 
equipping of his majeily's fleet. Se- 
veral hundreds of the ablefl pen- 
fioners of Greenwich hofpital have 
been draughted out upon the pre- 
fent emergency, to ferve on board 
the guardlhips ; by which a num- 
ber of able failors will be gained 
to the navy. 

There is advice from Lifbon, that 
one of the judges who paffed fen- 
tence upon the confpirators againlt 
the life of his Portuguefe majelty, 
was maffacred in his own houfe with 
three of his fervants ; that an at- 
tempt had been made upon the life 
of M. Carvalho, fecretary of llate, 
which had failed, though the doors 
of three of his apartments had been 
broke open by the aflaffins, who had 
entered the houfe at the windows ; 
and that papers had been difperfed 
through the city, threatening the 
life of the King. 

The Portuguefe minifter at Rome 
had caufed the fentence againfl the 
confpirators to be printed in Italian 
in his own valace, and diflributed 
copies of it to all the foreign mini- 
fters, and to the befl friends of the 
Jefuits, toconvince them of the guilt 
of the latter, who, in return, induf- 
trioully report, that the King of Por- 
tugal had fled his kingdom, to avoid 
being torn in pieces by his fubjetSs, 
who are all up in arms. 

The fecretary of the admiralty in 
Holland, gave nodce the beginning 


For ""the YEAR 1759. 


Cf the month, that a Dutch man of 
war would be Ilationed at Helvoet- 
fluys by the 20th, to take all iliips 
under convoy, bound for the coaft of 
Normandy, &c. Two men of war 
were, at the fame time, appointed 
convoy of the Weft India fleet. 

As the Pope has granted the Em- 
prefs Queen of Hungary, a bull for 
railing ten per cent, upon the re- 
venues of all ecclefiaftics within her 
dominions, in order to enable her to 
carry on the prcfent war, the King 
of Pruflia has moft juilly refolvsd to 
impofe the fame tax upon all the 
popifli ecclefiaftics within his do- 

To the inftances already given of 
the forwardnefs of the fpring, may 
be added the following. In the 
yard belonging to Mr. Moore, 
cooper, in Newport-ftreer, Worcef- 
ter, there is an apricot-tree, the 
greateft part of which is in full 
blofTom ; and on the other trees are 
feveral apricots, fome larger than 
filberds, and others full as large as 
common nuts. 

At an entertainment given by the 
mailer of the Talbot-inn, at Rip- 
ley, in Surry, on Shrove Tuefday 
laft, to twelve of the neighbours, 
inhabitants of the fald parifh, the 
age of the whole amounted to one 
thoufand and eighteen years : what 
is ftill more remarkable, one of the 
company is the mother of twelve 
children, the youngell of whom is 
fixty ; (he has within this fortnight 
walked to Guildford and back a- 
gai^i, which is twelve miles, in one 
day : another has worked as a 
journeyman with his malter (a (hoe- 
maker, who dined with hi.Ti) forty- 
nine years : they all enjoyed their 
fenfes, and not one made ufe of 
a crutch. 

Several perfons of diftinftion at 

Vol. II. 

Bath having lately received anony- 
mous letters, threatening their lives 
in cafe they did not dcpofit fums of 
money in particular parts of that 
city ; his majelty has been pleafed. 
to promife his moft gracious 
don to any one concerned therein, 
who fnall difcover his accomplices : 
and the corporation of Bath promife 
a reward of one hundred pounds to 
any perfon making fuch difcovery. 

A man, who was lately driving 
a v.aggon ovex Sheepfcomb-fit'd, 
near Cirencefter, in Gloucefterfnire, 
perceiving one of the hinder wheels 
to fink very deep in the ground, ex- 
amined the place, and found the 
wheel broke a large ftone urn, i.n 
which was a large quantity of old 
Roman copper coin ; and upon 
digging farther, two ■ more urns 
were difcovered near the fame fpct, 
full of coin of the fame metal. The 
word G ALLIEN VS appears in le- 
gible charaders upon feveral of the 

Thirteen perfons were drowned 
on Februaiy 24, by the overfetting 
of a wherry on its pafTage from 
Southampton to Heath. Thirteen 
perfons foon after alfo perilhed, 
as they were going from Poole to 
Ower, in Dorletlhire, in the paf- 

Letter from Leghorn, dated Fe- 
bruary 17. 

We learn that the malecontents in 
Corfica, having feized the Lieute- 
nant Mancino, a famous partifan of 
the republic of Genoa, v. ho had cut 
them out a great deal of work, they 
hanged him up within fight of Eaf- 
tia, with an infcription upon his 
brcaft, denoting him to be an ene- 
my to the country. The commif- 
fary of the republic, by way of rj- 
prifal, would have hangtd one of 
the malecontents that was prifon^s 

G a: 


at Ba.lia ; butPaoli, their general, 
found mearib lo fave his life, by af- 
furitig the conimifT.iry, that if he 
carried things to that txtiemity, 
two Genueic ' fliccs, which he had 
in his tullody, fuouiJ uudeigo the 
faaic fate. 
To the .-iUTHrR cf the Lonucn 



I lend the following account of 
an affair, which, in my opinion, is 
as llrange as was ever noticed. 

As I had heard frequent com- 
plaints fiom the neighbours he e- 
abouts of a llrange dog which had 
d'.ne iiiUch daniuge, I had the cu- 
riofity togo out in purfuit or him. I 
accordingly iatl Monday morning 
went out with my gun to fome 
woods about four mili's and a half 
from Pomf er, and having walked 
about tor near t-o hours, I law a 
blade and white dog tome up to 
me, about as big sa^ a common fox 
hound. I waited for him, and flay- 
ed till he had fmelt all round me, 
and walked off from me a little way 
to a cart, which returning from 
Pomfret market, loaded with but- 
chers meat. I then followed him, 
when I fa«v him with areat ferocity 
leap into the cart, and nturn with 
a Ir g of mutton, which helaid down, 
and then leapt up again and brought 
a leg of pork towards me, and de- 
fcended a place, which only appear- 
ed like common ground, being co- 
vered with furze. He then return- 
ed to look for the mutton, which 
when he milfed, he foamed at the 
mouth, and to all appearance Teem- 
ed very angry, but returned to 
hii cavern, where he flayed for 
about ten minutes, all whi'h time I 
was atientively watching his coming 
up, with the muzzle of my gun 
ciofe to the hole where he defcended, 

and as I heard him coming up, I 
difch irgcd my piece, which flruck 
him in the breall, and killed him. 
When I and fonie more friends went 
the next day in fearch of this place, 
we found it about fix feet long, and 
two hi^h, where we found feveral 
carcalies of dead flieep, and other 
things, which this furprifing animal 
had lived on fomc time; there are 
fexera! farmers of fubflance will af- 
fert this fad, having fuffered great 
damages fiOin this dog, and who 
are as glad of its death, as, Sir, 
Your humble fervant, 



Mary Edmonfon was this ^ , 
day executed for the murder 
cf her aunt ; of the perpetration of 
which crime we have already given 
an account. It appeared from the 
tefiimony of her brother-in-law, 
that this young woman had never 
behaved amifs, that fhe was foon 
to have been married to one Mr. 
King, a clergyman, at Calvcrly, in 
Yorkiliire, and that fiie was fent to 
London with her aunt, to Itarn a 
little experience before (he became 
his wife. The proofs againft her 
were circumflantial, and not pofi- 
tive, but very flrong ones ; there- 
fore our account of the murder, 
given before, muft be read with 
proper allowances, as only what 
was then furmifcd. It is faid there 
fhe con fefft-d the fact ; but, on the 
contrary, Ihe deniid it to the laft 
moment. About nine o'clock, fhe 
was brought handcufit, in a pofl- 
chaife, with Mr. Hammet the keep- 
er, from the Stockhoufe prlfon at 
Kingflon, to the Peacock in Ken- 
nington Iane> where the hangman 


For the Y 

haltered her ; (he was diredly put 
into a cart, and carried toKenning- 
ton-common, and executed 12 mi- 
nutes before ten o'clock. She de- 
nied the murder, and died very un- 
concerned, never fhedding a tear in 
her way from Kingfton, nor at 
the gallows. But after fome time 
fpent in prayer, fpoke to the fol- 
lowing effedl : It is now too late 
with God and you to trifle; and 
J aflure you, I am innocent of the 
crime laid to my charge. I am very 
eafy in my mind, and fufFer with as 
much pleafure as if I was going to 
ileep. I freely forgive my profe- 
cutors, and earneftly beg your 
prayers for my departing foul, &c." 
After the execution, her body was 
carried to St, Thomas's Hofpita), 
and delivered to Mr. Benjamin 
Cowel, furgeon, purfuant to an or- 
der from the high fherifF. 

The bank of England hath given 
notice, they will, for the future, 
iiTue out bank notes and pell bills, 
for ten pounds and fifteen pounds 

We hear from Gloucefler, that 
one Haines, who had married the 
daughter of farmer Ewer, a man of 
Sol. a year ellate, which he in- 
tended to divide among his feven 
children, had formed a defiorn of 
getting the whole by poifoning all 
but his wife. Ke made ufe of his 
own father as an inllrument in this 
villainy, who having procured him 
a quantity of arienic, he firli: admi- 
niftered it to three of the children, 
who were immediately feized with 
the fymptoms of a fever and fore 
throat, and were treated accord- 
ingly, the eldeft of whom (a young 
manjuftof age) died. Some time 
after this, he purchafed three apple 
cakes at the market, and putting 
arfenic in them, gave them to the 

EAR 1759. 2'i 

other three children, who being in- 
ilantly taken ill, caufed a fuipicior.i 
and Haines was apprehended and 
examined, when the whole fccne of 
villainy was dlfcovered. He has 
fince, however, made his efcape : 
but his father is now in gaol, and 
ordered to remain in prifon till next 
affizes, to take his trial as an ac- 

Admiralty-office. His ma- , 
jefly's fliip Southampton and ^ ' 
Melampe, commanded by the Cap- 
tains Gilchrill and Hotham, on the 
2S[h pafl:, came up with the French 
frigate of war the Danae, of 40 
guns and 330 men, which after a 
briflc engagement, was taken, hav- 
ing between 30 and 40 men killed, 
and a great? number Vvounded. The 
Southampton had one man killed 
and eight wounded ; among the 
latter was Capt, Gilchrlft ; who be- 
ing ihot through the right fhoulder 
with a pound ball, has been put 
afhore at Yarmouth. The Melampa 
had H men killed and 20 wounded. 

His majefty's fnip the ^olus, 
Capt. Elliot, on the 15 th of March 
came up with and took La Mignone, 
a French frigate of 20 guns and 
14:5 men, commanded by the Che- 
valier de Tranfanville. Her cap- 
tain and 70 men were killed, the 
fecond captain's thigh ihot off, and 
about 2, v.'Ounded. On board the 
.^olus were two wounded. 

Two gentlemen paflengers from 
Holland, landed at Margate. Tiiey 
affirm they were in the evening 
boarded in fight of the North Fore- 
land by an Englifn privateer cutter, 
whofe crew in difguife, conhr.ed 
the captain and crew of their vcffel 
in the cabbin, and then plundered 
it of goods to the value of 2000 1. 
demanded the caprain's money, and 
took what the pafTengers had. 

G 2 Died 


Died Mrs. Savory, of Oid Palace 
Yard, aged .04. 

, Thonuis Thoinhlll, Efq: 

■^ * paid to the maiine locie-y 
12 1. which he recci\fd for a third 
f.iit of a f;- e infiidhd on a perlbn 
for lavin? dirt nd rubbilh in I ei- 
ceHcr- fields, whereby a lady's coach 
was overiurncd, by ineans ot vvliich 
fhe rcteived a crntufpn on her 
hcud, which was the occafion of her 

1 he following bills were figncd 
by coimiilfion this day. 

A hill for {^ranting to his majelly 
a fubf:dy of poundage on certain 
dry '^oods imported, and an addi- 
tional inland duty on coffee aid 
ch-'Colate ; and for raifing a certain 
fum by annuities and a lottery. 

[Five ptjrccnt. addiiionai on all 
dry eoods imported, and fs per 
pound on coftce and chocolate.] 

— For ihe free importation of live 
cattle from Ir^-land fora limited time. 
[B'or five years, to commence from 
the firll of May lyq^-] 

■ — for the tree importation of Irifh 

[For the fame time, but an enTy 
to be made thereof at the cuitoin- 
houfe, and to be landed in the pre- 
fence of an oflicer, under penalty of 
paying the duty.] 

—for more Cify collecting fheri^s 
poft fines. 

— for n-aking the river Stroud- 

water, in Gioucellcrlhire, navigable. 

And to ievirral road and private 


At the fale of the late 
Farl of Arran's curiofities in 
Covent-GardeV., the gloves given by 
Ki'»<i Henry the eighth to Sir An- 
thony Denny, were fold for ;8 1. 
17 s. the gloves given by K. James 
I, to Edward Denny, efq: (Ion of 
Sir Anthony) for 2,2 1. 1 s. the 


mittens given by Queen Elizabeth 
to Sir Edvvard Denny s lady, for 
2ql. 4s. and 'he fcarf given by 
King Charles the firft, for 10 1. 
10 s ail which were bought for 
S r Thomas Denny, of Ireland, 
who is lineally deftended from the 
fid Sir Anthony Denny, cne of 
the executors of King Henry VIII. 

7 he Ikeple of Bil- , 
ling church in Norihamp- 
tonlhiic was dexolifhed by light- 
ning, and fume flones of a very 
Jarge fize driven to a great diftance 
with alloniflVig force. The pews 
in the chur h were likewife very 
much ihivered. 

Died, Geo Fred. Handel, 
efq; a great mufician. He 
was born in Germany in i68:j, and 
had been in England 50 years. 

The hon. houfe of commons ad- 
journed till Monday fe'nnight. — 
1 he houfe before it broke up 
granted 2^,152!. for the better 
fortifying the town and dock of 
Plymouth ; 10, cool, for fortifying 
the harbour of Milford ; 6^57 1. for 
better fortifying the town and dock 
of Pcrtimouth ; and 708 1. for fe- 
curing Chatham dock. 

The right hon. the lords of ap- 
peal heard council on the fhip Ame- 
rica, J ewis Ferret, taken by his 
majel'y's lliip the Squirrel, Hyde 
Parker, efq; commander ; when 
their lordlhips pronounced, that the 
fhip .America, in queftion in this 
caufc, having been freighied on 
French account, and employed in a 
vovage to St. Domingo, a French 
fettlement in the Well Indies, and 
having delivered her outward bound 
carg.) with pernT.lfion of the French 
governor there, and her homeward 
bound cargo having been put en 
board after a furvey, and fubjeft to 
the payment of the fcveral duties, 

For the YEAR 1759. S3 

cuP.oms, and penalties, agreeable to his fdns in perpetrating this fcene 

the laws of France, and the mafter of villainy. The deceafed's coat 

having dellroyed the bill of loading, and waiitcoat, and breeches, were, 

and niany other of the (hip's papers, at the time of taking the mur- 

and the cargo found on board being derers, found in the houfe all 

admitted to be the property of bloody. 

French fabje^.s, declared, that the Admiral Bofcawen with j^ 

faid fhip ought by law, to be con- his fleet, and Rear- Admiral t" 

demned in this cafe as a French Cornilli, with his fleet, and the 

fhip ; and therefore affirmed the Eafl-India fliips, failed from 'St. 

fentence, condemning the Ihip and Helens, for their refpedlive tlations. 
cargo as a prize. Two large iea moniters , 

. , A moll cruel murder was were feen in the river Rib- ^' ' 

'■'^ ' committed on the body of ble at Preilon, Lancaliiire, oa 

John Walker, at one Darby's, near which fome men went out in boats, 

HalesOwen, by Girmingham, where with pitchforks, and killed one of 

the deceafed, and one Nathaniel them, which weighed between 6 

Cower, as bailiffs, were in pof- and 700 weight, and had teats, 

feifion of the iaid Darby's goods, on which they fqueezed milk out of; 

a dillrefs for rent. About nine that and they faid it was the fweetell milk 

evening, the faid Darby's two fons 
came into the houfe, and with a 
broom hook, and bludoeon, fell 
upon the faid bailiffs, and Gower 
efcaping, they cut and beat the de- 
ceafed till he was almoft killed ; 
then llripping him naked, thrufi; him 
out of the houfe, and with a vvag- 
gon whip cut him almoft to pieces. 
Gower n ade the belt of his way to 

they ever tailed. 

Copy of a letter from the ^. 
fion. Lapt. barnngton, 
of his maieily's Hiip Achilles, of 
60 guns, to iVlr. Cleveland, dated 
at Falmouth, April 16, 1759. 
" I have the pleafure to ac- 
quaint you of my arrival here, with 
the Count de Florentin, of 60 
guns, and 40 :; men, from Cape 

Hales -Owen, from whence fome Franfois, bound for Rochfort, ct;m- 

perfons went to ihe deceafed's re- 
lief, who found him in a clofe near 
the faid houfe, weltering in his 
blood, and with great difficulty car- 
ried him to Hales-Owen, whce he 
immediately expired Upon iearcli- 
ing Darby's houfe, early next morn- 
ing, he, his wife, and two fons, 
were fee. red, but not without gieat 

manded by the Sieur de Moiitay, 
whom 1 took on the 4th inltant, in 
lar. j^. 1:;. fixty leagues to ihe 
wcihv);d of Cape Finilterre, after 
a clofe enoajrement of two hours, 
in which 1 was 10 fortunate as 
only to have two men killed, and 
2T, wounded, with my m lis, and 
fails, and rigging, much cut and 

danger to the apprehenders, one of damaged. 

whom narrowly efcaped being kill- The lofs on the enemy's fide was 

ed with an ax, with whi-.h the very confiderable, having all his 

old man flruck at him. They malts fhot away, wiili ,i6 mea 

were all four, on Saturday, com- killed and v.'ounded, amoneil he 

mined by the Rev. Mr. Durant, to latter, tt.e captain wuh a mufqus-t- 

Shrewlhury gaol, upon proof of ihe ball tnrcjugh his body, of which he 

iacl, and of old Darby's ftanding died two days alter. 

by, and all the time encouraging I mull beg vou wiliacq aim heir 

G 3 ' lord- 



lordfliip? of the very gallant belia- 
viour of my ofRceis and people 
upon this occafion. 

P. S. Three of my wounded are 
fince dead, as likcwifc a great num- 
ber of the enemy's." 
^ . This day McfT. Borrel, 

' * Vanderpol, and Meerman, 
deputies from i he States General of 
the United Provinces, had a private 
audience of his majelly. 

, The remains of the late 

^° Mr. Handel were depofitcd 
at the foot of the Duke of Arj^yll's 
ir.onument in Wertminller-Aubey ; 
thebilhops, prebends, andthe whole 
choir a,ttended, to pay the lall ho- 
nours due to his memory ; and it 
is computed there were not fewer 
than 3 ceo perfons prefent on the 

„ A mother wrote a letter 

^* ' to a gentleman, to oiler up daughter as a proliitute, being 
about fourteen years of age._. The 
gentleman negledling to take notice 
of the firll letter, received a fecond ; 
he then from curiofity appointed an 
interview. The child v/as brought 
by another woman, and the gentle- 
jnan chufing rather to prcted than 
ruin innocence, caufed them both 
to be ccmmitted to Bridewell. 
Dreadful as this crime is, it^is to be 
feared, that it is oftener padifcd 
than deteded. 

, Seme filhcrmcn at Chertfey 
^' ' catched a llurgeon, uhich was 
feven feet and a half long, and 
weighed up'Aards of 2co wt. It has 
been fent by the lordnia^or as a 
preftiit lo his m^jelly. 

, A (harp adion happened 

^"^^ ' this day a- Yarmouth, ccca- 
fioned by fonie different p.iriirs of 
light hyrlet-{Uar cied heie,\\ howere 
n.iHchino out oi town, and diiputes 
Tjinning l:i^h, ihcy decided iiiwor^i 

in hand, in which many men and 
horfc'i were defpcrately wounded. 

At theanniverfary meeting ot the 
governors of the London hofpital, 
the collcdion at church and feall 
amounted to 1066I. 2 s. 

Upwards of 200 1. was coUeded 
for the Middlcfcx hofpital. 

Were executed at Exeter, . 

Charles Darras, Lewis Bour- ^ 
tiecq, Fleurant '^i'ermineu, Pierre 
Pitroil, and Pierre Lagnal, five 
Frenchmen, for the murder of Jean 
Manaux, their countryman and fel- 
low prilbncr, on board the Royal 
Oak man of war. The provotiitioa 
n'lanaux gave them, was his dil- 
covering to the acent their forgery 
of pafTes, to facilitate their efcape 
to France. On the 23*.h of January 
lalt, when they were ordered down 
to their lodging place, Dariiis, with 
a bcatlwftin's whilile, calling the 
other French prifbners, dragged 
Manaux to a part of the (hip dif- 
tant from the centry, and after 
llripping him, tied him to a ring 
bolt with fmall cord, then gagged 
him, and with the others gave him 
about fixty ftrokes with an iron 
thimble, about as big as a man's 
wrilt, tied to the end of a rope. 
Manaux, by ftruggling, got loofe, 
and fell on his back ; upon which 
Lagnal got upon his body, and 
jumped ou it ieveral times, till he 
broke his chert. Pitroil keeping his 
fcot on his neck. W hen they found 
he \\ as dead, they conveyed-liis body 
by piece-meal thro' the necellary 
into the water, becaufe the throwing 
it overboard would have alarmed 
the ccniry. Next day twenty-fe- 
ven of the French prifoners being 
brought on fhcre, one of them gave 
iafu.'-mation of the murder, The 
f.»e ruliians were fintenced to be 
executed on the 2a of April, but 


For the YEAR 1759. 


were refpited till the 2qth, and in 
the mean time a Romifn prielt was 
permitted to vifit them. 
^ , The colledion for the 

Magdalen charity amounted 
to 4^7!. I ; s. 

The trial of James Stephenfon, 
for the mi'.rder of Mr. Elcock an at- 
torney, who attempted to break in- 
to his rcom to feize him after being 
arrelled, came on at Cheller, when 
the jury brought in his verdidl fpe- 
cial, becaufe of the fuppofed ille- 
gality of the arrell, the {heriir having 
as is commonly praftifed, hgned 
his warrant for apprehending Ste- 
phenfon, with a blank for the names 
of fpeciai bailiffs, which were af- 
terwards inferted by Mr. Elccck, 
one of whom did arrell: the prifo- 
iier ; bat whether this was, or was 
not, a legal arreft, is a point of law 
to be decided by the judges. 

, On Wednelday the 14th of 

^ ' March, the birth of a royal 
Princefs u as made known to the 
people of Conirantinople, and the 
following evening public rejoicings 
began, on account of this happy 
event. The illuminations, which 
exceed all that were ever remem- 
bered in city, continued for a 
week, and were followed by fire- 
works, whii^h were played c}f three 
rights together on the canal before 
the feraglio. All poinble care was 
taken to prevent accidents or difor- 
ders during thele rejoic ngs ; and, 
for this purpofe, all the taverns, 
which are very numerous, were fhut 
up upon pain of death. 

Admiraity-ofHce. On the 27th, 
C:ipt. Faulkener, of his Majeily's 
fh'.p Windibr of 60 guns, difcovercd 
four large Ihips to leeward, who, 
on being chiifed, drew up in a line 
of battle ; Capt. Faulkner engaged 
the fternmoft, on which the reft 
»iade fail and run, and then the fhip 

that was engaged ftruck. She proved 
the Duke of Chart.'-es, pierced for 
60 guns, had 24 twelve pounders 
m.ouuted, and 194 men, twenty- 
eight of whom were killed, and 
eighteen wounded ; the Windfor 
had one killed, and fix wounded. 
The lading confjfts of fixty tens of 
gun-powder, icotOns of cords c^e. 
tiour, fail-cloth, wines, &c. The 
other three fhips were of 70, ^4, 
and 24 guns, armed as the former, 
and all bound to Pondicherry, en 
account of the French Eaft-India 

Died Mary Hall, fexton of Bifhop- 
hill, York city, aged 105 ; fhie walk- 
ed about and rerained her fenfes till 
within three days of her death. 

The prol'ibition of exporting 
gun powder, falt-petre, arms, am- 
munition, &c. was ordered to be 
continued from the 29th inftant, for 
the Ipace of fix months. 

We hear that Mademoifelle La 
Conde (nearly related to the Prince 
of Conce) renounced the errors of 
the church of Rome, and emb. aced 
the proteftant religion, in St. Pa- 
trick's church, Dublin ; and was, 
with a great number of others, con- 
firmed at bt. Peter's church by the 
Bifhop of Clogher the next day. 

Letters from Penlylvania advife, 
that at a treaty held at Eailon, in 
October lait, peace was concluded 
and ratified beiv%een the lieutenant 
governor of Penfvlvania, and the 
go- ernf r of New jeriey, on the be- 
half of their ref).-ect!ve provinces, 
and the relt of his lUajefty's fubjeds 
in America, of the one part; ard the 
eight confederate Indian naticns, 
and thelnuians called the Deh.wdics, 
the Unanimes, the Mir.i^inks, the 
VVapings, and the fwohiccons, of 
the other part ; which peace hath 
fmce, by the intervention of Briga- 
dier General Forbes, been acceded 
G 4 10, 




to, ratified and confirmed, by the 
fcvcral nations of Indians liviii'; on 
tlie Oaio. 

Letters from Stockholm advife, 
that on tlie 27th ult. in the evening, 
about feven o'clock, a fun, about 
iour feet in diameter, appeared to 
tiie weft, which laded two nnnutes, 
?.nd catl as clear a light, as if it had 
been noon day; and about h^lf an 
hour before the rifinjj of the moon, 
there appeared two rainbows. 

We have an account from Provi- 
dence in Air.erica, that no lefs than 

fhip, and all in it except the mats 
and one boy that efcaped, without 
knowing by what rr.iraculous pro- 
Thefollowing are the meflages lately 

fcnt to the houfe of commons. 
Georc t R. 

" His Majefly being defirous that 
a proper Itrcngth may be employed 
in the ftttlemcnls of the united com- . 
pany of merchants of England, 
trading to the Eall-Indics, recom- 
mends to this houfe, to enable his 
Majefly to aflill the faid company in 

1 1,5X8 fquirrels had been lately (hot defraying tiie expcnce of a military 

in that country within ten days, and 
that at producing the heads, i ^co 
horfes were at the tavern. The 
heads of the faid fquiircis meafured 
f.venry-nine bufhels and a half 

Friday morning the fecond of Fe- 
bruary lad, a pretty fmart Ihock of 
an earthquake was felt at Bolton 
in New-England, and it; the neigh- 
bouring towns. And a fhock of 

force in the pjad-lndies, to be main- 
tained by them, in lieu of the batta- 
lion commanded by Col. Adlercron, 
vyithdrawn from thence, and now 
returned to Ireland.'' G. R. 

George R. 
** His Majefty being fenfible of 
the zci:! and vigour with v/hich his 
faithful fubjefts in North- America 
have exerted themfelves in defence 

an earthquake was alfo felt, about of his Majefly's juft rights and pof- 

the fame time, preceded by the 
ufual rumbling noife, atPortfmouth 
in Pifcaiaqua. 

M A Y. 

feCions, recommends it to this houfe 
to take the fame into confideration, 
and to enable his Majefty to give 
them a proper compenfation for the 
expences incurred by the refpeflive 
provinces in the levying, cloathing. 

rt Mr. Armftrong, under (herifF and pay of the troops raifed by the 
of the county of Tyrone in fame, according as the adive vigour 

Ireland, was fined icol. and fen 
tenced two yeais imprifonment, for 
fufhering William Barret, who 
ordered for execution for a capital 
offence, to efcape with life ; this 

and llrenuous efforts of the relpec- 
tive provinces, fhall jullly appear 
to merit." G. R. 

Four hundred and fifty- 
feven pounds feven fhillings 


Birrer hurig the ufual time, till the was collecitd for the lupport of the 
fl.eriff tho ight he was dead, but by Small-pox hofpital 

mc:;ns of a collar, he laved himfelf, 
and got clear off. 

.A terrible accid-ent happened td 
a fhip from Holland, Cape. Alav^•r 
commander, by a fpark f.iiling in- 
to the powder as he was faluting 
the toun of DuPidvC, in cntciing 
that harltjur, whith blew up the 

A young man in the fhame- „ , 
fu! dilguirc of a conjurer, with 
a large v\ig. and hat of an extraordi- 
nary fizc, and an old night gown, 
was committed toBridewcii, being 
charged with having ufed fubtie 
cruf to deceive and impofe upon 
his Majsily's fubjeds. 


For the Y 

Elizabeth Cartwright, who 
9 had been tapped twenty-nine 
times for a dropfy, and had 19^9 
pints of water taken from her, was 
aifcharged from the Weftminller- 

This evening a young African 
Prince appeared publickly at the 
Thearre-RoyalinDrury-Lane. This 
youth was committed fome time 
iince to the care of an Engliih cap- 
tain, to be brought over for educa- 
tion, but the captain, inftead of 
performing his promife, fold him to 
a gentleman in London. The fa- 
ther of the Prince being lately dead, 
and the captain being upon the 
coaft, was at that time defired by his 
fubjecls to bring the young Prince 
home ; but he giving no 'fatisfadlo- 
ry anfwer, was feized, imprifoned, 
and ironed, and then ccnfefTed the 
truth ; upon which an order was 
fent to a merchant in that trade, to 
procure the Prince's enlargement, 
which was done by purchafing him 
of the gentleman who bought him; 
and he is foon to return to his na- 
tive country. 

There was collefled at church, 
and tiie feaft of the fons of the cler- 
gy, 70; 1. gs. 9d. which, with what 
was colledled at the rehearfal 3^;'!. 
made the whole collection 10421. 
9s. 9d. exclufive of a draught of 
icol. given by Sampfon Gideon, 
efq; for the corporation. 

, About thirty impre/Ted men 

■^' on board a tender at Sunder- 
land, forcibly made their efcape. 
The bravery of the leader is re- 
markable, who being hoilled upon 
d^ck by his followers, wrelled the 
halbcrt from the centinel en duty, 
and with one iiand defended liiai- 
ftif, while with the other he let 

' y-.v'n a ladder into the hold for the 
. .-i\ 10 come up, which they did, and 

verpQwered the crew. 

EAR 1759. S9 

The fane on the top of Salifoury 
fpire, eredted in 1673, being de- 
cayed, was blown down. Jt mea- 
fured three feet fix inches in length, 
and two feet three inches in breadth, 
made of oak an inch thick. 

The decree of the admiralty 
court in Scotland, releafing the 
Dutch fhip the Stravorfe Lynhaan 
of Rotterdam, Tar^imie Hilbrands, 
mailer, taken by the Bofcavvcn pri- 
vateer of London, Captain Harden, 
is fufpended, and a rehearing grant- 
ed before the court of feiiions. Thia 
fhip was taken by the Bofcavven on 
the 1 8th of June lafl, in the north 
feas, and was brought into Leith. 
Her cargo confilted of fugar, cot- 
ton, and indigo, apparently the 
produce of the Weft India iflands ; 
and from many circumftances there 
was room to believe, that the whole 
was the property of the fubjeifls of 
the French king. 

Five hundred pounds were ^, 
colleaed for the fupport of '°^"* 
the city of London lying-in hof- 

The King has been pleafed , 

togrant to sampfon Gideon, ^9^"- 
jun. efq; and the heirs male of his 
body, lawfully begotten, the dig- 
nity of a baronet of this king- 

The following meflage, „ 

from his iVisjelly, was pre- ^ 
fented to the houfe by Mr. SecfC- 
tary Pitt. 

" His majefty relying on the ex- 
pricnced zeal and aiTedion of his 
faithful commons, and confidtring 
that, in this critical conjuiifture, 
emergencies may arife, which may 
be of the utmoll importance, and 
be attended with the molt pernici- 
ous confcquencess, if proper meaa.s 
fhould not immediately be aopiit^d 
to prcver.t or defeat thcai, ia defir- 




ous that this houfe will enable him tion, to deliver upon oath their 

todefiay anyexiraordiiiary cxpciicej eitates for the beneht of their cre- 

of the war, incurred, or to be in- ditors, paflcd the houfe cf peers, 

currtd, for the ("ervice of the year Tl'is uay canne on btfoie , 

17:;9, and to take a!i mcafures as the Icrds commiffioners of ^ ' 

may be necefTary to dihipjoint or appeal for prizes, at the Cockpit, 

defeat ar.y cntcrprizcs or d<,figns of Whitehall, the merits of a appeal 

his enemies, and as the exigency ot from the court of Admiralty in 

affairs may rcijuire.' 

In confequer.ce of the above mef- 
fage, a vote of credit for i ,coo,oocl. 
will be granted. 

"I'he following anAver from 


Major General Amherll, to 

Dodors-Commons, concerning the 
right of property in the Duich (hip 
the Novun) Aratrum, and her cargo, 
taken by the P.lenheim privateer, 
Jame Merr) field, commander; 
wlien their lordiV.ips were pleaCed to 

the Right lien, the Speaker of the reltore the fhip, and iha: part of the 
houfe of commons, who in obtdi- caigo pr<;ved to be Dutch property, 
ence to the commands of that houfe, and ordered a fpecification of ^he 
had tranfmittcd to the major gene- other pait of the cargo in one 
ral their thanks for the fervices he month, which, it is imagined, will 
had done to his King and cuuntiy turn out to be the goods of our ene- 
in North America, was read by tiiC mies the French, i his fpeci-.c.-.tica 
Speaker. is what theDiulch haveconllantly re- 
New-York, April l6, I759» fufed to make; but now, ifttieydo 
SIR, not comply, the goods wili all be 
*• I had the favour of receiving forfeited to the captors, 
your obliging letter of the 6th of The Worceller Uage- waggon took 
December, intloling a telolution the fire, occalioned by me burning of a 
houfe of commons came to that bottle of aqua loriis, by which the 
day, in a packet from Mr. Wood, valuable loading was mofdy con- 
on the third of April. fumed ; damage 500^ I. 
It is with the deeped fenfe of 2,:^o,ocol. was granted 

by parliament out of the "^ ' 
finking fund towards the fupplies 
of tlie prefent year; alio i8c,^^bl. 
out of the fame far the quarter 
ending April 5, I7S9J 75..iOd I. 

der me more delerving of io great overplus of I7^3 ; I. 

an honour. granted formerly for RulTia, but not 

I mult beg leave to return \ou, uied; and the remai- der of the fum 

Sir, my moll finccre thanks for the granted for cloaihing the militia, 

gracious manner in which you have Isc. in 1757. 

gratitude I leceived that higheil 
mark of honour, the thanks of the 
houfe; and I hpe my future con- 
dudl in the f'ervice of my country 
will bell acknowledge it, and ren- 

been pleafcd to lignify to mc tiie 
ref.luiion of the houie. 

I am, witii the utmoft refped, 
Sir, your humble, and moll obedient 
fervant, ji kf. Amherst." 

^^ , A bill to V blige debtors un- 
*^ ' der a certaisv lum, after c(<n- 
tinuing a limited time, in execu- 

Adiniralty-Ofnce. Capt. ^ , 
I ockhart cf his Majtily's 
fhip Chatham of ;o gun>. Captain 
Ci.lby of the Thames of ^i g^ "St 
and Capt Harrilon cf the of 
3'' guns, on tiie iMh in tic n orn- 
ing, in riodiemc bay, law a French 
fjjgaie, and after two hours cha.e, 


For the Y 

ilie cr.riiedher top-maftaway. Soon 
al'ter the Thames came up, and 
gave her dole and briflc lire ; but 
Ihe did not ftrike till the Venus 
raked her, and gave her fomc broad- 
iides. She proves to be the Arcthufa 
frigate, commanded by the Marquis 
Vandreul, 32 guns mounted, and 
270 men, from Uochefort for Brell ; 
aad is efteemed the bell failing fri- 
gate in France. She had 60 men 
killed and wounded. Capt. Colby 
had four men killed and 11 wound- 
ed. Capt. Hanilbn had iive men 

The expeded comet has appear- 
ed many clear evenings till ten or 
eleven o'clock, to the weft of the 
fouth, under the confteilation of 
Hydra, and near that of Crater. 
It is a luminous appearance, very 
evident to the naked eye (notvvith- 
flanding the light of the moon), yet 
rather dim than fplendid ; large, 
but ill defined. A telefcope, at the 
fame time it magnifies, feems to 
render it more oblcure. 

places in the heavens where it hath 
been for feven evenings, as ob- 
ferved and traced on a twenty - 
eight inch celeftial globe, and 
the univerfal plenifphere, at Mr, 
Dunn's academy, Paradife-row, 

Tuefday May i, right afcenfion 
lq"555. declination 25 30 fouth — 
V/ednefday 2, 158 22, 22 c. — 
Thurlday 3, 157 14, .20 3. — Fri- 
day 4, 156 22, 18 16. — Saturday 
5, 155 40, 15 54. — Sunday 6, 
155 2;, 14 5.— Monday 7, 155 
20, 12 22. 

A proclamation has been ilTued, 
promiling a bounty of five pounds 
for every able Icamen, and thirty 
fliilling!) for every ordinary feaman 
; 01 above fifty, nor under twen'.y 
, i-ars of age^ who lliail voliintanly 

E 7\ R 1759. 91 

enter themfelves on or before the 
third day of July next, to fcrve in 
the royal nav^,'. Alfo a bounty of 
thirty to every able-bodied 
landman not above 3;^, nor under 
20 years of age, who fliali volun- 
tarily enter within the fame time to 
ferve on board the navy ; and alfo 
a reward of two pounds for the dif- 
covery of able, and twenty fliil- 
lings for every ordinary feaman, 
that Ihall have fecreted them.fe.'ves. 
And as a farther encouragement his 
Majefty promiles his moll gracious 
pardon to all feamen that have de- 
ferted from their fi'iips, provided 
they return to the fervics by the 
faid third of July ; in which cafe 
they fhall not be profecuted for 
their defercion ; but on the contra- 
ry, thofe who do not return before 
that time on board fome of his Ma- 
jefty's Ihips of war, or who ihall 
hereafter abfent themfelves without 
leave, ihall be tried by a court mar- 
tial ; and being found guilty of de- 
fertiag at this time, when their 
country fo much wants their fervice, 
Ihall be deem'd unlit objedts of the 
royal nfejicy, and fuiTer death ac- 
cording to law. 

Six carpets made by Mr. Whitty, 
of Axminfter in Devonlhire, and 
two others made by Mr. JefiTer, of 
Froome, in Somerfetlhire, all on 
the principle of Turkey carpets, 
have been produced to the fociety 
for the encouragement of arts, ma- 
nufactures, and commerce, in con- 
feq^jence of the premiums propo- 
fed by the faid fociety for making 
fuch carpets ; and proper judges 
being appointed to examine the 
fame, gave it as their opinion, that 
all the carpets produced were made 
in the manner of Turkey carpets, 
bat much fuperior to them in beau- 
ty and goodnefs: That Mr. Whit- 
ty 's cat pecs were fuperior to Mr. 




JeiTer's in price, pattern, andwork- 
jnanfhip ; therefore it was ordered, 
that the firft premium oilered for 
I his article, being 30!; fiinulcl be 
paid to Mr. VVhitty, and the other 
premium, being 2cl. to lAr. Jcfi'er. 

Thelargeil of the carpets produced 
by Mr. V/hitty is twenty- (jx feet fix 
inches, by feventcen feet fix inches; 
and the largeft produced by Mr. 
jefTcr is fixteen feet fix inches, by 
r.velve feet nine inches. 

The faid fociety have alfo beflowed 
the fumcf87]. 15s. i id. for raifing 
and producing covcooub in the pro- 
vince of Georgia. 

The fociety have alfo beflowed a 
premium of 30 1. on Mr. SifFerth, 
for making crucibles from Britifh 

On the 7th inflant, the houfe of 
Rannas, in the Ejizie, North Bri- 
tain, was confunied by fire. 

Extraft of a letter from Dublin, 
dated April 17. Within thefe two 
years paft ,.3^ perlons have read 
their recantation from the church 
of Rome. 

We hear from the faid place, 
that the midd!e of this month fe- 
venteen fiihing boats failed from 
Rufli and Skerries to the north-welt 
of Ireland, to be joined by feme 
others in the Lough of Dcrry from 
the Ifle of Man, encouraged there- 
unto by a company of merchants of 
the faid ifland, who have fubicnbed 
a large capital to carry on this buli- 
nefs in the mod extenfive manner ; 
and advanced a ccnfiderable fum to 
forward its execution. This defign 
opens a new mine of wealth to th's 
kinodom, and may in its progjeis 
i):' the fource of employment to rhe 
vagrant, of benefit to the induilri- 
rua, and the acceif.on of an unalie- 
nable and permanent trade In 
any refpect, the prefeiTt defedive 
methods cf fiihing in that country 

will be ref^ified ; and the means 
fhewn w'Tiercby th^-y may proceed 
for the future upon a more regular 

The following mefr'i;^e , 

from his mijelfy was deli- ^ 
vcred by the Earl of HoldernelTe to 
the hof.fe of peers. 
Ge'jrge R. 
*' The King has received advices 
that the French court is making pre- 
parations wirh a defign to invade 
this kingdom ; and though his mt- 
jefiy is perfuaded, that, by the uni- 
ted zeal and affedion or his people, 
any fuch attempt muft, under the 
blelTing of God, end in the dellruc- 
tion of thofe who fha:l be engaged 
therein ; \et his majel'y apprehends 
that he (hou:d not a6t confiftently 
with that paternal care, and con- 
cern, which he has always fhewn for 
the fnfery and prefervation of his 
people, if he omitted any means 
in his po^ver, which mav be necef- 
fary for his defence. Therefore, in 
purfuance cf the late aft of parlia- 
ment, his majelly acquaints the 
houfe of lords, with his havng re- 
ceived repeated intelligence of the 
adual preparations making in the 
French ports to invade this king- 
dom, and of the immediate danger 
of fuch invafion being attempted ; 
to the end that hi- majelly may (if 
he fhall think proper) caufe the mi- 
litia, or fuch part thereof as (hall 
be neceifary, to be drawn out, and 
embodied, and to march as cccafion 
Ihall require " G.R. 

Which beirg read, 
OrdcreJ by the lords fpiritual and 
tempiral in parliament affembled, 

*' That ,an humble addrefs be 
prcfented to his majelly, to return 
him the thanks of this houfe for 
his iroll gra<.:ojs mclfa^e, atd for 
acquainting us with the intelligence 
he has xcccived. of the preparatior^ 


For the Y 

jnaking by France to invade this 
kingdom. To declare our ucmoft 
indignation and abho.rence o.' iuch 
a deiion ; and that we will, with an 
united duty, zeal and af:eft;on, at 
the hazard of our lives and for- 
tunes, ftand by and defend his ma- 
jefty againll any fuch prefumptuous 
and def.^erate attempt. To expefs 
the jull fenfe we have of his maje- 
fty's goodnefs to his people, omit- 
ting no means in his power which 
may tend to their defence; and in 
his intention to call out and employ 
the militia, if it (hoald be found 
neceffary, for that purpofe : and to 
give his majefty the llrongeft affu- 
rances, that we will, with vigour 
and fteadinefs, fupport Jiis majetly 
in taking the moit cffetlual mea- 
fures to defeat the deiigns of his 
enemies ; to preferve and fecure his 
facred perfon and government, the 
Protellant fuccefTion in his royal 
family, and the religion, laws, and 
liberties of thefe kingdoms. ' 

Which addrefs being prefented 
next day by the lords with white 
Haves, his majefty wa>^ pleafed to fay, 

*' That he thanks the houfe of 
lords for the repeated afTu ranees of 
their unalterable zeal, duty, and 
affedion to his majefty on this occa- 
fion ; and has the utmofi; confidence 
in their vigorous fupport." 

The fame meifage being carried 
by Mr. Secretary Pitt to the houfe 
of commons, and being read by 
Mr. Speaker, 

Refolved, Nem. Con. 

" That an humble addrefs be 
prefented to his majefty, to return 
his majefty our dutiful thanks for 
gracioufly communicating to this 
houfe, that he has received repeated 
intelligence of the adual prepara- 
tions making in the French ports to 
invade this kinodom, and of the 
imminent danger cf fuch invafion 

EAR i75<5. 93 

being attempted ; and for his ma- 
jefty's parental and timely care of 
the fafety and preferva;ion of his 
people ; to affure his majefty, that 
this houfe will, with rhcir lives and 
fortunes, fupport and lland bv his 
majeuy, acainll all attempts what- 
ever ; and that his faithful com- 
mons, with hearts warm with affec- 
tion and zeal for his majefty's facred 
perfon and government, and ani- 
mated by indignation at the daring 
defigns of an enemy, wshofe fleet 
has hitherto ihunned, in port, the 
terror of his majefty's navy, will 
chearfuily exert th;ir utmoft efforts 
to repel all infuUs, and efi'cftually 
enable his majefty, not only to dif- 
appoint the attempts of France, but, 
by the blcfungof God, to turn them 
to their own confufion." 

ilejolved, " That an humble ad- 
drels be prefented to his majefty, 
that he will be gracioufly pleafed to 
give direfiions to his lieutenants of 
the feveral counties, ridings, and 
places, within that part of Great 
Britain called England, to ufe their 
utmofi: diligence and attention to 
carry into execution the feveral afts 
ot parliament, made for the better 
ordering the militia force of that 
part of Great-Biitain called Enc- 

To the addrefs of the houfe of 
commons, his maj fty was plea.^ed 
to give this moll gracious anfwer : 

" I return you my thanks for 
your dutiful and affeclionate ad- 
drefs, and for this frefn, and very 
particular mark of your unanimous 
zeal in the defence of me and n y 

You may depend on my con.lant 
endeavours for the prefervation and 
fafe:y of my kingdoms." 
. St. Chriftopher's, March lo. A 
proclamation has been publiflied in 
Antigua by his excellency Gen<='r;fl 


Thomas, dated the 6th inft. That 
the late Major General Hopfon, 
having propofed the raifing fix com- 
panies in the iflands under his go- 
vernment, (each company to con fi ft 
of one captain, three lieutenants, 
four ferjeants, four corporals, and 
loo private men :) that each officer 
fhall receive the fame pay as the 
OiHcers of the King's troops, and 
each private man three bits a day : 
that all fuch negroes as fhould be 
killed or maimed, fnould be paid for 
by his majei^y, (according to fuch 
appraifement as fliculd be made 
thereof before their embarkation, 
by perfons to be appointed by his 
excellency :) that tranfports fhould 
be provided at the cxpence of the 
crown for fuch negroes : and that 
they fnould, at the like expence, be 
vidualled in their paffage to Gua- 
deloupe : his excellency therefore, 
in his majefty's name, iignified to 
all perfons, who fhould be willing 
to lend any cf their flaves to the 
faid ifiand of Guadeloupe, that he 
had recommended to General Bar- 
rington, that his majelly fhould 
fland engaged for the payment of 
fuch flaves fent upon the expedition, 
as fhould die, defert, or not be ac- 
tually returned to thsir refpedive 
proprietors. And as a further en- 
couragement to engage white vo- 
lunteers to go upon the prcfent ex- 
pedition againilGuadeloupe, Gene- 
ral Harrington has proniifed that 
the private men of each company 
fhall have lands, as well as their 

We hear from Berlin, that on the 
2,-d ult. the commandant of this 
capital notified to all the officers 
pnibners of war, Auftrians. French, 
Ruilians and Swedes, or of the army 
of the empire, who are here at pre- 
l"er.t, to the number of i8o, an or- 


der of the King enjoining them to 
retire immediately to Spandau. 

N. B. The notification is in the 
State Papers. 

Lately died Mr. James Sheill, 
farmer, of Knoftopher, in the 
county of Kilkenny, in Ireland, 
aged T36. 

Extrad of a letter from Naples, 
April 17. 

It is generally believed that a 
treaty is adually concluded for prc- 
ferving the peace of Italy, and that 
there are many circumllances that 
confirm it; but that a triple alliance 
is concluded between oar court and 
that of Vienna and VerfaiJIes, is a 
rumour premature, if not falfe and 
without foundation. The pacifi- 
cation, as it is called, fettles thefe 
points; firft, that our Soveieigni 
fhall refign his Italian dominions 
to the Prince Don Philip Antonio, 
his eldeft fon ; fecondly, that the 
King of Sardinia fhall have the mar- 
quifate of Final ; and thirdly, that 
the Milanefe being annexed to the 
duchies of Parma, Placentia, and 
Gualtalla, his Royal Highnefs the 
Infant Don Philip fhall affume the 
title of King of Lombardy. 


Two thoufand workmen are „ 
employed at Havre de Grace, 
in building i 50 fiat bottomed boats, 
100 feet long, 24 broad, and 100 
deep, loOjOco livres are paid to 
them weekly. Thefe boats are to 
have a deck, and to carry two pieces 
of cannon each, and to ufe their 
fails or oars, as occafion may re- 
quire. Some will carry 300 men, 
with their baggage, and others 1 50 
iiorfe with tiieir riders ; 1 ^o more 
are building at Brsll, St. Maloes, 

For the Y 

Nantes, Port L'Orient, Morlaix, 
and other parts of Brittany. 

Lall Wednerday a great quantity 
of fnow fell in Surry and Kent ; in 
fome places it laid on the ground 
more than four inches thick. 
Authentic Advices from the Eaft- 

Madraff, May 22, 175:8. Ad- 
vices are received, that on the zzd 
of April M. de Laily had arrived 
on the coall with nine fhips of the 
line, and two frigates. Seven of 
thefe velTels anchored in the road 
of Fort St. David's on the 28th. 
Two were ftationed in the ofiing, 
towards the north eaft, and two 
fent to Pondicherry, where they fet 
on fhore M. de Lally and feme 
troops, the number not known. 
The two Englifh 20 gun fhips, 
Triton and Bridgewater, were in 
the road cf St. David's, when the 
French fleet came there, (o were 
obliged to run afhorej by which 
means both crews and moll of the 
Hores were faved, and put into 
Fort St. David's. On the morning 
of April 2g, boats from Pondicher- 
ry were bringing to land the fjj- 
diers, bat fled on Admiral Pccock's 
appearing with his fquadron, con- 
filting of the Yarmouth, Elizabsrh, 
Tyger, Weymouth, Salifljury, Cum- 
berland, Queenborough, and Pro- 
tector. The French weighed, and 
bore away to the northward, to 
avoid coming to adlion ; but at two 
in the afternoon Admiral Pocock 
came up with them, and had a hot 
engagement for two hours, during 
molt part of which the Zodiac of 
74 guns, commanded by Mr, d' 
Apfche chief d'efcardre, the Bien- 
aime of 64, and the Comte de 
Provence of 74, engaged the fhip 
in which Admiral Pocock was ; but 
he acquitted himfelf fo gallantly, 

EAR 1759. 95 

that the Zodiac was forced to bear 
away, and the example was followed, 
by ttie reft of the fleet. Admiral 
Pocock had only five fhips in the 
action, the relt not being near 
enough ; but with thefe he purfued 
the French till night, when they 
put out their lights. They alfo 
outiailed him, as the rigging of his 
fhips had been much damaged iti 
the engagement. On board the Ad- 
miral's fnip feven men were killed 
and 32 wounded ; in the other four 
fnips 22 were killed and C5 wound- 
ed. The lofs of the French is judged 
to be miich more confiderable, as 
the Ihips were crowded with men, 
and our people aimed at the hulls. 
The BienainiC was fo much fhat- 
tered that they were oblged to rua 
herafhore at Allumperva, and many 
of the crew were faid to be drowned. 
The two French fhips liationed in 
the N. E. were not in the engage- 
ment. The French fleet got into 
Pondicherry, having pail ours ia 
the night. 

June 22. Advice was this day 
received at Madrafs, that Cudalore 
and Fort St. David's had both fur- 
rendered to the French. M. de 
Laily, it feems, has authojity to 
act in all militi.ry affairs indepen- 
dent of the governor of Pondicher- 
ry ; by V. hich means the difputes 
and delays that have often retarded 
the progrefs of troops in India, are 
all avoided ; fo that he cook the 
field almoft as foon as he lanced. 
Cudalore was ill fortified, and could 
make no refi fiance ; bat it was 
e.vpefled that Fort Sr. David's 
would have held out till Admiral 
Pocock could have repaired the 
damage done to his vefTels, and 
have come to its relief, as it was 
well fortified, and had a firong 
garrifon : but it furrendeicd in i 2 




days, there being in it no place 
that was bomb-proof to fhelter the 
men, fo that great numbers were 
killed, and there was frefh water 
for two days only ; fo that the gar- 
rifon, being obliged to drink fait 
water for ten days, were fo afflided 
with fevere ficknefs, that few were 
iit for duty ; it furrendered on the 
2d of June. It is faid that M. de 
Lally had then with him about 
^000 Europeans. 

In July fome of our men that 
had been taken by the French made 
their clcape, and reported that the 
French had loft 70c men in the Tea 
fight. It is reported that M. de 
Lally borrowed jo,oco 1. of the 
Dutch at Portanova ; but they de- 
ny the truth of this. However 
that be, it is certain he feized a 
large Dutch vriTel that had about 
fourfcore thoufand pounds in Jpecie 
aboard, and gave bills for the a- 
mount on the French company, as 
alfo for the value of the Ihip, which 
was to be converted into a man of 
war of 60 guns. 

The King of Tanjour had, in 
the laft war, given an obligation to 
the French for aconfuierable fum of 
nionev, but never paid any part of 
it. T!;e payment of this was now 
demanded and refufed ; on which 
th ; French marclied to I'anjour, 
but fcon left it again ; and it was 
reported that tlie Tanjouiines had 
totally defeated him and taken all 
his artillery. On this all the troops 
at Madraf^, to the number of about 
icco men, marched, in hopes cf 
deftroying the remnant of the 
French army. But they had not 
gone far, before ihey heard the 
French had (ufFered li:tle ; fo ic was 
thought requifite for our troops to 
return fpecdily to Madrafs. 

After ihe tnpapemeat of April 29, 

Admiral Pocock endeavoured to re- 
turn to Fort St. David's ; but hi? 
rigging had been fo much damaged, 
that he had the greateft difficulty 
in working to the windward, and 
was twice blown as far as lat. 4. 
fjut at laft he got to Madrafs road, 
where a court martial was held en 
the captains of the Cumberland, 
Weymouth, and Newcaftle, for not 
having done their duty in the late 
adlion. One of them was broken 
and one fu'pended till his majclly's 
ple::fure fhould be known. Hut 
Captain Brereton of the Cumber- 
land was only fentenced to lofe a 
year's rank, as he had joined the 
admiral before the engagement was 

Admiral Pocock having repaired 
what damage his fhips had fuifcred, 
and made thefe examples of fuch 
as had not done their duty, failed 
again to attack the French flee:, 
which he found, Aug. 3, off Cari- 
cal. The French engaged at firll 
with much warmth, but flood off 
in about a quarter of an hour after, 
and made only a running fight, and 
got into the road of Pondicherry. 
VVe had only 30 killed and 60 
wounded, among whom was Com- 
modore Stevens, who received a 
mu&et ball in the fhculder, but was 
in good fpirits, and likely to do 
v.ell. Captain i^Iartin was alfo 
wounded in the leg by a fplinter. 
The lofs of the Fiencn is faid to 
be very great ; and their running 
away feenis to be an acknowledge- 
ment of it. 

The royal affent was given , 
by commiflion to the following 
ac\s : 

An afl f-^r granting certain fums 
out of the finking fund, and for ap- 
plying monies in the exchequer for 
the fervice cf 1759- 


For the YEAR 

For enabling his majefty to raife 
thefum of one mil; ion. 

I'o amend an ati of the lafl fef- 
fion for repealing the duty on fiiver 

For augmenting the falaries of 
tiie p'jifne judges, in the feveral 
courts in Great-Britain. 

For confolidating the annuiries 
granted in 1757, with the joint 
Itock of three per cent, annuities 
ready confolidated. 

To feveral laws reliting to draw- 
backs L'pon exportation of copper 
bars, and other merchandizes ; to 
the encouragement of the filk ma- 
nufactures ; and reducing the duties 
on maft', yards, bowiprits, tar, 
pitch, and turjentine ; to the en- 
couraging the gjowth of coffee in 
his majeliy's plantations ; to the 
fecuring the duties upon foreign- 
made iail cloth, and charging fo- 
reign-made fciils with a duty, cvc. 

To amend the a6l for granting 
his majelly feveral duties upon of- 
fices and penfions, and upon houfes, 
windows, or lights, fo far as the 
fame relates to tiie duties on ofHces 
and pcnfions. 

To amend the a^ relating to 

To amend the act for the en- 
couragement of feamen, and the 
prevention of piracies by private 
Ihips of war. 

For applying the m.oney granted 
for the militia. 

For enforcing the laws relating to 
the miilitia. 

For making compenfation to the 
proprietors o^ lands purchaied for 
enlarging the decks at Chy-tham, 
Porii'mouth, and Plyn.outh, &c. 

For applying a (um of money to- 
wards fcrtitying ^iilfcrd Haven. 

For preventing the importation 
of the woollen manafai^ures of 

Vol. II. 

1759.^ 97 

France into an v of the ports in the 
Levant fea, by his majefly's fubjefts. 

for prever.ting the fraudulent 
importation of cambricks and' 
French lawns. 

For regulating the power of tak- 
ing famp'es of fore'gn fpirituous 
liquors by exciTe ofiicers. 

For reguladng forfeitures incur- 
red by the laws ofexcife. 

/or the further punifhmcnt of 
perfons going armed or dilguiied, 
in defianc'.' of the laws cf cuuo.T.r, 
orexciie, and for appropriating cer- 
tain penalties mentioned in an aft 
of la'lt fellion for the due making of 

For the relief of debtors with re- 
fpeft to the imprhVnmenc of their 

For the better regulation of laft- 
age liod bailafiage in the, 

For the more eafy coHefting of 
poft fine-, &c. 

To prevent the frauds committed 
in the adrocafurement of coals in the 
"city and liberty r f Weilminiler. 

For the prefervation of turnpike 
roads in Scotland. 

For improving the navigation of 
the river Llydeto the city of G'af- 
gow, and for building a bridge 

For com pleating the navigation 
of the river W car 

for the better improvement of 
the river and port and haven of 

For erecting a uorkhoufe at P!y- 
mcathj fetting the poor at work, 
and mainthinirig them there. 

For diicharging the inhabitants 
of Manthelter from the c-^ftcm of 
grinding their corn at the fthool 

For eftab'.ifhir.g a nightly watch 
a: Guildford in Sur y. 

H For 



For laying a duty of two pennies 
Scots, upon every Scots pint of ale, 
porter, and beer, which {hall be 
brewed for file within the trwn of 
Kelfo, in the fiiire of Roxburgh, 
towards finilhing a bridge crofs the 
river Tweed. 

To ten road bills, and to forty 
private bills. 

After which tlie lords commif- 
fioners put an end to the feflion by 
a fpecch in his majelly's name, and 
by his orders prorogued the parlia- 
ment to Thurfdayj'the 26th cf Ju!y 

The populace aflaulted the houfe 
cf an err.inent vvoollen-dr'ipcr in 
Cornhill, one of the people called 
Quakers ; they pulled up the pave- 
ment, and fplit the window-fhutters 
of his fliop with large Hones ; the 
fiTialler pebbles were fiung up as 
high as the third Itory, the windows 
of which are much damaged : in 
the fecond fiory not fo much as one 
pane of glals has cfcaped. The 
windows cf the firfl: ftory were not 
truched, being fenced by ftrong 
fli utters on the outfide. 'I'he rea- 
fon of the mob's rel'entment was, 
his net illuminating his houfe like 
the reft of his neighbours. 
, Tlie right honourable the 

lord mayor, aldermen, and 
commons of the city of London, 
made their compliments to his ma- 
jefty in a very dutiful addrefs, on 
occafion of the Prince of Wales 
coming of age ; and the day follow- 
ing they complimented his Royal 
Highneis, and his auguft mother, on 
the fame joy iul occafion. 

. Was a remarkable trial in 

'^ ^' the court of King's Bench at 
3)ublin, whcie the right hon. the 
liarl of Belvidere obtained a vsrditl 
againft Arthur Rochfort, Efq; his 
brother, for iOjCCC 1. damages, be- 

fides cofts, for criminal converfat'on 
with his loidfliip's lady. This tranf- 
action happened about fifteen years 

The cufrom-houfe officers ^ , 
made a feizure on board an 
on.ward bound veflel in theThames, 
of a great number of new fword 
blades, which were artfully con- 
cealed in the hollow of large 
trees, cut about i z feet long ; and 
the better to cover their deceir, the 
bark and roots were left on, and 
the body fo neatly cemented with 
glew, that it was by mere accident 
that the difcovery was made ; an 
officer llriking his (lick againft one 
of the trees, found it was hollow, 
had it fawed, and the fwoid blades 
appeared, which wcie ordered to be 
re-landjd at the cuftom- houfe, and 
enquiry to be made after the perfons 

This day Ifabella Brans, , 

L T L r r i^th. 

now in the work-houJe of 

St. Botolph Alderfgate, entered into 
the 1 1 2th year of her age. She 
was born at Aberdeen in Scotland, 
has the perfcd ufe of all her 
fenfts, never uiVd fpeciades, and 
can read very fmall print ; Ihe 
worked for her bread till foe was 
upv.'ards of i 10, has none of the in- 
firmities which are the ufual attend- 
ants of old age, was in her youth a 
very line woman, and has Hill the 
remains of it j has a flow of Jpirits 
which perhajTS none of her a^e ever 
had, and is liill chearful and hearty; 
nature in her feeming far from 
being exhauftcd. i^he has h d 18 
children by two hufjands, has had 
many fits of illnefs, but is nnv in 
perfed health, and can walk four 
or five miles better than moil wo- 
men of fixty. 

A peribn was taken into , 

culiody on buuaay evening 


For th? YEAR 1759. 99 

by Tome gentlemen in St. James's P<"'COck, and Commodore Stevens, 

Park, and delivered to the guard, for their gallant behaviour in the 

for joining with and encouraging a Eaft Indies. 

mob to follow and grofsly infult A fleet of tranfports ar- , 

fome ladies of fafhion that were rived at Spithead, which are ^'^ ' 

walking there, by which nieans to be employed in a grand expedi- 

they were put in great danger of tion on tiie coafl of FrJince. 
theirlives. He wasytflerday brought George Errington and , 

b.fore John Fielding and Theodore Paul Vaillant, Efqrs, were ^5^"* 

Sydenham, Efqrs. and this day the chofen fherifTs of London and Tvid- 

foilov^ing fubiniilion appeared in the diefex. Five gent'emen have caid 

Daily Advertifcr : " I, J. V , their i^nes this month to be extufed 

having laft S'.:nday rigfit in St. ferving that afnce. 
James's-Park, very incor.i^derately, A Jetter from the country men- 

indi'creetiy, and unlawfully joined tions a very uncommon fort of in- 

a tumultuous body of people, wbo, feels, which within thefe fevv weeks 

by their riotous behaviour, put have made their appearance, and 

feveral ladies into imminent d .n- done confderable damage to the 

ger of their lives, and infulting grafs and corn. They bear a near 

feveral cenritmen who endeavoured appear^.nce to the caterpillar, sre of 

to fecuie ihem fro.m the infults of a dark colour, v^iih white ftripes 

the mob, do moll^ finceiely afrc from the head to the tail, and are 

pardon of thofe ladies, thofe r^cn- about two inches long. They feem 

tlcmen, and the public, for this my to aboi:nd mofi: about the head of 

extreme mifbehaviour ; and return the Tweed, where feveral farms 

thofe gentlemen my hearty thanks have been in a manner totally de- 

for their candid treatm.ent of me; flroyed by them. Thev are fo very 

and hope, that what I have fuffcr- numerous, that they cover fields of 

ed vvili be an example to others, rr^any hcres of ground, and in man^ 

and ps-event t;.e fcanJalous praciice places fo dole together, thai an 

for the future, of mobbing, on the hundred of them have been found 

flightell pretence, every lady that on little more than a fquare feet of 

r • '! be plealed to walk in the ground. Kioil people arc of opi-. 

Perk. J. V " nion, that they are caufed by the 

Infults of this kind have, no'iwith- late exceClve drought, though fe- 

ftanding this ad^ertilement, been verai old men remember much 

fince ri^peated, and ieveral other greater, without ar.y fuch appear- 

perioni have been app ehended for ancc. It has been obi'erved, that 

the like ."fF^nce, who, it is h-peJ, fnce the late rain?, many of them 

will be pui^iihed with the uitl.clt i'e- liave been found dead, fwelled to a 

verity, in Order to put a Hop to fuch coi fiJerabie bigr.efs. 
cutrag-rous behaviour, in the verge Samuel Sc'imlhaw and James 

of the royal palace. Rcls Itcbd in the pillory in Cheap- 

n At a general court of the fide, for lending a threatening le-ter, 

F.^fl-India company, a mo- to extort a large fum of money from 

tion v^a- m:ade, and unanim.oufly Humphrey Morrice, Efq; and were 

agreed to, for the thanks of the fcvereiy pelted by the populace ; 

company to be given to Admiral but one of the (heriff's oficers hav- 

H 2 




ing received Tome aflront by being 
too near the pillory, drew Iiis fword, 
and fell pcll-inell among the thick- 
eft of the people, cutting his way in- 
difcriminately through men, women 
and children. This diverted the 
fury of the mob frou) the criminals 
to the officer, who not being able 
to fland againll fuch number?, made 
good his retreat to an ai^jaining al- 
ley, where not above tuoor three 
could prefs upon him at a time, and 
thereby made his elcape. 

[ i he above delinquents were con- 
victed on the evidence of Peter Parry 
their accomplice, for fending threat- 
ening letters to Humphrey Morricc, 
of Dover-ilreet, Efq; with an intent 
to extort money from him. They, 
together with one Richardfon, who 
has abfcondcd, kept an office of 
intelligence in the Fleet-market, 
and Parry had applied to them to 
get a place. This Parry having had 
fome acquaintance with the wife of 
one Gcfling, who was groom to 
Mr. Morrice, and being prcfent at a 
meeting that was held to bring this 
couple (v\ho lived in a ftdte of en- 
iriiry) to feme terms, he heard the 
woman in her paffion call her huf- 
band Buggcrer. That very night 
he was to have met Scrim (haw, SiC. 
and at the next meeting, in making 
his apology, told what had pafied 
between Gofling and his wife. 
Scriinfiiaw no fconer heard the word 
Bugqerer, but his fertile brain fug- 
gelTcd a fcheme to get money, and 
putting hi.-^ finger to his nofe, hcfaid. 
Something mi-; come cf this. On this 
ilender foundation the confpiracy 
wss formed and carried on. Being 
foiind guilty, they received fentence 
to be iinprifoned three years in 
Newgate, and to Hand twice in the 
pillory, once in Cheapfide, and 
•nee in Fleet-itrcct.] 

Early in the morning Je- , , 
nifon iihafcoc, Efq; llaned ^"^"' 
agdind time, to ride fifty miles in 
two hours ; in the courfe of which 
he ufcd ten horfes,and did it in two 
feconds under eeven minutes of the 
time prcfcribed by the articles, to 
the allonifhnient of all prefent. 

The lieutenant of a cutter , 

from Sir Edward Hawke, ' 
arrived at the Admiralty, with ad- 
vice, that when the cutter left the 
fquadron, the men of war in Brelt 
water were under weigh, and tliat a 
great number of troops were cm- 
barking all that day on board the 
French fleet. 

There is now in the gar- , 

den of George Montgomery, ^ ** 
Efq; at Chippenham-hall, Cam- 
bridgefViire, the largeft American 
aloe plant, now coming in flower, 
that ever was leen in England. Jt 
is J04 years old, and it is thought 
it will be forty feet high. 

The land forces now in Great- 
B;itain, are two troops of horfe-gre- 
nadier guards; feven regiments of 
dragoons ; the thiee regiments of 
foot guards ; thirty-four regiments 
of foot, and thirty-two independent 

In Ireland, four regiments of 
horfe ; fix of dragocns ; and twelve 
of foot. 

1 he militia of feveral counties 
have been reviewed this month, by 
their cummanding of.icers, "In the 
prefence of the lords lieittenants, 
and gr?at numbers of perfons of dif- 
lindlion. They all performed tiieir 
exercife amazingly well, behaved 
dutifully to their fuperiors, foberly 
in their quarters, and fccmed full of 
cheerfulnefs and alacrity, .inJ ready 
to march wherever they were order- 
ed, for the defence of their country. 

A map has been lately publilhed 


For the YEAR 1759. 


at Peterf&nrg, of the country ad- 
joining to the north-weft of Calif', r- 
nia, which extends and joins to tlie 
continent of Afia, and proves the 
north-weft paft'ige to China, which 
has been fo long fought, imprafti- 

Prince Edward has been lately 
appointed commander of the Phce- 
nix, a ne^v man of war of 44 guns. 

Died lately, Donviid Cameron, of 
Kinnicklabar, in Rannach, North 
Britain, aged 130. He married a 
wife when he was 100. 

Naples, May 29 Laft week the 
apartment of the late father Pope, 
the jefuit, for whofe pulpit and con- 
feffion box the people made great 
fcrambling, from a notion of ins 
great fanftity, was opened, in the 
prefenceof our cardinal archbilhop, 
and one of the king's minifters. 
There were found in it'6ooounces of 
gold in fpccie ; bills amounting to 
5-, coo ducats ; iboo lb. of wax ; 
10 copper veflcis full of Dutch to- 
bacco; three gold repeating watches, 
four fnuit boxes made of rare (hells ; 
200 filk handkerchiefs, and acapival 
of 300,000 ducats. Before his death 
he made a preient to Jefus church 
of a piece of velvet hangings lac- 
ed with gold, a large llatue of the 
immaculate conception, of maffy 
iilver, and a fine pyramid to be 
creeled in the front of the church. 



A violent tempeft happen- 
ed in Denmark, the efFedts of 
which were felt even in the bowels of 
the earth. The combuftible matters 
in the territory of Ladegard took 
fire ; a high wind drove the fiames 
and fmoke into the town of Ripen, 

v/hich would have been entirely 
aeilroyed, had not the wind fud- 
denly fhifted. 

Died the rev. Mr. Mendy, , 
refior of Flymtree, and vicar 
of Hartford and Venottery, Devon j 
who Cix weeks before ordered his 
vault to be made, and every day 
vifited the workmen ; he alfo be- 
fpoke his cofhn. 

Birmingham. By the floods occa- 
fiofitfd by the heavy rains, great da- 
mage hath been done n the neigh- 
bourhood to the grafs that was cut 
down, as well as to that which was 
ftanding, by its being filled v.ith 
fand and gravel ; and on Monday 
two horfcs at Crete bridge, in the 
Stiaiford-road, and one near Plar- 
barn, were drowned; and a man 
was drowned in endeavouring to 
crofs Stone-bridge, lear Meriden. 
[In and about London, numbers of 
people have been drowned, particu- 
larly young perfons in 
themfelves ] 

A report was this morn- 
ing fpread at London, and ^ 
many other places, that the French 
wereaclcally landed; which report: 
took its rife from the following cir- 
cumftance : " Commodore Boys, 
from Deal, feeing two veiTels in the 
offing, rigged in an unufual way, 
and much in the fame manner in 
which the new French boits are faid 
to be, made a fignal for his cruizers 
then at anchor in the Downs, to flip 
and chafe them, and lOon after went 
on board his own fhip, to give fuch 
further orders as might appear to be 
neceilary. A fubaltern oriicer quar- 
tered at Deal, did not much reliih 
thei'e dif; oiitions, and fent away in 
great haile to General Bolcawen, 
who commanded in Do*er-^^aftle, 
to know what he was to do with his 
H 3 little 






]ittle regiment of thirty men, forthat 
the French boats were in fight, the 
cruizcrs were in chace, and the com- 
niodoie was gone on board. 

The general, on receiving this Co 
feemiugly pofitivc advice, fvom one 
of his own cificcrs then on the fpot, 
unfortunately did not {[uy to make 
any farther enquiry, hut infiantly 
forwarded the letter he had received 
to the ftcretary at war by an ex- 
prefs, who fprtad the alarm through 
every place he paiTcd, and reached 
London time enough to occafion 
unfpeakable confajion, before his 
news could be coniradicled. 

The commodore knew nothing of 
all this, though he was fo unfortu- 
nate as to bear the blame of it; 
he was, as indeed he well might be, 
very angry \Vhen he heard of it, 
and diredlJy fen t 'off other expreffes 
to contradid, and as fait as poflible 
to remedy the inconveniencies occa- 
fioned by the over-hafte of the for- 
mer one. The vefTels proved to be 
two Dutch hoys going fjuietly about 
their own bufiuefs." 

George Martin, one of the vil- 
lains concerned in the audacious 
attempt, lately Enadc, to carry off a 
lady from her lodgings in Thrift- 
flreet, in conjuntlixjn with her huf- 
band, from whom Ihe had been di- 
vorced, was tried at the c,uarter- 
felllons at Weftminiler, and fen- 
tenced to pay a fine, and fuffer im- 
prifonment for fix months. 

By letters from Vice-Admiral 
Cotes, Commander in chief of his 
majeliy's (hips at Jamaica, dated 
May 1 1, advice has been received at 
the Admiralty-office, that on the 
29th of April, his majel^y's ihip the 
Viper brought into Port-Royal a 
large Dutch iliip calicd Adrian, 
laden with fugar, indigo, and ».of- 

fee ; (lie came under convoy of two 
French merchant frigates, bound to 
Europe. ' And that the -d of May, 
his majefty's fhips Dreadnought, 
Seaford, Wager, Pt regrine, and 
Port Antonio, took the two Krench 
frigates, and another large Dutch 
fhip that was under their convoy. 
The fiigates are the Hardy of 20 
guns, and 150 mtn, and the Her- 
mione of z'd guns, and 17c men, 
and are loaded with t'iie iineft fugars 
and indigo, and a.e eftecmed \try 
rich fhips. 

A diciidful fiorm of thun- ■, 

der and lightning broke -^ ■ 
forth in the neighbourhood of 
Kirkaldy, which Lifted without in- 
termifTion, from hve in the morning 
till five in the afierrocn ; during 
which fpace iwo women who attend- 
ed a bleaching ground, were flruclc 
dead by the lightning. One of 
them was fitting on a rifing ground, 
with a child fucking at her breaii ; 
by her fall ihe little infant was tum- 
bled down the hill, but received no 
manner of hurt. 

An order of,counciI was , 

iffued, declaring that all his 
majefty's faithfiil fubjeds, who fhall 
infill themfelves in the land fervice 
from this day, ihall not be lent out 
of Great-B.'itain, and lliail be in- 
titled to their dil'charge at the end 
of three years, or at the end of the 
war, as they fnall chufe ; and all 
deferters who fhall rejoin their re- 
fpedive regiments, c-r any other 
c-xps if their own be cut of the 
kingdom, before the zoth of Augufl 
next, fhall be pardoned. 

Came on before the lowis ^ , 
of appeal, the caufe of a Spa- 
nifh ihip, tailed the St. juan Baptif- 
ta, Jofeph Arteaga, mafler, taken 
in her pafTage from Corunna tq 

For the Y E 

Nantz; when, after a long hearing 
and many learned arguments, their 
loid'hips weje pleafed to decree ttic 
reitituvion of both fiiip and caroo ; 
but from an irregularity in the pafs, 
no colls were given the claimants 
, A rnoll dreadful fiorrr) of 

^'"' thunder and lightning be- 
gan in the evening in the neigh- 
bcuihood of Eiiflol, bv which a 
man was ftruck blind in Hallierlt 
lane. The lightning was the moll 
terrifying, and the claps that fuc- 
ceeded the loudell that has been 
heard in thofe parts for many years. 
, Thechimnies of the houfe 

^5"'- of Mr. Whitfield, lord of the 
manor of Rick manfvvorth, were beat- 
en down by the thunder and light- 
ning, and the windows on one iide 
broken. As a lar-y was combing 
her hair at the window, the comb 
in her hand was fliivered to pieces, 
and the bed in her room fplit and 
rent in a furprifing manner, yet fhe 
did not receive the leait hurt. Some 
of the bricks of the chimnies were 
carried an hundred yards from the 

Tiie following is faid to be the 
number of boats dellroyed at Havre 
de Grace by Admiral Rodney; fix 
finilhed, 42 half planked, 85 rib- 
bed ; total 131. The bomb vef- 
fels threw 1920 fliells, and ii:;o 
carcaffes, from m.ortars of twelve 
_ , The parliament which 

' ' ' ftocd proiogued to the 26ch 
inilant, was furrher prorogued to 
Thurfday the 30th of Augult. 

, At a court of common- 

'5 • council held at Guildhall, 
it was refolved by the commiiiioners 
appointed to carry the ail of parlia- 
ment into execution, for building a 
bridge crofs the river i names, from 

AR 1759.' 103 

Black-friars to the oppclite fhiore ; 
That a fum not ejcceeding 144,000!. 
fhallbe forthrtith contraifled for, 
and ra-fed within the fpace of eight 
years, by inLlal.'ments, not exceeding 
30,000!. in one year, the money fo 
to be contradled for to be paid in- 
to thechairiber of i ondon ; that the 
perfons advancing the money have 
an interell of 4I. per ann. to bs 
computed from the time of-the f.rll 
payment iri each year, upon the 
whole fums by them refpedlively ad- 
vanced within the year; but I'hall 
incur a forfeiture in cafe of negleft 
to make good any of the ilipulated 
payments ; the faid annuities to be 
paid half-yearly by the chamberlain, 
but to be redeemable at the expira- 
tion of the firil ten years, upon fix 
months notice ; and, that the cliam- 
berlain fhall affix the city's feal to 
fuch inf.rument as the committee 
fhall think fit to give, purfuant to 
the faid adl, for iecuring the pay- 
ment of the faid annui;ics. 

The Golden !Jon, a _ , 
Greenland fhip belonging '' 
to Liverpool, in entering that port 
was boarded by two men of war's 
tenders, tr.e commanding lieute- 
nant declaring he would prefs 
every man of the crew, unlefs they 
wouid-enter voluntarily. The c'rew 
flood upon their defence, and con- 
fined their officers ; the king's lieu- 
tenant called out to the Ven- 
geance man of war to fire into the 
Golden Lion ; but the crew being 
fiXty in number, kept him and his 
people on deck to (hare the fame 
fate with themfelves. The Ven- 
geance fired away, and that within 
piltoi-fhot, and ievcral of^ her nine 
pounders, befides raking the fhip, 
fell in the town, and did fome da- 
mage ; the crew of the Golden 
H 4 Lioo 



I, ion filled her fails, and got her into 
harbour ; and gave bond, refold- 
ing to aft of parliament, and renew- 
ed their proiedlions ; neverthelefs 
the prefs-gang purfued them to the 
tuftom-houfe, feiscd Capt. Thoinp- 
Ibn, the commander, and live of his 
men, and woundfd a defpe- 
ra:eJy, who was only a fpeciator. 

n , Sailed from Plymouth the 

2oin. TT c r^ . 

Hero man of war, Captain 

Edgecumbe, havi.g Prince h'd^vard 
on board, in company with the Ve- 
nus, PaUas, Adleon, Sa;;phire, and 
Sou'.hampton irigates, to join hir 
Edward HawJte's flett. [Hi:, Royal 
High efs on tiic 2d initait arrived 
• in the bay, and was received with 
the greaieil dcmouilrat'o-.isof joy bv 
the flee-, and complin. eiued by all 
the admirals and capains, accoid- 
jng to their feniority ] 

Zara, a beautilul lionefs in the 
Tower, lately whelpec, and brought 
forth two. 

A Sillee cruizer has taken an 
Engl;lh vefiel from Cork lailen with 
leather, aud carried her into Tan- 
gier ; and it is thought (he will be 
condemned, as well a^ all others 
they meet with. 

The crew belonging to the Litch- 
field man of war, that was wrccktd 
feme time ago on the coaft of Bar- 
bary, and {o\x\q other Englifh iub- 
jtfts that vvere made flaves, areran- 
Ibmed for 170,000 hard dollars. 

The Favourite (loop of war, Capt. 
Edwaidj, of 16 fix pounders, 4 
three pounders, and 1 10 men, has 
taken the Valour of 20 nine poun- 
der?, 4 twelve pounders, and the 
fame number of men, after an ob- 
flinate tngagemtnt, and carried her 
into Gibraltar. She came from St. 
Domingo, and is a valuable prize. 
A machine haih been invented 

by a pritH at Bologna, in Italy, to 
remove wallb from one t:* ano- 
ther. Trial being made of it in St. 
Michael's church in that city, to en- 
large the choir, it removed a wall 
thirteen inches thick, fourt<en feet 
broad, and tventy feet hi' h, to the 
dillance of nine feet, in the fpace of 
feven minutes 


Letters have been received n 
by the American mail, givnj/ 
an atxount of the fufff rings cf Capt. 
.•^ arron and his crew, in the Dolphin 
flriop, bourd (lom t:>e Canaries to 
New York ; they had been from 
the Canaries one hundred tixty-iive 
day , one hundred and fixtCv^n of 
which th<jy uad nothing to eat, 
Capt. Bradlhavv of the Andaiufia 
took iheni up at fea, and when 
they came aloni,fide the (hip they 
were fo very weak, that they were 
obliged to be hauled on board by 
ropes ; there were the captain and 
feven others ; but f ch poor mifer- 
able creatures ("urc never were leen | 
had it been a week longer, they 
mult all have Hied. The captain 
and people declare-, that they had 
not had any (liip provifions for up- 
wards of three months ; that they 
had eaten their dog, their cat, and 
all their fhoes, and, in Ihort, every 
thing that was eatable on board 

Being reduced to the laft extre- 
mity, they all agreed to call lots for 
their lives, which accordingly they 
did : the ihorteil lot was to die, the 
next (horteft was to be the execu- 
tioner. The lot fell upon Anthony 
Galatia, a Spanifh gentleman, a paf- 
fengei j they (hot him through the 
head, which they cut oft" and threw 


For the YE 

overboard ; then tcok out his 
bowels ard eat them, and afterwards 
eat all the remaining part of the 
body, which lalkd but a very little 
while. The captain faw they were 
for cafiing lots a fecond time, but it 
happened very luckily that he be- 
thought himlelf of a pair of breeches 
that were lined with leather ; he 
fo^n found them, took out the lin- 
ing, and cut off for each man's fhare 
a piece of about an inch and a half 
fquare, for the day's allowance ; 
that, with the grafs which grew 
upon the deck, was all the fupport 
they had for about twenty days be- 
fore they were taken up ; the grafs, 
as Capt. Bradlhaw writes, was, in 
fome places, four or five inches long 
upon the deck. 

T..e cafe of Capt, Cox, fate of 
the Sarah and Moliy, is no lefs de- 
plorable ; about the middle of No- 
vember lail he failed from Louif- 
bourg with a number of foldiers for 
St. John's, being thirty-fix perions 
in all on board ; and on the 2cih, 
it being extremely cold ftormy wea- 
ther, they were caft afhore at Cape 
Selaware, on the main. While on 
the rocks, feven c f the peoJe were 
drowned, among whom was the 
captain's Ion ; the reft, w'vh. a great 
deal of difficulty, got alhore, and 
endeavoured to travel to Margo- 
marfh; but after travelling three 
days, twenty-two of them were 
frozen to death, and all the others, 
excepting himfeif, loft fome ot their 
llmb.s tlicy having been without 
tire or provifions the whole time ; 
after which feven Indians appeared 
with fpears to kill thertt, but were 
prevented by a French prieft, who 
relieved them, with n.uch difficulty. 
At a numerous committee for 
building the new bridge, a motion 

AR 1759. 105 

was made by Sir Robert Ladbroke, 
and unai.imoufly agreed to by the 
committee, " That the thanks of 
this committee be given to Mr. 
Paterfon, for his particular afliftance 
in obtaining the aft of parliament 
for a new bridge, and his zeal and 
attention to promote the means for 
carrying the adl into execution." 

This day the trial of Eugene , 
Aram, for the murder of Daniel ^ 
Clark fourteen years ago, came on 
at York affizes. 

As fome workmen were making 
a new ditch in the county of Louth, 
in Ireland, they found a large ring 
of gold j6 inches in diameter, the 
gold half an inch thick; the circle 
wanted about two inches of being 
complete; they cut it into five 
pieces ; two of which weighed 
9 oz. 

Oxford. The right hon. the 
Earl of Wefimoreland, chancellor 
of this univerhty, having received 
a letter from the King of Pruffia 
(wiicten with his Majefty's own 
hand) cxpreffing his thanks for the 
prefent lately made from hence, of 
the new volume of lord Clarendon's 
hiftory, the fan~ie has been com- 
municated to the vice-chancellor, 
and on Sunday Ir.ft read to the doc- 
to'sand mafters in fuii convocation. 
And, the fame day, their feal was 
affixed to a letter to the King of 
Naples, containing the thanks of 
the univerfity, for a prefent lately 
received from his Neapolitan ma- 
jefty, of two large volumes in folic, 
being the hiftory of the curiofities 
and antiquities difcovered at Por- 

The annual prizes given by , 
the han. Edward Finch and ' ' 
Tho. Townfti^nd, Efqrs. members 
of the univerfity of Caaibridge, were 




determined in favour of Mr. Roberts 
of King's College, and Mr. Bf;:d()n 
oi' :A. (chn's College, middle bache- 
lors. The iijbjcd of the fjormer was, 
Craiio p o Socrate ad Populum 
^ithcnicnfem ; and, for the latter, 
Uiiuni in bene confiiiutain Civ ta- 
um 1 udi i.-cenici admitti debtant .'' 
., A qt:;.rter after ten at 

^''* ni^ht, a violent fnr-ck of an 
earthquake <vas f;.lt at Bourdeaux, 
W.hich lalltd 1 5 fcconds. It was 
pu'Ceded, lor half a minute, by a 
i'jiid fubtcirancous nciie Several 
bells Icundcd very loud. T'he doors 
and moll of the windows opened 
and fiiut with great violence. Many 
bricks and Hates were thrown from 
the roofs. Very little china or 
earthen ware was left whole in the 
lown, and the roof of the church 
cf Notre Dame entirely fell in. 

i^ 1 he wife of one Edward 

'' '" Knight, of Warwick, was 
taken in labour about five o'clock 
in the morning ; the midwife who 
attended her, iif^er giving her all 
the afiiftante in her pDwer, believed 
her to be dead, and then left her. 
About live in the afternoon the 
de^d vvoman was pot into a coffin, 
with a fiiroud over her. The next 
morning the nurfe going into the 
room where the ccrjie lay, ffie fan- 
cied fhe fav/ forricthing move the 
fliroud up and down in the coffin, 
and ran. away m.uch frightened to 
acquaint the people of the houfe be- 
low, who iinrr.tdiately went up flairs 
with her to examine what it cou'd 
be ;vvhcn turning down the fhroud, 
to iheir gre.rt altoniihment ihey faw 
a live cliild groveling in the faw- 
dufl, which had delivered itlelf 
from the corpfe as it lay in the 

ccfiir.. As Icon as their furprize 

was over, they wraj-ped tiie thiid 

in fiannel, and tork all po{?iblo 
care to preferve it, but it died be- 
fore they could drtfs it. 

A courtof common council , 
was held at Guildhall, when ^ * 
the lord mayor acquainted them, 
that he had called that court to dfli- 
bcrate on a propofition of'great con- 
fecjuence to the itrvice of tlieir King 
and country, and hoped th^t the 
rtfult w(;uld be fuch as fhould do 
honour to the city, by proving the 
fincerity of their profcffions to his 
majefly. Whereupon the court re- 
folvfd and ordered, among other 
confiderations, that vo!u:uary lub- 
fcriptions fliould be received in the 
chamber of London, to be appro- 
priated as bounty money to luch 
perfons as Ihall enter into his ma- 
jeiiy's i'ervice, and that the city 
lubicribe looo 1. for that purpofe ; 
and a commiitee of twelve aldenuen 
and twenty-four;s was 
appointed to attend at Guildhall, 
to difpcie of the faid bounty money 
to tlie perfons applying for thefarr,e; 
and that one alderman and tuo 
commcncrs be a quorum fufficient 
to tranfacl bufineis ; and as a far- 
ther encouragement, every perfbn 
fo entering fl)all he entitled to the 
freedom of this city at the expira- 
tion of three years, or fooner, if 
the war fhould end; and Sir James 
Hodges, the town clerk, was or- 
dtied by the court to wait upon the 
right hon. Mr. Pitt with the faid re- 
folutions, and defiie him to inform 
his majeily of the fame. Some cf 
the committee are to wait upon 
Lord Ligonier, todenre hira to fend 
proper cfhcers to Guildhall, to re- 
ceive Itch perfons as fliall be in- 
lilted. At the faid court a moticn 
was made and agreed to, that ti>e 
perfous who iliail couiractfcr build- 

For the YEAR 1759. 


ing the new bridge, may be allowed 
to employ journeymen for that pur- 
pole that are non- freemen ; and the 
vacant ground at Blackfriars is or- 
dered to be enclofed, for the con- 
venience of the workmen. 

The town-clerk having, accord- 
ing to the above order, waited upon 
the Right Hon. Mr. Secretary Pitt, 
that gentleman, the next day, lent 
the foliO.vjng letter: 
To the Right Hon the Lord Mayor 
of the city of London. 
Whitehall, Aug. 15, 1759- 
My Lord, 

Having, in confequence of the 
defire of the court of common 
council, had the honour to lay be- 
fore the King their refolutions of 
yefterday, for offering certain boun- 
ties and encouragements to fuch 
able bodied men as iball inlifi them- 
felves at the Guildhall of London, 
to ferve in his majefly's land forces, 
upon the terms contained in his 
majefty's order in council ; I am 
commanded, by the King, to ac- 
quaint your Lordfhip (of which you 
will be pleafed to make the proper 
communication) that his Majefty 
thanks the city of London for this 
frefh tefdmony of their zeal and 
affeftion for his royal perfon and 
government. 1 am farther com- 
manded, by the King, to exprr fs his 
M3jeft)'smoll entire fatisladion, in 
thi> lignai proof of the unlhaken re- 
foiution cf rhe city of London, to 
fopport a jurt and neceiTary war, 
undertaken in defence of the rights 
and honour of his crown, and for 
the ftcurity of tiie colonies, the trade 
and navigation of Great-Britain. 

J am with great truth and refpeft. 
My Lord, 
Your Lordfhio's moft obedient 
humble fervant, 

VV. Pitt. 

[Mr. Pitt, Mr. Legge, the lord 
mayor, alderman, Beckford, and 
William Belcher, Efq; have each 
fubfcribed 100 1. the clothworkers 
company 300I. the goldfmiths com- 
pany 500 1. and the apothecaries 
lOoL to carry thefe laudable refo- 
lutions into execution.] 

About this time a mob af- , 

, fembledatHoufeman's houfe "^ * 
in Knarelb trough (who was acquit- 
ted of the charge of being concerned 
in the murder of Dc.niel Clark, in 
order to be admitted evidence 
againft Eugene Aram), and it was 
with great difficulty they were pre- 
vented from pulling it down : how- 
ever, they carried Houfeman about 
the llreets in effigy, which was after- 
wards knocked on the head with 
a pick-ax, aiid tlien hanged and 

Robert Saxby w.-is executed near 
Guildford for the murder of his bro- 
ther's wife at Wotton near Dorkio 
in Surry. He confefTed the fait, 
and gave as a reafon for commit- 
ting It, her unkindnefs to his fen. 
He was 72 years of age, and died 
hardened, f.ying, he could have 
lived but a few years longer if the 
thing had not happened, and fnewed 
no kind of horror at the heiaoaf- 
nefs of his crime. 

At a meeting of the com- 

mittee for carrying into exe- 


cution the act of par!iair;ent for 
ereding a bridge at Black-friars, it 
appeared, by the lifls, that the fum 
fubfcribed for that purpofe, amount- 
ed to2C4, tool, which is 60, 100 1. 
more than was wanted for the ne- 
ceffary occafion. 

This day a chapter of the , . 
moll noble oraer oi ta.: gar- 
ter was held at Kenfington ; pre- 
fent the Sovereign, the Prince of 
Wales, t'leDukeofNewcaftic, Earl 




ofGranville, EarlofLinco]n,E.irIof 
Winc^.elfca, Earl of Cardigan, and 
Earl Wa'degave, when his fcrene 
highnefs Prince Ferdinand of IJruuf- 
wick was eleded a knight coiTpa- 
nion of the faid molt noble order. 

Ac ihe aflizes held at Glimceller, 
came on 'he trial of Ephraim Lard- 
ner and Mary M'iih for the mur- 
der of a baftard child born on the 
body of Mills. On the trial it ap- 
peared that the child was born 
alive ; that Lardner took it from the 
mother, and buried it in a badger's 
hole in a wood, where the child 
was found by his direction, and ap- 
peared to have been ftrangled, as 
well as bruiled on different parts of 
the body. Lardner faid thech>ldwas 
dead when he received it from the 
mother ; but could not produce any 
evidence to prove it. Mills's evi- 
dence in court contradifted, in a 
great meafure, the tcftimony fae 
had given before the juiHce who 
committed them : and upon fum- 
ming up theevidence, the judge cau- 
tioned the jury from giving credit to 
any thing advanced by Mills againft 
Lardner, fince if that was admitted, 
women killing their baflard children 
mi^ht cha'-ge the murder on any 
inuoctnt perfon. The jury after 
fome debate, returned a verdict that 
the child was murdered, but that 
they knew not on whom to charge 
the murder; on being again fent 
out, acquitted Mills, and found 
Lardner guilty : on being fent out 
a third time, begged the judge's 
directions ; and at a fourth conful- 
tation acquitted both the prifoners. 
Orders were fent to the 
'^' cailom-houfe at Liverpool, 
to admit fugars and other produce 
of the ifland of Gaudeloupe, to 
be entered as Britiih plantation ; 
the Sarah, Capt. Taylor, having 

brought to their market the firft 
parcel of Gaudeloupe fugars im- 
ported into England fince the con- 
quell of that illand. 

The wife of Mr. Cam, in ^ . 
Woodltreet, was brought to " *' 
bed of three fons, baptifed Abra- 
ham, Ifaac, and Jacob. 

In the S lerborne Mercury of this 
day's date, there is an account of 
a remarkable pond at Melbury-bub, 
in Dorfefhire, which is faid in the 
morning to be covered with a thick 
oily fubllance, of a fcarlet colour, 
that dyes any thing red, but in the 
afternoon it changes to green. 

Eleven houfes were con- „ 

fumed by fire, in Cherry- * 

tree alley, Bunhill-row. 

The regiment commanded ^, 
by his Grace the Duke of " * 
Richmond, being encamped on 
Sou!h fea Common, rear South-fea 
Calile, had leave to depofit their 
powder and b.tll in the ealt wing of 
that fort Nine barrels or cartridges 
being placed in a lower room, over 
whitn there was a barrack, where 
the women waflied and drefTed vic- 
tuals, with a furze fire ; the floor- 
ing being very old, it is fuppofed 
fomefparks fell through the crevices, 
and in an inftant all that quarter of 
the fort was blown up, and many 
people buried under the ruin?. An 
invalid foldier was blown out of the 
fort above loo yards; the centry, 
another invalid, was blown over 
the parapet wall, and had both his 
legs, and one arm torn off. The 
force of the explofion burit open the 
door of the great niugazine, and 
tore a large bolt off, but reached 
no farther ; and all the windows are 
broke, almoft all the buildings da- 
maged, except the grar.d batteries 
towards the fea, and the batteries 
round the fort. 


For the YE 

' J At half an hour after four 

^ ■ in the morning, a violent 
fhock of an earthquake vvai felt at 
Bruffeis, which lailed about a mi- 
nute. The motion was continual 
and regular ; a flight trembling 
was felt in the ftrongull; houies, the 
doors were buril open, and the 
bolts flruck againft the polls like 
{o many hammers. Immed'.ately 
after the (hoek the air was quite 

The Friendlhip, Thompfon, ar- 
rived from Jamaica with about ^co 
hoglheads of fugar on board, by 
fome accident blew up at the Hope 
Point, by which feveral lives were 
loil. There wtre on board, when 
the misfortune happened, between 
3c and aO people, amongfl whom 
eighteen young Creolian', that were 
coming here for education, and the 
mate's wife and twochildicn; there 
ticaped but four perfuns, viz. two 
Dutchmeii and two Danes. 

, Rea; Adm. Rodney, with 

' ' his fleet of frigates and 
bomb ve/Teis, failed from Portf- 

About the latter end of lad 
month, the people of Berlin were 
put into the greateft confternaiion 
on the difcoveiy of a conlpiracy, in 
which fix or eight hundred defcrters 
were concerned, moil of them 
French, who were to fet fire to the 
city in feveral places, plunder the 
houle;, and then make thL-ir efcape. 
The chief and 2-50 of the conipira- 
tors were apprehended. 

About tne fame time a great 
iire broke out in Stockholm, by 
which they reckon that ;:;o houfes 
Lave been reduced to afhes. The 
lofs is computed at two millions of 

There were lately tried, at Well- 
miniler, before Lord Chief J u Rice 




Willes, (by a fpecial jury) a caufe, 
wherein Mr. iNicklefon, of Poole, 
was plaintiff, and Capt. Fortefcue, 
of the Prince Ld^^ard man of war, 
defendant, for iniprelling the men 
out of the Thomas and Elizabeth, 
from Newfoundland to Poole in 
confequence of which the faid fhip 
was loil; when a verdict was given 
for the plaintiff for 1000 1. and colls 
of f Jt. 

As fome boys were diverting 
themfelves lately, near Elgin, in 
Scotland, in looking for birds neils 
in the ruins of an old religious 
houfe, near that place, called. My 
Lady's High Houfe, they d:fco\ ered 
a quantity of gold coins, moflly 
Scots coin, fome of them coined in 
the reign of Queen iVIary durino- 
her marriage with Lord Darnley, 
and bear their names decyphered ; 
thofe in the reign cf James V. bear 
his effigies and his arms ; and there 
are lome of different fizes that ap- 
pear to have been coined in the 
reign of James VI. one of thefe is 
larger than a crown piece, and has 
on one fide this infcription. Jacobus 
VI. Dei gratia Rex Scotorum ; and 
the Scots aims, with a double tref- 
fure on the fhield, refembling a 
fhip, with a floop, mall, and fails; 
on the other fide, Florentl'cepit. piis 
regna ; his Jovi dat numeratque ; 
with a crofs flotce, adorned with 
crowns, and betwixt each branch of 
the crown a lion rampant crowned. 

Tnere are alio a few' foreign 

coins ; fome of thefe have Ludo- 
vitus Dei gratia Francorum Rex, 
with the French arms crowned, on 
one fide ; and on the other, a crofs 
topped with flowers de luce, motto 
XPi IMPERAT; fome, Henricus 
111. D. G. Francias et Pol. Rex ; 
and foiiie Spanilh, with Fernandus 



EHzabet. Dei gratia. The cha- 

rafters on the other fide are fov.e- 

what obfcure. AH the letters 

are Roman charaders. 

Campbeltown, in Argylfliire, June 
14. ijqg. This day Robert Mit- 
chell, in Saddale, aged 88, has in 
life, of Children, grand-children, 
and great grand-chiidren, 200; he 
walks from Saddale, to Campbel- 
town, which is eight miles; does 
bufinefs!, and walks hon^^e at night. 
On Thurfday the fecond inftant, 
a farmer in Calf-hill, near Had- 
dington in Scotland, fold new oats 
for 85. 6d. per boll. The oats were 
rcither Town norploughed this year, 
but fprung up from the fnaking 
of the lad crop : this has likewife 
liappened in feveral fields near 
Edinburgh. Tliat oats fhould re- 
jv.ain in the ground ail the winter, 
and thereafter ccrr.e to full growth, 
and turn out a molt plentiful crop, 
is fo extraordinary, that the like 
has not happened in the memory 
of man, and can be attributed to 
noihir.g but the mildnefs of the 

Portfmoutb, New Hamplhire, 
May 1 1. Laft Monday, about two 
o'clock in the morning, we h«J an 
uncommon llorm of thunder and 
liohtnine, which produced (ome 
ir.elanchoiy effeds, as it has greatly 
damaoed the Rev. Mr. Haven's 
ir>eeting-houfe; the lightning fti uck 
the llceple, and rending the fpire in 
pieces quite down to the cupola, 
over the bell, defcended in the north- 
eafterly and fouth-wefterly corner 
poll; the former of which it fliivtrcd 
into fmall Itrips from end to end; 
and Mattered one of the main polls 
in the end of the houfe ; it feems 
then to have moved horizontally 
upon the Rones of the underpining, 
as ic has fplit a confiderable piece 

of flone at the fouth-weH corn«ir 
of the meeting- hoLife, and entered 
the ground at ten or fifteen feet 
diftance, making two confiderable 
holes : but it is pretty evident a 
part of it took its courfe northerly, 
as three cows and a hog were in the 
morning found dead on the norrh- 
fide of the meeting-houfe, two cf 
which were in a rable about fixty 
feet from the fteeple. The glals 
windows in the fteeple are ail broke; 
two cafements next the pod which 
was fplit to pieces were itove quite 
into the houfe, &c. 

We have here a frcfh inftance of 
that marvellous power with which 
eleclric fire is endov\'ed ; this meei- 
ing-houfe feems particularly expof- 
ed to the effects, as it is lituatcd up- 
on a fmall elevation, which has on 
three fides of it, not far diUr.nt, 
large quantises of water, which is 
a powerful non-elcderic : and this 
is the fecondor third time ithas been 
ftruck with lightning. 

Died lately, Edward Murphy, of 
Birr, in the King's couniy in Ire- 
land, aged I 10. 

We hear frcn Madrid, that the 
loth inrt. Ferdinand King cf Spain, 
&rc. died at V^illa A'iciofa, in his 
46th year, Hefucceeded his father 
in 1746, and married the Infanta 
of Portugal, filler to the prefent 
King, who died about a year ago, 
by Wi'.om. he had no iifae. 

His majelly, by his will, ap- 
pointed his eldeft brother, the King 
of the Two Sicilies, to fucceed to 
the crown of Jrpain, and until his 
arrival, the Qiuen Dowager to be 
regent of the kingdom. Accord- 
ingly her majelly immediately af- 
fumed the government, and has 
commanded all officers to continue 
in their refpedlive polls till further 


For the YEAR 175^. in 

phenfcn, for the murder of Mr. 

SEPTEMBER. Francis Elccck, attorney, was ar- 
gued at Cheiter, before the hon. 

„ Draughts were made from Mr. Juftice Noel, chief juiiice of 

' the regiments at Chatham, CheAer, and Taylor White, Efq; 

Canteibury, and Dover, about 45 the other j-iilice. The court took 

men from each jcgimenc, to recruit time till the next morning for 

the regiments in Germany who fuf- de'ivering their opinion ; and 

fered in the battle of ThonhaufTen. accordingly, on Friday morning 

Perhaps hillory does rot pro- about eight o'clock, Mr. Juflice 

d'jce an inJtance uhere io fniall a Noe!, in a !ea^-ned and a pathetic 
bodv fuli^ined loch a fnocic as our rcech.fupported bv adjudged cafes, 
infantry did at this battle, without and the dcoliine of the wifeii f:ges 
g'ving way. of the law, and alio by arguments 0/ 
^^ A loan was at the reafon aud confcience, declared 
'^"' exchequer for 2CO,ccoI. up- his opinion, that the prifoner's 
on the voie r.f c^'dit, ou<^n fhefaine crime, iouiid by the fpeciai verdi:!, 
terms and conditions as the lomier could amount at mcit to 'man- 
lean of 300,000!. ilaughter only. Whereupon tlie 
, Her Royal Highnefs the pr-fcncr was burr.t in the ha::d, and 
^'' ' Princefs Elizabeth Camline, difch.'^ged from the inuiclment for 
fecond daughter of bis la-e Royal murder. 

Flighnefs Frederick Prince of Wales, Dr. Kenfey, fo long ccn.tined in 

died at Kew, in the i9i:h year of Newgare, gave b.^il before a judge, 

her age; being born on the ^lOth in order to plead his pardon the er.- 

of Decembt^r 1-^0. Her Royal Aiing letm, and was difchar'^edfrooi 

Kighiicfs was of a genius and dif- his confinement, 
pohtion equally to be admired and L.a(i month a mof! d-Tring mh- 

lovtd ; to be the drl'ght bery wa-. cornoiitied at Limerick ia 

and honour of a court ; pofT-ired of Ireland; two men entered the Cu- 

a.i unco.T.mon wit, tempered wuh llom-'hrure there, ore of whcm 

juiigment, and reltrained by nio- prefented a piilol to the clerk's 

Gefty ; for ever cheartu!, and the bread, whiHl the other robbed tlie 

caule of chearfulncis ; excellent in houfe of ab'-ut t8col. in calli,- and 

ail female accompiilhmenrS, and afterwards made their cfcape, lock- 

particulaily eminent for her fKill ing op the clerk in one of the o.*^- 

and tafle in mulic : but more than iices, though tvi'o centinels were 

all di;ii:;gui'hed by her goodnefs. liandiny at the door. 
Her neaiell: relations lofe a dear Kt-niington. This day the , 

and amiable companion, her royal Marquis d'-^brew, envoy ex- '" ' 

parent an obedient daughter, and traordinary from the court of Spain, 

Britain a fuprem.e bleffing. Applauie had a private audience of his Ma- 

which follows greatnefs, of'.en ex- jelly, to notify the death of the late 

ceeds its fubjedf; but here it is lels King of Spain. 

than truth. The right hon. tlie Lord Bar- 

^ . The fpecial verdid found rington, iecretary at war, by his 

at the lalt Chelier aifize, on majeity's command, waited on Lord 

the remarkable trial of John S:e- George Sackville, wiJi orders for 



1 12 

him to deliver up all his places that 
he held under the government. 

, Thomas Haywood, Efq; 

** * water bailiff of this city, by 
order of the right hon. the lord 
mayor, waited on her Royal High- 
nels the Princefs Dowager of Wales, 
with a prefent of a fine llurgeoii of 
feven feet in length, which her 
Royal Highnefs was pleafed to ac- 

, The remains of her late 

'+^"" Royal Highnefs Princefs 
Elizabeth Caroline were privately 
interred in the Royal vault in King 
Henry the fcventh's chapel, at Well- 

, Admiral Bofcawen arrived 

5 ■ at Spilhead, with his ma- 
jelly's fnips the Namure, Culloden, 
VVarfpite, Intrepid, Swiftfuie, Ame- 
rica, Portland, Salamander, and 
.^^tna firefhips, with the Temeraire 
and Modeile, prizes, with about 
8oo French prifoners. 

[The Modeile is a very fine fliip 
launched lall May, carries 32 pound 
fhct on her lower deck ; her quar- 
ter deck guns are brafs ; and fine 
brafs fwivels on her poop, very 
little hurt. The Temeraire is a fine 
74 gun fliip, 42 pounds below ; 
eight fine brafs guns abaft her main 
mall, and ten brafs on her quarter, 
very little hurt; one fhot came in 
at her ftern, went through her 
mizen mail, and lodged in her main 
mall. Coth ihips have not received 
above 20 fhot in tb.eir hulls. 

, Admiral Bofcawen waited 

' ' on hia majelly, and was moll 
gracioufly received. 

One Kitchens who had been dif- 
ordered in his fenfcs for fome time, 
going into the houfe of Mr. Thomis 
l^edworth, of King's-Wocd, near 
Birmingham, and finding only three 
children all in bed, took one of 

them, a girl about three years old, 
cut off its head and arms and feet, 
ripped open its belly, and put 
fome part of the body on the fire: 
while he was employed in this 
horrid barbarity, a brother who 
had been abroad came in, and be- 
ing terrified alarmed the neigh- 
bours with his ciies, who afkin^ 
the wretch why he had committed 
fuch an adl of cruelty, faid, he 
had killed the child to eat it, and 
that he would fsrve all the little 
girls fo. 

This is inferted as a caution 
againft fuffering perfons difordercd 
in their fenfes to wander at large 
without a keeper. 

At a meeting of the no- , 

bility and gentry of the ^' 
county of Middlefex, and liberty 
of Weftminfier, held at the St. Al- 
ban's tavern, a voluntary fubkrip- 
tion was agreed upon for giving 
bounties to able bodied landmen, 
who fhall voluntarily enlill them« 
felves in the fervice of his majelly, 
upon the terms and conditions pr^:- 
pofed by the city of London, and 
4726 I. immediately fubicribed ; 
and his Grace the Duke of New- 
caflle being requelled to lay the re- 
folutions of the noblemen and gen- 
tlemen prefent before his rr.EJ'jlly, 
as a telbmony of the duty and af- 
fecV.on of the county, city, and li- 
berty, to his perfon and govern- 
ment, his grace was pleafed to fig-> 
nify his majSlly's gracious approba- 
tion of their good intention, in a 
letter directed to Sir William Beau- 
champ Pro6tor, Hart, and George 
Cooke, Efq; rcprefentatives for the 
county; and to Major General 
Cornwaliis, and Sir John Crols, 
Bart, reprefeniatives for the city and 
liberty of Wcilminller ; of which 
the following is a copy. 


1759- ^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

Newcaftle-houfe, Sept. 26,17^9. 

In obedience to the commands 
of the gentlemen of the county of 
Middlefex, and city and liberty of 
Weflminfter, who met on the i Qth 
inft. to confider of the moil effec- 
tual methods, to be taken, for the 
iapport of his majefty and govern- 
ment againll: the invafion now 
threatened, and for the fecurity of 
this county, city and liberty, I 
have had the honour to lay before 
the King the dutiful and loyal re- 
folutions, which they came to there- 

I have his majefiy's exprefs or- 
ders, to afiure them of the grate- 
tul fenfe which he has of this pro- 
per and feafonable mark of their 
duty and aiTedion to his perfon and 
government, of which his majeily 
has received fuch frequent proofs 
from his loyal county of M ddlefex, 
and city and liberty of Wellminiler, 
and particularly upon the like oc- 
cafions ; and the King will forth- 
with dired, that iuch attendance 
and afhilance fliall be given as may 
molt efFedually anfwer the inten- 
tion of thofe generous and volun- 
tary offers. 

The approbation of the meafures 
which his majefty has taken for 
the fupportofthe national interells 
of his kingdoms, is extremijly a- 
greable to the King. 

I muft beg the favour of you to 
take the firll opportunity of ac- 
quainting the gentlemen concern- 
ed, with his mait;{ty's fenfe of tiiis 
frefli mark of their loyalty and 
zeal for his perfon and govern- 

it is a great honour to me to 
have conveyed this teilimony of 
the duty and aifedion of the 
county of Middlefex, and city and 

EAR 1759. 113 

liberty of Weftminfter, to the King, 
and to have been direfted by his 
majefty, to declare his mofl gra' 
cious acceptance of it. lam.&c. 


An eminent merchant in ^ , 
this city rode four horfes at '' * 
Royilon in Hertfordfhire, for a 
wager of 1300 guineas ; he was to 
go 42 miles in t\Vo hours, and per- 
formed it in one hour, 49 miruites. 
Bets to the amount of feveral thou- 
Jand pounds were depending on 
this match. 

Admiral Rodney arrived , 
at Spithcad, in his majefly's ^ 
fhip Deptford, with the J lis, Capt. 
Wheeler, from oiF Havre de Grace ; 
the former to viftual, and the latter 
to dock, vidua], and return. 

Rear-Admiral Rodney fail- ^ , 
ed from Portfmouth in the 
Deptford, to refume his {Ration ofF 
Havre, whither the Chatham, Capt. 
Lockhart, and the Ifis, Capt. Whee- 
ler, as foon as cleaned, will repair 
and join him. 

Capt. Smith, in the True Biiton, 
arrived at Briltol, who failed from 
Barbadoes the 25th of July, in 
company 320 fail of merchantmen, 
of whom 70 or 8o might be for 
America, under convoy of eight 
men of war of the line, and four 
bombs. He reports., that there are 
great mifunderiiandings between 
CoramaJore Moore and the iilan- 
ders, by v^^hich thev fuffcr greatly 
in their trade, the French having 
taken above 4c fail in a very fhorc 

The fociety for propagating the 
gofpel in foreign parts, have given 
500!. fterling, to the infant college 
at New Vork. 

At a meeting of the united p,, 
veflries oi St. Margaret and *" * 
St. John the Evangelii!, Weflmia- 
I iler, 



fter, it was refolved to open a fub- 
Icription for an immediate volun- 
tary contribution of the inhabitants 
of thefe parifhes, to be applied to 
the fame purpofe, and fubjefl to 
the fame direflions, as the fubfcrip- 
tion of the nobility, gentry, &c. 
at the St. Alban's tavern of the 19th 

The following decifion of the 
congregation, appointed by the 
Pope to examine the affairs of the 
jefuits in Portugal, is faid to be 
authentic. Firft, the efreds of the 
firft inftitution, as well as the tenth 
prelevies, ftiall remain in the hands 
of the patriarch of Lifbon, to de- 
fray the expences of miflions, and 
other functions belonging to the 
fociety. Secondly, the effects a- 
rifing from the fecond inftitution, 
ftiall ferveto found a proper income 
for fuch as quit the houfe of the 
company. Thirdly, the efFedls of 
the third inftitution, fuca as {hips 
employed in commerce, merchan- 
dize, and other things of chat na- 
ture, fhall go to the profit of the 
royal treafury, to be employed in 
relief of the poor- Fourthly, in 
refped to fuch of thofe fathers who 
are prifoners of flate for the crime 
of high treafon, the King fhall 
make ufe of the right he has to 
punifh them. Fifthly, neverthelefs 
we befeech his majefty not to per- 
mit the cruel tortures, ufualinluch 
cafes, to be employed towards the 
guilty ; but that, in conciliating his 
clemency and hisjullice, he would 
let them feel the effecfls of the fen- 
tiroents of a good father and an 
upright judge. [This laft article 
is faid to have been added in the 
Pope's own hand.] 

Chnllcpher Irwin, Efq ; invf.nted 
a. penfile chair, by means of which 
the heavenly bodies may be eafily 

obferved at fea in the mol boider- 
ous weather. T4ie brave Lord 
Howe aded in the kindeft and 
moil worthy manner to that gentle- 
man, as may be feen by the cer- 
tificate underneath. The longitude 
was obferved formally, for feveral 
times, and the errors were from 
feven to fifteen miles which is 
much lefs than the neareft the ad 
requires : in (hort, it is a thing 
much eafier to pradife than was 
expeded. He went from Portf- 
mouth to Plymouth in the Jafon; 
from thence to Lord Howe in the 
Colchefler ; from Lord Howe when 
he was fatisfied, he returned in 
the Minerva frigate to Plymouth, 
where the Deptford being juft 
ready, he came in her to Deal : 
the experiment was tried in every 
one of thefe (hips, and it anfwer- 
ed in all extremely well ; fo that 
the benefits attending this experi- 
ment may be relied upon. Prince 
Edward was fo kind as to come 
and fee, and fet in the chair, and 
liked it much ; Dr. Elair, his 
Royal Highnefs's mathematical 
teacher, came with him ; and on 
the facility he found in ufing the 
telefcope, cried out aloud. This 
will do, this will do. They came 
again one evening, and he took 
an obfervation for the longitude, 
when the error did not exceed fe- 
ven or eight minutes. 
A copy of Lord Howe's laft cer- 
Magnanime, ofFof Uihant, Ao^. 
II, 1759. On a further experi- 
ment of the marine chair contrived 
by Mr. Irwin, I am of opinion, 
that an obfervation of an emerfion 
or immerfion of Jupiter's fatellite* 
may be made in it at fea, not fub- 
jed to a greater error than three 
minutes of time. Howe. 


1759' ^°^ ^'"^^ YEAR 1759. 

There is now one John Kennedy, 
who fells tapes, gartering, and laces 
about Tower-hill, that is now in 
the hundred and feventh year of 
his age, being born at Sterling, in 
Scotland, in the year 1653 ; but 
what is remarkable is, that he was 
in the fleet when Sir CloudeflySho- 
vell was caft on the rocks ot Scilly 
and was one of the twelve that 
efcaped from that dreadful! fhip- 

Above 500 men have inlifted at 
Guildhall fince the public fub- 
icription has been opened. 

The fingular and extraordinary 
fiep, that the city of London has 
taken, in order to reinforce his 
majefty's armies, and to enable a 
wile and virtuous adminiilration, to 
carry their public fpirited deiigns 
into execution, in fpite of all the 
efforts of their open, and all the 
endeavours of their fecret enemies, 
mull flrike the prefent age with 
wonder, and appear a thing almoft 
incredible in fucceeding times. It 
is at once the highefl proof of at- 
tachment, and the ftrongeil evi- 
dence of confidence. There is no 
doubt, confidering the time, the 
manner, and the extent of this af- 
fiftance, that it will pro^^e as eitec- 
tual in its confequences, as in its 
nature it is unufual. 

When one confiders the large 
proportion of the land-tax, which 
the city of London and its depen- 
dencies pay, upon the multitude 
of the hoafes, and the high rents 
at which they are let ; whsn one 
refleds on the prodigious income 
arifing from theexciie, on the al~ 
molt innumerable branches of 
the extenlive confumption cf its 
inhabitants ; and uhen one con- 
templates the mighty fums that 
ennually flow into the royal reve- 

nue, from the duties and cuftoms 
on the trade of this port ; it gives 
one a high idea of the importance 
of this metropolis, and of the con- 
fummate prudence of the minifcer, 
who has fo ufed his authority, as 
to acquire the good wifhes of his 
fellow citizens. 

To all xhb, if we add the in- 
fluence of fuch an example, we 
may form an adequate notion, of 
the weight and confequence of the 
flep lately taken. Reflexions upon 
it would be needlefs ; but there is 
one, fo very obvious, and at the 
fame time of fuch political utility, 
that it ought not to efcape us. *' A 
government is more than abfolute, 
iliat in all its expences, can fafely 
rely for refources, on the affedtions 
of i:s fubjedls ; and an invariable 
and inviolable attention to their in- 
terefl, ought in policy, as well as 
gratitude, to be the perpetual ob- 
ject of that government, which for 
its own fecurlty, has once had re- 
courfe with fuccefs, to fuch re- 

The company of flationers have 
given ICO guineas to the Guildhall 
fubfcription } the Eaft- India com- 
pany 500!. the vintners 100 1. the 
ironmongers 100 1. the falters locl. 
tiie cordwainers ico 1. the grocers 
500 guineas, and Lord Ligionier 
lool. The grocers company alfo 
gave iQol. to the marine iociety. 

Newcalile, Sept. i. This week 
a fublcription was opened here by 
the right worfhipfui the mayor, 
the magifrrates, and other gentle- 
men ; from which fund they offer 
two guineas to every likely fellow, 
lit and willing to ferve his majefty 
in the regiment of the Royal Vo- 
lunteers recruiting here, or in the 
66th regiment, commanded by CjI. 
La FaufiUe, now quartered in this 

I 2 tOWA 



town and neighbourhood, who 
fliall voluntarily enhft in cither of 
the aforefaid corps, within fix 
weeks from the :9th of AugulL 

The corporation gave the lum of 
300 guineas, and the two worthy 
members, and feveral gentlemen 
of the town and neighbourhood, 
made very large fubfcriptions. 

The corporation of Berwick, 
have ordered three guineas to be 
given to every able-bodied land- 
man (not inrollcd in the militia) 
who {liall, within fix weeks, inlilt 
before any magiluate of that 
town, to ferve in the regiirenc of 
Royal \"oiuntecrs, commanded by 
Colonel John Crawford, or the re- 
giment oi' foot commanded by Co- 
lonel John La Faufille, over :n.l 
above all bounty money, fo as 
fame exceeds not lOO guineas, and 
what fhall exceed that fum is to be 
jaifed by fubfcription. 

The m.agillrates of Glafgowand 
Dundee, have alfo ordered bounties 
to perfons who eulill in his ma- 
jefty's forces. 

Died lately, Colonel Richard 
Jamef, of the ifland of Jamaica, 
aged 103. 

Dublin, Sept 154 On Tuefday 
laft the grand canal leading from 
Dublin to the liver Shannon had 
the water let into it, and a new 
barge was launched, which was 
built adjoining to the work near 
Lyons, aboute 40 tons burden, in 
the prefence of a vail concourfe of 
oentlemen and ladies of dillindion, 
who exprcfled the greaiell fatisfac- 
tion in viewing that beautiful ca- 
nal, ^^'ith the many curious bridges, 
aqueducb, and fiuices, that are al- 
ready perfefted on that moil ufeful 
undertaking, which has fucceeded 
beyond expedlation. 

At Newbiggin ijy the fea, near 


this town, on Monday laft, the 
fifliermen drove on fliore a filh 
twenty-one feet long, and its cir- 
cumference round the Ihoulders 
nine feet, the head refembling that 
of a grampus, but more depreflcd, 
with a liilula in the middle, the 
flrudlurc of the gills remarkable, 
the foramina being three on each 
fide, in femicircular diredion, de- 
fended by three rows of a bony 
lamina. The eye fmall for the 
fize of the fifh, and covered with 
a fkin which concealed all the ey« 
but the iris, which was of a dark 
blue, the tongue large and flat, thti 
mouth not armed with teeth, the 
fkin of the whole body rough, thd 
fins cartilaginous, and the tail bifid, 
the Homach of a remarkable fiz^ 
which, when dilated, mull contain 
full ten gallons, and was full of 
fine fea-weed and fand. From the 
anus to the extremity of the tail, 
the flelhy parts of the fifh, for two 
inches deep, was exadly like beef, 
all the reft of the body refembled 
the flefli of turbot. 
Extrad of a letter from Aleppo, 
dated July 27. 

" By the laft letters from Bo("- 
fora of the 20th, we have advice, 
that the Engliih fleet on the Indiau 
coaft had taken Surat, after a fiege 
of forty days ; that they had made 
the Moors prifoners of war, and 
fentthe nabob prifoncr to Bombay. 

The fame letters add, that the 
French had made an unfueceAful 
attempt on Bombay. 

In December laft, the French 
were defeated at Golconda, had 30 
men killed, and 130 Europeans 
made prifoners, 20 pieces ot can- 
non taken, and all their baggage," 

A great number of protellints, 

who have been ruined during the 

war in Germany, have palfed 


1759* For the Y 

through Hanover, going to Den- 
mark, his Danifh majelty havino- 
promi''ed them all the affiftance in 
his power for their fettling in his 

At the laft felTions at the Old 
Bailey, Nicholas Randall, for wil- 
fully and maliciouCy levelling a 
gun, loaded with gunpowder and 
Ihot, and lliooting at John Hamo- 
ton and William Denney ; whereby 
one of the eyes of Hampton was 
fhot out, and Denaey wounded in 
the leg, received fentence of death. 
The convift, Randal, (upwards of 
78 years of age) has many years 
been noted for begging at the 
l>aling places for horfes, the fur- 
ther end of Turnham-green ; who 
being poffeiTed of a fmall garden, 
and the boys, Hampton and Den- 
ney, playing with other children 
in the fields near the garden, the 
old man, thinking they were in a 
combination to Ileal his apples, 
rallily refolved and perpetrated the 
fact, of which, upon the cleared 
evidence, he was convifted. — The 
jury, in confideration of his great 
age, recommended him to mercy. 


ift. About eight o'clock in the 
evening, tlie recruits in the 
Savoy mutinied : a guard was fent 
for to quell them, who at firft ^-ere 
ordered to fire only with powder ; 
the recruits returned the compli- 
ment by throwing brickbats, which 
knocked feveial of the foldiers down; 
they were then ordered to fire with 
ball, which wounded feveral of the 
recruits, and put a flop to the fray, 
Eut unhappily one Jones, belonging 
to the third regiment of foot guards, 
getting upon the leads of the prifon 

EAR i;59. 117 

to fee the affair, and looking dowr* 
was taken for one of the prifoncis 
by the centinel, who irj mediately 
ftot at him, and the ball went 
through his head, and killed him on 
the fpot. Nine of the men were 
dangeroufly wounded, and eighteen 
more of tnem were put in irons. 

The Friendihip, Capt. Befl, 
from Cork to Ha'i ax, was ta- ^^' 
ken by a French privateer in lan- 
tude 4|deg. 22 min. N. longitude 
34 deg 22 min. W. from London, 
who took out the mailer and all the 
crew, except the mate and a bov, 
and put eight Frenchmen on board, 
with orders to pro:eed to Vigo j 
but after feven days poffeOion, the 
mate watched his opportunity, feiz- 
ed the arms, and without putting 
one man to death, fecured as many 
of them as it was prudent to do for 
his own fafety, and by the alliftance 
of the boy took the command of the 
fhip, which he brought fafe into 
Pool harbour. An action the more 
gallant, as no life was loll in the 
execution of it. 
A letter from on board the _ . 

Achilles man of war off ^ 


" The 28th of hfl mon^h. Com- 
modore Hen-ey (our fhip belongs 
to his fquadron) ordered all the 
barges to come on board his fhip in 
the afternoon. At night we went 
in the Monmouth's barge, with fou- 
other barges. I was in our's, and 
having vowed till near one in the 
morning, we got into a b^.y, cloie 
to the French rieet, in order to at- 
tack a little yacht belonging to the 
French admiral. As foon as Com- 
modore Hervey, who led us, got 
fight of the fort, under which the 
velfcl lay, the yacht hailed the 
Monmouth's boat, and nred ; we 
immediately all ."ired our fmall acfi^ 
i 3 anil 



and pulled on board as fall as poHl- 
ble. The commodore himfelfat.d 
his people were firft on board, and 
carried her througii all their fire. 
We boarded next, to follow their 
brave example. We found them 
with fwords and piftols in hand i 
tiie French running under deck, 
begging their lives. Our people 
cue her cable, and our boats brought 
her out in the midft of incell'ant 
firing from the fhore. V/e found 
ourielves i'' great danger, neverthe- 
lefs we towed and hallowed all the 
way. In the morning we were met 

y the reft of the fhips boats. We got 
to our fliips not a little tired, nor a 
little pleafed at a conqueft that 
might have been more dearly 
bought ; but nothing could have 
been done here lb mortifying to the 
French. All the wounded prifoners 
were fent in a flag of truce. The 
commodore, who received no hurt, 
a fhot only pafiing through his coat, 
has generoully given up all his fhare 
of the prize and head money to the 
people who went in the barges with 
him : and we believe that all the 
captains of his fquadron will follow 
fo worthy an example." 

lixtrad of a letter from Portf- 
*• On Friday afternoon, arrived 
at St. Helen's, his majelly's fhip St. 
George, of go guns ; Cambridge, 
of 80 ; Norfolk, of 74 J Panther, 
of 64 ; and under their convoy 
above two hundred fail of merchant 
ftiips from the Weft Indies." 

, The ftore-veflel came into 

° Plymouth from her moorings 
at the Edyftone, with all the work 



mechanic Mr. Smeaton, F. R S. 
without the lofs of one life, or any 
material accident. 

Arrived at Spithcad, the Centaur 
French man of war, one the Tou- 
lon fquadron, that wasiji'.ely takea 
by Admiral Bofcawen, and fent to 

This cay Hefiiam Bey, lately ar- 
rived ambaflador from Tripoly, had 
his firft audience of his majefty, to 
deliver his credentials ; and had the 
honour of prefenting his fon to his 
majefty at the fame time : to which 
he was introduced by the right 
hon. William Pitt, efq. one of his 
majefty's principal fecretaries of 
ftate, and conduced by Stephen 
Cottrell, efq. afTiftant-ma.ler of the 
ceremonies. He brought with him 
fix fine Barbary horfes, richly capa- 
rifoned, as a prefent to his majefty. 

The Arethufa man of war , 
came through the Needles 
to Fortfmouth, at the rate of four- 
teen knots an hour, in a violent 
gale of wind that had carried away 
her main- mart, and her fore and 
mizen-top-mafts off Plymouth. Jn 
this ftorm Admiral Hawke's fqua- 
dron were driven from before Breft, 
and the next day, the Ramilies, 
Union, Royal George, Foudroyant, 
Duke, Mars, Dorfetftiire, Eftex, 
Kingfton, Montague, Nottingham, 
and Temple, arrived in Plymouth 

His Royal Highnefs Prince , 
Edward went on fhore in the ^ 
evening, in good health, and fet 
out for v^altram, the feat of John 
Parker, eiq. 

Monf. Thurot, who had been 

men on board, the lighi-houfe blocked up in Dunkirk read for ^ 
there being entirely compjeated un- fome months by Commodore Boys, 
dcr the diredion of that e.\cellcu; found meant tc getou: v.ith a fmall 



fquardron of armed veflels, on board 
of which it is faid he has 1 8oo men, 
defigned for a private expedition on 
the coaft of Scotland or Ireland, 
Commodore Boys immediately fet 
fail in purfuit of him, and it is hop- 
ed he will have the good fortune to 
overtake him. 

One of the Eaft India (hip's long- 
boats, rigged, of twelve tons, with 
only fix hands and a mate on board, 
arrived exprefs from the Brazils, 
with an account of the arrival there 
of the Fox and Bofcawen China men, 
they have been long miffing, and 
were thought to have fallen into the 
hands of the French, from whom 
they had a very narrow efcape. 
The Fox and Bofcawen arrived at 
the Brazils the i6th of June, and 
the three French men of war that 
cruifed for them off St. Helena, 
came in three days after. 

] Kenfington. This day the 
right hon. the lord mayor, 
aldermen, and commons of the city 
of London, in common council af- 
fcmbled, waited on his majefty, and 
being introduced by the right hon. 
Mr. Secretary Pitt, congratulated 
his majefty in a moll dutiful and 
loyal addrefs on the taking of Que- 
bec, and the other late fuccefies of 
his majelly's arms. 

f- , Ended the feffions at the 

* Old Baily, when John Ay- 
lifT, efq. for forgery, James and 
William Fiddington, for horfe deal- 
ing, received fentence of dea'h, 
twenty-two were fentenced to be 
tranfported for feven years, two to 
be branded, and four to be v/hipped. 

An exprefs arrived from Edin- 
burgh with advice, that Commodore 
Boys, with eight men of, was 
yidualling in Leith road, with all 

For the YEAR 1759. 


expedition, in order to go in quell 
of Monf. Thurot's fquadron, who 
is fuppofed to be in the north fea. 

A very beautiful and uncommon 
animal, lately arrived from :he Eaft 
Indies, prefented by Jaffier Ally 
Kawn, nabob of Bengal, to Gene- 
ral Clive, who fent it to the right 
hon. William Pitr, tfq. and of 
which that gentleman had the ho- 
nonr to obtain his majefty's accep- 
tance, is lodged in the Tower. It 
is called in the Indoftan language, 
a Shah Goeft, and is even in that 
country efteemed an extraordinary 
rarity, there having been never 
known more than five in thoi'e 
parts, all which were procured for 
the faid nabob from the confines of 
Tartary. It is now in the Tower, 
anended by a domeftic of the na- 
bob's, who was charged with the 
care of it to England. 

Two houfes were confum- ^ , 
ed by fire, near Exeter-Ex- ^ 
change, in the Strand. 

A proclamation was iiTued for a 
public thankfgiving, to be obferved 
on Thurfday the 2^th of November 
next, throughout England and 
Wales ; the preamble of which is 
as follows : '' We do moft devoutly 
and thankfully acknowledge the 
great goodnefs and mercy of Al- 
mighty God, Vvho hath afforded us 
protediion and afiiltance in the ]u{\ 
war, in which, fur tlic common lafe- 
ty of our realm'^, and for difap 
pointing the boundlefs ambition of 
France, we are now engaged ; and 
hath given fu« h fignal lucceiTes to 
our arms both by fca and land ; par- 
ticularly by the defeat of the French 
army in Canada, and the taking of 
Quebec ; and who hath moft \v,i.- 
fonably granted us at this time, an 
I 4. u'.ccmmon 


1 20 

uncommon plentiful harveft : and 
therefore duly confidering that fuch 
great and public blefiings, do call 
for public and folemn acknowledge- 
niencs, We have thought fit, &c. 
, Atthefeflions of admiral- 

^'5^''- ty, held at the Old Bailey, 
William Lawrence, mafter of the 
Pluto privateer, and Samuel Dring, 
William Goff, and Kendrick Mul- 
ler, volunteers, were tried for rob- 
bing a Dutch veffel, named the 
Eemigheidt, on the high feas, near 
the North Foreland in Kent, of fix 
guineas, twenty deal boxes, and 
three bales of cambrick, value 700I. 
lawrence, Dring, andMuller, were 
found guilty, GofF acquitted. At 
firft they fired a gun at the Eeinig- 
heidt to bring her to, and then went 
on board with their faces blacked, 
and demanded two guineas ihot- 
money, which the Dutch captain 
gave ihcm : they then infilled upon 
four guineas more, which was like- 
wife given them ; but not contented 
with that, they confined the mailer 
r.ndcrew, and fell to rummaging the 
lliip, from which they took the goods 
uicntioned in the indiftment. The 
cafe was plain, and the jury found 
them guilty. Some other Engliih 
feamen were inditled for robbing a 
Dutch hoy, often hoglhcads of wine, 
value lool. but were all acquitted. 

The encouragement to feamen 
and able-bodied landmen, is conti- 
nued to the 9th of November. 

The company of hfhmongers 
Lave given 5101. and the dean 
and chaprer of St. Paul's ico 1. to 
the Guildhall fubfcription. The 
number of men that have been in- 
liHed therewith, now amounts to 
8^g, and the committee yeilerday 
enlarged the time, which will expire 

on the 1 6th inftant, to the 1 6th of 

The number of French prifoncrs 
in this kingdom, is now computed 
to be 23, coo, officers included. 
Extrafl of a letter from Capt. , 
Porter, commander of his ^ 
majefty's {hip the Hercules, of 74 
guns, to Mr. Clevland, dated in 
Plymouth Sound, 0£l. 26. 
" On the icth inftant, at eight 
in the morning, being in the lati- 
tude of about 46 deg. 40 min. fleer- 
ing S. E. with the wmd at S. W. we 
faw a fail to windward, which we 
chafed, and foon after difcovered 
her top gallant ftudding fails fet, 
and that fhe came down lafking up- 
on us. About noon the chace hoift- 
ed a blue flag at her main top gal- 
lant mall head, which we anfwered 
by hoiftlng an Englifli enfign at the 
mizen-top mall head, (a fignal 
which is lometimes made between 
two French ftiipsof war, upon meet- 
ing, after parting company) (he near- 
ed us very fait, and we plainly dif- 
coveied her to be a large fnip of 
war. At two in the afternoon, a 
Dutch gaiiiot pafling near us, we 
hoifted a French jack, and fired a 
ftiot at her ; upon which the chace 
hoifled a French jack at her enfign 
flafl", and fired a gun to leeward. 
At half pafl five, being about one 
mile to winduard ot us, and abaft 
our beam, commg down as before 
feemmgly with an intention of com- 
ing to action, as her guns were run 
out below, (he hauled her jack 
down, and hoifled her enfign and 
pendant : we fliortened fail, hauled 
down the French jack, hoifled our 
colours, hauled our ports up (whicii 
were until thi- tirnc down) and run 
our weather guns out; upon which 



fhc immediately hauled her wind, 
and fet her main-lail and llay-fails ; 
we then difcovered her to be a 74. 
gun fhip, having fourteen ports be- 
low, made fail and ftretched ahead 
of her, and tacked, paiTing her to 
leeward. At fix tacked again, and 
flood after her; found ihe kept 
away large ; we bore after her, 
keeping her a little upon the lee- 
bow, to prevent her choice of the 
engaging diltance. About three 
quarters after nine, being pretty 
near up with her, though not near 
enough to engage, Ihe put her helm 
hard a-ftarboard, and gave us her 
larboard broadfide, and then kept 
on as before, and gave us her liar- 
board broadfide. We then imme- 
diately ftarboarded our helm, and 
ran right down upon her, whild fhe 
was loading her guns, and getting 
clofe to her, ported our helm, and 
began to engage as the guns bore 
upon her 

At half paft ten we were fo un- 
lucky as to have our rna n-top mail 
fhot away, which fhe took the ad- 
vantage of and made all the fail fhe 
could from us ; we did the fame af- 
ter her, and continued to chace un- 
till eight the next morning, when 
we faw the north end of Oleroii, 
about five leagues diftance. The 
chace was about four or live miles 
from us } finding it impoffible to 
come up with her in fo fhort a run, 
and engaging ourfelve- to the lee- 
fhore, with our fore-yard fhot thro' 
in two place;., our fore top-fail- 
yard fo badly wounded, that wiien 
we came afterwards to reei the i ail, 
it broke, and having all our lails 
and rigging very much fliattered, 
(at which the enemy only aimed) 
we left off chace, and wore Ihip, 
having one man kiiied and two 

For the YEAR 1759. 121 

wounded, including myfelf, being 
wounded in my head by a grape- 
Ihot, and have loft the ufe of my 

right leg. The officers and men 
behaved with the greateft fpirits and 
alertnefs, without the leall confu- 

Difpatches were lent to 
the feveral commanding of- ^ 
ficers of the troops in Scotland, with 
orders to put Fort Auguftus, and the 
reft of the forts along the coaft, in 
the bell: pofture of defence, and to 
hold every thing in readinefs to re- 
pel the enemy ; in confequence of 
which beacon pofts have been fet 
up for early intelligence, places of 
rendezvous for the regulars and mi- 
litia appointed, and ftrift orders 
given that no officer abfent himfelf 
from his duty, on any pretence 

The catholic king, Charles III", 
was proclaimed on Tuefday the i j th 
ol September at Madrid, with the 
ufual ceremonies, by the Conde de 

Altemira accompanied by all theother 
Grandees on horfeba'.k; the ca- 
valcade was fplendid, and the peo- 
ple fl'ewed the utm.oft fatisfadion 
by their repeated acclamations : that 
night there were fire works ; the 
twofucceedin)^ days there were bull 
feafts ; mourning was laid afide for 
three days, and during thofe nights, 
there were illuminations in that 

In confequence of the decinon of 
the congregation appointed by the 
Pope, to examine into the affairs of 
the Jel\iits in Portugal, the C0L>rt of 
Lifbon has already begun to proceed 
againft thefe fathers, one hundred 
and feventeen of whom are con- 
demned to fpend their lives in the 
Ibrtrefs of Magazan, or in the forts 




of the ifland of Tercera. In pur- 
fuance of this determination, in the 
night of the i 5th of September, 
they were (hipped off in a Ragufian 
veffel, which failed the next day 
under convoy of a man of war. By 
all appearances a fecond embarka- 
tion of thofe fathers will foon be 
made, excepting three of the moft 
culpable, who are fuppofed to be 
referved for execution. The Fathers 
Portugal, Camera d'Acumba and 
Barruneho, of St. Anthony's col- 
lege, have not been embarked with 
thofe that are taken out of that col- 
lege, but arecondufted to Fort Jun- 
queira ; what their ultimate lot may 
be, is not yet known. It is given out 
that the lay-brothers of the fociely, 
and thofe who have not yet made 
the laltvow, will be enlarged, upon 
condition that they quit the habit of 
the order : otherwife they are to be 
confined for life in the prifons of 

Extraft of a letter from Philadelphia, 
dated Auguft 16, 

By a letter from Niagara, of the 
2 1 ft ult. we learn, that by the affidui- 
ty and influence of Sir William 
Johnfon, there were upwards of 
1 100 Indians convened there, who, 
by their good behaviour, have juft- 
ly gained the efteem of the whole 
army : that Sir William being in- 
formed the enemy had buried a 
quantity of goods on an ifland, 
about twenty miles from the fort, 
fent a number of Indians to fearch 
for them, who found to the value 
of 8000 1, and were in hopes of 
finding more. And that a French 
vefTel entirely laden with beaver, 
had foundered on the lake, when 
her crew, confifting of forty-one 
men, were all loft. 

The French have ninety priva- 
teers belonging to Martinico ; and 


the Weft India trade have fufFcrcd 
more fince the taking of Guada- 
loupe, than it has done during the 
whole war. They have taken 200 
fail of velTels, which amount to up- 
wards of 600,000 1. 

The Noftra Signora, from Bahia, 
is arrived at Lift)on in one hundred 
and four days. She is an advice- 
boat, and has brought an account 
of the arrival of the Taviftock, Jen- 
kins ; Prince Henry, Beft ; Ofterly, 
Vincent ; and the Hawke, Drake ; 
all from China, at the Brazils, after 
having had an engagement with two 
French frigates off the Ifland of St. 
Helena. A convoy is appointed to 
bring them home. 
The following ftory, which may be 

depended on as authentick, feems 

worthy to be tranfrnitted to pof- 


In the firft unfuccefsful attack on 
the enemy's entrenchments near 
Quebec, July 3 i , Capt. Ochterlony, 
and Enfign Peyton, both of the Roy- 
al Americans, were left wounded, at 
a little dirtance from each other, on 
the field of battle ; the captain mor- 
tally, but the enfign having only his 
knee pan Ihattered. Soon after an 
Indian came running down, in order 
to fcalp the former, which, the lat- 
ter perceiving, made (hift to crawl 
to a mufket, which lay near him, 
and which not having been dif- 
tharged, he took aim with it, and 
ftiot the favage. The like danger 
then threatened him by the approach 
of another Indian ; him he wound- 
ed with the bayonet, but, as he ftill 
perfifted, he was forced, in a manner 
to pin him on the ground. At laft 
a grenadier came back to the cap- 
tain, in order to carry him off the 
field ; which, however, he refufed 
in thefe words : " Thou art a brave 
•• fellow J but your kindnefs will 

" be 

1759- ^^^ ^^^ ^ 

*-' be loft on me. I am mortally 
^' wounded, and the bayonet, or 
'* the fcalping knife would be now 
" a mercy : but go yonder to £n- 
" fign Peyion and carry him off ; he 
" may live." The foldier obeyed, 
took up the enfign, and brought 
him off, through a feve^e fire, by 
which they were both fiighcly 

His SereiiC Highnefs Prince Fer- 
dinand of Brunfwick was invefted 
the 6th inftant with the moft noble 
order of the garter. 



Extraft of a letter from 
Liverpool, dated Oftober26. 
On Monday Jaftas IvJr. James Wrig- 
ley, mafter of the Golden Lion inn 
in this town, was going into the 
cellar, he met an odd accident : a 
large Norway rat being curious to 
tafle an oyfter that opened as ufual 
at tide time, having put in his fore 
foot to catch the filh, the oyfter im- 
mediately clofed, and held the rat 
faft. Mr. Wrigley brought them 
up into the kitchen, where feveral 
hundred perfons went to fee them 
whilft they were alive. 

J Two of his majefty's mef- 
3 ' fengers brought to town a 
perfon they took up at Newing 
Green, near Hyth, who is fuppofed, 
to have held a correfpondence with 
his majefly's enemies. There were 
feveral papers found in his cuftody, 
with the loundings of the fea coafts. 
He was betrayed by a Dutchman 
carrying fome letters to iiim. After 
he was taken, and had been two 
hours in cuftody, he was releafed 
by fome people who cut the cords 
off his hands, and carried him off 
pn horfebacki but three days after- 

EAR 1759. 123 

wards he was retaken, and he is 
now in the cuftody of a meffenger. 
'Tis faid icoo guineas were found 
in his cbeft. 

Extraftof a letter from Coventry, 
dated October 29. " One Wright, 
a brickmafter at Hinckley, with his 
fervant, having been employed to 
fink a well there, had proceeded to 
the depth of about feven yards, at 
which time Wright himfelf only be- 
ing in, (with a rope fixed to him in 
the ufual manner) and wanting more 
help, ordered his fervant to come 
down alfoi who thinking it too 
dangerous, af firft rerui'ed it; but 
the mafter perfifting in his command, 
the young fellow at length com- 
plied : julT as he had reached the 
bottom, the earth fell in upon them, 
and fmothered Wright ; the young 
fellow was only covered up to his 
arms ; affiftance being at hand, it 
was propofed to fix a rope to him, 
and wind him up by the windlafs ; 
but this he rejeded, telling them 
he ftuck fo faft, that an attempt of 
that kind would pull him limb from 
limb, and begged them to endea- 
vour to give him relief by digging 
the earth av/ay with fpades; when, 
at the inftant, another fall of earth 
happened, which put an end to his 

The fame day, at Longford, 
near this chy, a boy, and girl, a- 
bout fix years old each, playing in 
a fand-hole, the earth fell in and 
fmothered them both." 

The news of Thurot, with his 
fmall fquadron having flip'd away 
from Dunkirk, has caufed a g'eat 
alarm on the coafts of Scotland and 
Ireland, and feveral fmall Squa- 
drons have been fent in purfu.t of 
him. The magiftrates of Uverpool 
afTembled on the occafion, and en- 
tered in an afTociation for the de- 




fence of that opuleijt to\yn. It was 
propofed to raile 20 companies of 
100 men each, to be armed and 
paid by the inhabitants ; and to 
eredt batteries to mount 50 pieces 
of cannon. 

, The French prifoners to 
^ * the number of 1250, who 
have been confined at Kinfale, be- 
gan to be removed into the interior 
parts of the country. 

A man and four lads being 
in a coal pit at Kilmerfdon, 
near Coleford, a vapour took fire ; 
which the man perceiving, called 
for help from above, upon which 
a bucket was let down, but before 
he was half up, being afteded by 
the vapour, he fell out of it, and 
died diredly ; the bucket was then 
let down again, when two of the 
]ads got into it, and were drawn 
up alive, but fo much hurt that 
their lives are defpaired of. The 
other two. when the vapour was ex- 
tinguilhed, were found arm in arm. 
3tis remarkable, that no lefs than 
ieventeen perfons have loll their 
Jives there in this manner, within 
thefe few years. 

Extrad of a letter from Dublin, 
dated the i It inilant. On Monday 


inlligated by defpair itfelf, to at- 
tempt, at all hazards, the only re- 
fource fhe feems to think left her, fo"" 
breaking by fuch a diverfion given 
us at home, the meafures of i^ng- 
land abroad, in profecuting of a 
war, which hitherto, by the blef- 
fing of God on his rnajefty's arms, 
opens, in all parts of the world, fo 
unfavourable a profpett to the view 
of France. And Mr. Secretary Pitt 
having added, on this fubjed, that 
there is a llrong probability, in cafe 
the body of troops, confiiling of 
18000 men, under the command of 
the Duke d'Aguillon, affembled at 
Vannes, where more than fufficient 
tranfports , for that number are 
adually prepared, and ready to 
receive them on board, fhould, as 
the feafon of the year is growing 
lefs favourable forcruifing, be able 
to elude his majeily's fquadrons, 
Ireland will not fail to be one of 
their object'. 

I think it imcumbent on me, in a 
matter of fuch high importance to 
the welfare of Ireland, to lay this 
intelljgence before you. His ma- 
jelty will not make any doubt, but 
that the zeal of his faithful protef- 
tant fubjeds in this kingdom will 

the 29th ult. the two houfes of have been already fufficiently quick- 

parliament received the following 
meffage from his grace the lord 
lieutenant : 

" Mr. Secretary Pitt havin^ by 
his majefty's expreis command, ac- 
quainted me, by his letter, which 
1 received on Friday the 19th in- 
Itant, that it appears, by repeated 
moll authentick intelligences, that 
France, far from deiilting from her 
plan of invafion on account af the 

ened by the repeated accounts, 
which have been received, of the 
dangerous defigns of the enemy, 
and of their adual preparations in 
confequence, made at a vaftexpence, 
in order to invade the feveral parts 
of his majeily's dominions. And 
I have his majeily's commands to 
ufe my utmoll endeavours, to ani- 
mate and excite his loyal people of 
Ireland to exert their well-known 
zeal and fpirit in fupport of his ma- 

difailer tiiat happened to her Tou- jelly's government, and in defence 
Jon fquadion, is rather more and of all that is dear to him, by a time- 
more confirmed therein i and even ly preparation to refill and frullrate 


For the Y E A R 1759. 

any attempts of the enemy to difturb 
the quiet, and fhake the fecurity of 
this kingdom. 

1 do therefore, in the ftrongeft 
manner, commend it to you, to 
manifell, upon this occafion, that 
Kcal for the prefcnt happy ertablifh- 
ment, and that afFeilion for his 
majefty's perfon and government, 
by which this parliament, and this 
natiofi have been fo often diftin- 
guilhtd." B. 

The day after this meflage was 
fent to the parliament of Ireland, 
the honourable houfe of commons 
unanimoully refolved, *' That an 
humble addrefs be prefented to his 
grace tiSe lord lieutenant, to return 
iiis grace the thanks of this houfe, 
for the care and concern he has 
fhe wn for the fafety of this nation, 
in having been pleafed to commu- 
nicate to us intelligence of fo great 
importance; and to defire his grace 
to make the ufe of fuch means as 
ftiiall appear to him lo be molt ef- 
feftual, for the fecurity and the de- 
fence of this kingdom; and to allure 
his grace that this houfe will make 
good whatever expence Ihall be ne- 
celfarily incurred thereby." 

To which meffage his grace was 
pleafed to return the following an- 
fwer : 

" I thank the houfe of commons 
for this great mark of the confi- 
dence which they have placed in me, 
with fo much unanimity. They may 
be afTured thati fhall do every thing 
in my power for the defence and fe- 
curity of this kingdom, at this criti- 
cal junclure ; and that the meafures 
to be taken fnali be condudled with 
all poliible ceconomy," 

Several of the bankers at Dublin, 
about this time, llopped paymeHt, 
owing to an inconfiderate Hurry and 
run upon them, from an apprencn- 

fion that fome of the French troops 
would be landed on their coafts : 
but an affociation being entered in- 
to and figned by his grace the Duke 
of Bedford, the lords fpiritual and 
temporal, the fpeaker of the houfe 
of commons, the members thereof, 
the lord mayor, aldermen, mer- 
chants, and principal traders of 
Dublin, to fupport public credit, 
and take all bankers notes in pay- 
ment, credit was foonreftored, and 
all things quieted. 

We hear from Galway in Ireland, 
that they have lately had the great- 
eft take of fifh, particularly of heak 
and turbot, that has been known 
in the memory of the oldeft man 
living in that town. The largell 
heak were fold at 7 d. the dozen, 
while turbot, fuch as hath been often 
bought at a crown a-piece, were fold 
from S d. to 1 s. perfilh, andfmaller 
in proportion. 

Dr. Henfey pleaded his , 

majefty's pardon, at the bar ^ * 
of the court of King's bench. 

This oay a new convention was 
figned at VVtftminfter between his 
majeity and the King of Pruflia. 
By this convention, all former 
treaties between the two crowns 
are renewed and confirmed ; his 
majefty grants the King of Pruffia 
an immediate fupply of 670,000!. 
to be employed in keeping up and 
augmenting his forces for their re- 
ciprocal defence and mutual fecu- 
rity ; and both parties oblige them- 
leives not to enter into an) kind of 
convention Wiih the powers, who 
have taken part in the preient war, 
but in concert, and by mutual con- 
fent, and exprefsly comprehending 
each other therein. 

About five o'clock in the , 

morning, a d.'-eadtul fire ^^ ' 
broke Out atHaml.n's coffee houfe, 



in Sweeting's ally, near the royal 
exchange, which confumed that 
and the New-York coffee houfe ad- 
joining to it; alfo Mr. Vaughan's, 
a fan maker; Mr. Withy's, a print- 
feller; Mr. Fleatham's, a wool- 
len-draper; Mr. Hunt's, a linen- 
draper ; Mr. Lcgg s, a wollen- 
draper; Mr. BakevvelPs, a print- 
feller; all in ttie front of Cornhill. 
The Virginia coffee houfe ; Mr. 
Worlidge's, an attorney ; Mr. Mat- 
thias's, fecretary of the Scots equi- 
valent company ; Mefirs. Walton 
and Voyce's, wholefale linen-dra- 
pers ; Mr. Park's a barber, and Mr. 
Sedgwick's a broker, all in Free- 
man's court. Mr. Bakewell's houfe 
in Cornhill is Handing, but all the 
other thirteen are in ruins. Two 
Jittle fhops at the corner of the paf- 
fage to the New-York coffee houfe 
were alfo burnt, one belonging to 
Mr. Ma7arine, a fhoe-maker, and 
the other to Mr. Filh, a watch-mak- 
er. Several other houfes were very 
much damaged, among which are 
the Red-lion and Sun ale-houfe, and 
Mr. Box's houfe, a mufic {hop, in 
iikveeting's alley ; Mr. Watmore's, a 
barber, in Spread Eagle court, and 
the Swan and Rummer in Finch- 
lane. It is thought the fire began 
in a room belonging to a man who 
played mufic upon glafles, and 
lodged at Hamlin's coffee houfe, and 
it is reported that he perifhed in the 
fhimes. The next day, at three 
o'clock in the afternoon, the fire 
broke out again at the Red Lion 
and Sun ale houfe in Sweeting's 
alley ; it was foon got under ; but 
the houfe is fo much damaged, thnt 
if. is believed it muit be entirely 
pulled down. By the fall of the 
ho'ifc's in Cornhill, Mr. Hi.rford, 
clerk to Melirs. Martin and com- 
pany, bnnker?, in Lombard ilreet, 
was killed ; and it is believed that 


feveral perfons were buried unde' 
the ruins. 

Weftminfter. This day , 

the lords being met, a mcf- ^ * 
fage was fent to the honourable 
houfe of commons, defiring their at- 
tendance in the houfe of peers ; and 
the commons being come thither 
accordingly, the lord keeper, one 
of the lords commiffioners appoint- 
ed by his majefty for that purpofe, 
opened the feffion by a fpeech to 
both houfes. 

This day likewife his Royal High- 
nefs the Prince of Wales took hi:- feat 
in the houfe of peers. 

A letter from Portfmouth ^ , 
takes notice, that the Ter- 
rible man of war, of 74 guns, had 
been loft in the river St. Laurence, 
but for an expedient of a warrant 
officer on board, who, when the 
fhip drove from her anchor by the 
rapidity of the tide, contrived an 
anchor that held her fait : this an- 
chor was made by fecuring one of 
the fhip's guns to two fmall anchors, 
as had been formerly done by Com- 
modore Anfon in the Centurion, on 
a like occafion. 

This day the remains of ^ , 
General VVolfe were landed ^ 
at Portfmouth, from on board the 
Royal William man of war; dur» 
ing the folemnity minute guns were 
fired from the fhips at Spithead, and 
all the honours that could be paid 
to the memory of a gallant officer 
were paid on this occafion. 

John Ayliifc, Efq; was , 

carried in a cart from New- '' 
gate, and about twenty minutes af- 
ter II, executed at Tyburn. He 
was about 36 years of age, born 
near Blandford, in Oorfecihire, of 
a very good family. He has left a 
widow, and one fon, about eleven 
years old. He behaved at the gal- 
lows with great comioiure and de- 

cency, and defined, juft before he 
was turned oft, to be indulged with 
a few minutes for his private de- 
votions, which was granted him. 
After the execution, his body was 
carried off in a hearfe by the un- 
dertakers, to be interred in the 

Three expreffes arrived with 
advice, that M. Conflans, with 
the grand armament of France, 
was failed from Breft, to take 
the tranfports from Vannes, with 
the land forces under his pro- 
teftion, and then to fail on his in- 
tended expedition. His whole 
force, confiding of tv/enty fhips of 
the line, and four frigates ; and 
the tranfports are to carry 18,000 

Much about the fame time, a 
certain account was received, that 
M. Thurot, with his fquadron, was 
put into Gottenburg in Sweden. 

Alfo M. Bompart's fquadron had 
got fafe into Breft in the abfence of 
Admiral Hawke, who had been 
driven off his ftation, as mentioned 
already. This fquadron is faid to 
have been richly laden with private 
property from Guadaloupe and 

The hon, houfe of com- 
mons refolved, that an hum- 
ble addrefs be prefented to his ma- 
jefty, moft humbly to defire his ma- 
jefty, that he will be gracioufly 
pleafed to give diredions, that a 
monument be erefled in the col- 
legiate church of St. Peter VVert- 
minfter, to the memory of the 
ever lamented hte commander in 
chief of his raajelly's land forces, 
on an expedition to Quebec, Major 
General James Wolfe, who fur- 
mounting by ability and valour, all 
obilacles of art and nature, was 
fiain m the moment of vit^or) , at 

For the 1' E A R 1759. 



the head of his conquering troops, in 
the arduous and deciiive battle a- 
gainft the French army, near Que- 
bec, fighting for their capital of Ca- 
nada,in the year 1759; and to afTure 
his majefly, this houfe will make 
good the expence of ereiling the faid 

monument. At the fame time it 

was refolved, that the thanks of the 
houfe be given to the admirals and 
generals employed in this glorious 
and fuccefsful expedition againft 

There is advice that Capt. Grey- 
flock's fhip being alongfide of a 
Dutch man of war, in the harbour 
of Rotterdam, words arofe while 
the captain was on fhore, between 
his crew and the crew of the man 
of war, on which the Dutch captain 
fent and demanded one of Grey- 
ftock's men, who was delivered to 
him ; but Captain Greyllock being 
prefently informed of the whole 
tranfadion, went himfelf on board 
the Ihip of war, and re-demanded 
his man ; the Dutch captain fell 
into a rage, and, inftead of making 
fatisfadlion for the infult, Ibuck 
Greyllock, faying, that was the 
treatment which every Englilhman 
deferved from a Dutchman. On 
which Captain Greyllock went to 
the Hague, and prefented a me- 
morial to General Yorke, which 
was by him laid before the States, 
and they ordered the Dutch captain 
immediately to return the man, 
and make Captain Greyftock every 
fubmilTion he required, except kneel- 

Seventy thoufand feamen 1 

Vvere voted for the fea fer- 
vice, including 18,300 marines. 

Ten bay cf building, &c. were 
confumed by fire, at Northampton. 

Some of the fhip: from Qje- . 
btc being arrived at Piy- ^ 





mouth, and fome at Spithcad ; the Ton to Wertminner-hall, to receive 
lords of the Admiralty began to be fentencc ; when in confidcration of 

in pain for Admiral Saunders, when 
they received a letter of excufe from 
him, dated in theVhops of the chan- 
nel, acquainting them, that as he had 
heard the Breft fquadron were failed, 
he hoped he fhould be pardoned for 
going to join Admiral Hawke with- 
out orders. In this noble enter- 
prize he is joined by General Town- 

„r^ Thelarid tax of 4 s in the 

2utn. J 1 J 1 

pound was ordered ro be 

continued; and alfo the malt bill; 

but a farther duty of 3 d. per bufhel 

is talked of, for raifing the Supplies 

their extreme poverty, the court 
thought proper to remit all pecu- 
niary pumfhnient, and ordered them 
to two months farther imprifon- 

This day an exprefs ar- , 

rived at the Admiralty with ^^ * 
certain intelligence, that M. Thu- 
rot's fleet w is feen upon the coaft 
of Scotland, and that Commodore 
Boys was within fight of it. Aber- 
deen is thought the place of its def- 

A fire broke out in the 

veftry-room of the Romifli 


for the enfuing year, which will be chapel in Duke-ftreet, Lincoln's Inn 

a fund fufficicnt without any other 
tax whatever, and tlie brewers will 
be no lofers if the diftillery be dif- 

J An exprefs arrived from 

' ' Commodore DufF, with ad- 
vice of his getting off fafe from 
his ftation before Quiberon Bay, 
where he was bio .king up the tranf 
ports dellined to join the Brelt fleet. 
Commodore Duif came off from 

fields, which burnt the chapel with 
ail its ornaments, to the ground, 
and communicated itfelf to the 
houfe of his excellency Coun; Viri, 
the Sardinian ambaffador, who be- 
ing indii pofed, was immediately car- 
ried to NewcallIe-houfe,whitlier the 
valuable part of his furniture was 
alfo rem.oved. It deftroyed two 
houfes adjoining. 

On the ijih ult. Don Carlos, 

Quiberon Bay the i(th, and the formerly King of the Two Sicilies, 
rext day law the French fleet ftand- now King of Spain, landed at Bar- 
ing with their heads to the fhore celona, with his queen and royal 
about 7 or 8 leagues S. VV. of Bel- family, except Don Ferdinand his 

leifle. — — The commodore, after 
detaching what large fliips he had to 
join Admiral Hawke, returned to 
his ftation again with the frigates, 
in order to incommode the tranfports 
as much as poffible, AI. Conflans's 
fquadron lying wind-bound off Bcl- 
P , Four conflables convifled 

in May term for the abufe of 
their office, in wantonly feizing and 
dragging Mrs. Williams, a gentle- 
woman of charafler, toprit'on, and 
confining her a whole night, were 
brought from the King's Bench pri- 

third fon, whom he declared King 
of the Tv/o Sicilies, before he left 

The Dutch have lately {hewn a 
remarkable piece of partiality to- 
wards the French, who had brought 
a great num.ber of cannon, cannon 
bail, and other warlike itores from 
the Baltic, and landed them at Ara- 
fterdam, intending i^ carry them 
by the canals of Holland and Flan- 
ders. This our niinifter oppoicd, 
as being contrary to their neu- 
trality, and a paffage was for iome 
time refufed ; but upon a memo- 

For the Y £ A R i^ 


rial from the French mlni.lcr, the 
States General having granted thein 
a paiTport; and notwithllanding the 
firongeii: re-monftrances made by our 
ir.inilter, they have been carried 
'through Holland, by inland water 
carrias.c to Flanders. A -new me- 
thod by which our enemies may oe 


Two perfons belonging to the 
workhoufe Ox^ St. Andrew's Ho]- 
born, tried Tome time ago, and 
convicted of taking from its mother, 
then in the faid workhor.fe, a child 
ot two months old, and carryin'*- 
it to the Fvjuadling Hofpital againlt 
her confent, where it ditd, were 

furhiOied with all forts of naval and brought to Guildhall, and received 
warlike flores, without its being fentence, viz. to pay a fine of ao s. 
pcf^Ible for us to intercept them. each, and to lufi'er one month's 

l>.ePope has ordered the Jefiits imprifonmeat in the Poultry- Com d- 
that were fent from Portugal* and ter. 
arrived at Civita Vechia, to be 
lodged p:irt of them in the Domini- 
can and Capuchin convents of that 
city, and the reii i;: private houfcs, 

Numbers of-perfons in Ireland, 

having taken it into their heads,- 

that an union was intended between 

England and Ireland, that they 

till the houles getting ready tor were to have no more parliaments. 

them atTivoIi and Frelcariare made 
fit for iheir reception. Kis holiners 
feems fenfibly touched with the 
ciigracc cf thefe fathers 5 and a 
gr^at number cf perfons intcrell 
themfelves in their favour, notwith- 
ftanding the hatred of thc;fe who 
endeavour at Rome, as well as elfe- 
where, to blacken the fociety. 
Ey the death of Mrs. Anne 'Mar 

were to be fuhj-cft to the fame taxes, 
cic. a mijb or fome thoufands af- 
fembled in Dublin, broke into the 
houie of lords, infulted them, would 
have burnt the journals if they 
could have found them, and feared 
an old woman on the throne. Not 
content with this, they obliged all 
the members of both houfes that 
they roei in the ftreets, to take an 

ling, at Namptwich, Chelhire, her oath, that they would never con- 
fortune, computed at 6000 1. de- fent to fuch an union, or &ivc any 
vol'.ed to her grand-daughter, who vote contrary to the true intereit of 
carried a baf/cet feveral years In the Ireland. Many coaches of obnoxi- 
markets of this city. ous perfons v.'ere cut or broke, their 
A labourer's wife, at Fahlun, in hor.'es killed} &c. One gentleman, 
Sweden, aged torty-four, was lately in particular, narrowly efcaped be- 

brought to bedof fcur children. 



At the court of Kino^'s 

jng hanged, a gallows being ereft- 
ed for purpofe. Tiie horie and 
foot were drawn out on this occa- 
fion, but could not difperfe them 
till night; and the day after, ad- 
dreffes to the lord lieutenant werd 

^ ' Bench in Weit.minfter-Hail, agreed to, 'and a committee of en- 

a profecution whs brought againil quiry appointed. 

is day's London Go- 


a woman for receiving a peniion a 
an olMcer's widovv ten years, a! 

This day's London Go- 
ette gives us the tranflation 

though (he had never been married of a declaration, which his Serene 

to hi.n ; when ftie was found guilty Highnefs Duke Lewis of Brunfwicfe 

of perjury. iias delivered to the minjfters of ths 

Vol. 11. K Lei- 




belligerent powers, refiding at the would be prejudicial to the trade 

Hague, it) the naiue of his majelly, and manufadures thereof, 
and tilt King of Piuilia, exprcfiing Admiral Saunders, who , 

their majeily's defire of fcei:ig an landed at Cork, in Ireland, 5 •. 

end put to the war, and their rea- in a boar, not being abie to carry in 

dinels to appoint plenipotentiaries his great {hips becaufe of the wea- 

for that purpcfe. ther, fer'^out from that port, and ar- 

The great caufe brought rived this day at Dublin. At night, 

by Lady Manfell, relid of being at the play, he was laluted 

Sir Edward .N'.ianfell, againft the by the audience with the highcll 

heir at Jaw of that gentleman, for demonilrations of applaufe. 
a fatisfrtC^ion for her jointure, of A loan of eight millions , 

which Trie had been evidted, was was agreed to by the par- ' 

argued in the court of Chancery be- liament, tor which an interefl of 4 

fore the lord keeper, who made a per cent, and a lottery ticket, value 

decree in her favour, and ordered 3I. is to be given as a g-atuity for 

hi'r claims to be made good out of every lool. fo borrowed. The 

the great eltate in Carmarthenfhire, fubicription for this fum was full 

called the Vaughan ellate, which b^^fore the refolution agreed to in 

are very confiderable. parliament was kr.own. An addi- 

Admiralty office, Dec. 8. The tional duty of 3d. per bulhel on 

King has been pleafed to appoint malt is laid to pay the interell of 

the right hon. Edward Bofcawen, this vau fum. 

Eiq; admiral of t'lie blue, to be ge- Was e-xccuted at Netting- „ , 

neral of the marine forces. And ham, where he received fen- 

allb to appoint Charles Saunders, tence of death at the aflizes held 

Efi.]; vice admiral of the blue, to for that town, on the loth of Au- 

be lieiiienant general of the faid gull hil, the execution of which 

forces. was refpited from time to tim.e. 

The following remarkable William Andrew Home, of Bucter- 

article appeared in the Bruf- ley-hall, in Derbylhire, Efq; aged 

fels Gazette. " The animofity of 74, for the murder of a child only 

the Englifh againft the French de- three days old, 35 years ago. His 

crcafes. They are now fufFered to brother, who was the only perfcn 

hate only the French that are in privy to this long concealed mur- 

arms. A fubfrription is opened in der, was at laft induced to difcover 

the feveral towns and counties for it, partly from an uneafinefs of mind 

cloathing the French prifoners de- he was under on that account, and 

tained in England, and the ex- partly from the cruel treatment he 

ample has been followed in thecapi- received from Mr. Home. 

tal." — The Englifh feel for their The Adventure tranfport, , 

captives as men, and cannot but pity Captain Walker, arrived at ^ 

enemies in diftrefs, who are not in Plymouth from the Bay, and brings 

a capacity to hurt them. advice that the fnips in Vilaine 

. It was refolved by the harbour are net dcftroyed ; that he 

^ ' commons in the parliament himlelf was employed, in weighing 

of Ireland, that the exportation of up the guns of the Sol^il ; but 

live cattle from that kingdom, that he was fired upon from the 




For the Y 

land, and obliged to defifi: ; that 
Admiral Hawke had bombarded 
the town of Croiflel, and fet it on 
fire, becaufe the niagiltrates had 
refufed to permit any boats to pafs 
up the Vilaine, to dellroy the 
men of war that had taken flielter 

Captain William Lawrence, com- 
mander of the Pluto privateer, con- 
vicled feme time ago for robbing a 
Dutch (hip on the high feas, was 
carried to execution-dock, and there 
executed, purfuant to his fentence. 
The two feamcn who allilled, and 
who were Jikewife condemned, as 
they acted under his command, 
were rcfpice-l. 

The following acls were 
figned by co.nmiinon. — An 
aft to continue and amend an for 
the importation of Irilh faked beef, 
pork, and butter. — An act to pro- 
hibit for a limited time, the diiHl- 
ling of fpirits or low wines from all 
grain. — An acl to puniih mutiny 
and defertion, and for ^he better 
payment of the army. And one 
naturalization act. — After which the 
houie of peers adjourned till Tuef- 
day the 15th of January, and the 
houfe of commons to Monday the 

At night the trial of a pretended 
Butch Ihip, called the Snip, taken 
by the Lyon privateer, Capt Creil, 
came on before the lords of ::ppeal, 
at the Cock-pit, Whicehal!, when 
it plainly appeared to their lordih.ips, 
that the real bill cf ladinp-, &:. 
were artfully concealed in a caik or 
bag of cofFee, and that the coun- 
terfeit papers were encouraged by 
the Dutch governor of St. Euilatia, 
who was deeply concerned in the 
lading : their lordlhips were una- 
aimoully pleafed to conhrm the 
judge's fentence, by pronouncing 

EAR 1759. 131 

the fhip and cargo (which is worth 
Sooo 1.) to be French property. 

The contraft made this , 

day by the commi'Jioners of 
the vidualling office for beef was 
no more than 21s. jd. per hundred ; 
and 27s. 1 id. for pork. 

About tour in the morn- , 

ing, a fire broke out at a. ^^ ' 
cabinet-maker's in King ilreet, Co- 
vent garden, which er.tirely con- 
fumed that houfe, and two more ia 
front ; a large work-fhop backwards 
took fire, and having no water ijr 
feme time, the fl::mes foon reach- 
ed feveral houfes in Ha;t-ltreer, 
wliich were burnt dosvn ; as are 
likewife all the houfes on the right 
hand fide of the way in Rofe-llrcet, 
through to Long-acre. It is com- 
puted, that in the whole about 
hiiy houies are confumed, and 
fevtral more greatly damaged. 
One fireman and a brewer's ler- 
vant loil their lives by the fall of 
a houfe, and feveral others had 
their legs and arms broke ; and 
were oiherwife much hurt. The 
lofs is computed at more th:.n 

His majefty has fettled , 

1500I. per ann. upon Sir '^ 
Edward Kiwke, for his own life 
and that of his fon. 

Lord George Sackville havirg 
made application to be tried by a 
court-martial for his fuppofed mif- 
condudl on the firft of Auguil lafr, 
a doubt has been raifed .".hether hs 
is amenable before fuch a court, as 
he does no: at prefect hold any mi- 
litary employment whatfuever. This 
point is referred to the judges, who 
are to give their opinion thereon 
next term. 

During the prefent war, there 

have been taken or deltioyed 27 

French Ibips of the lice, and 31 

K. z * fr:^atss i 



frigates; and two fhips of the line 
and four frigates loit ; making in 
the whole 50 taken or deuro<ed, 
and fix lolt. We have loii fevta 
men of war and five frigates. 

A fubfcription lately let on foot 
for the relief and reward of the i<;l- 
diers, who triumphed at Minden 
and Quebec, meets with great en- 
couragement ; and another for 
cloathing and comfortip-gthe French 
prifoners, during the prefent ri- 
gorous feafcn, has already the func- 
tion of many great and illuflricus 
names ; whilii they, unhappy, brave 
fellows ! are totally neglected and 
abandoned by their own coun- 

This morning arrived at 


Portfmouth, Caprain Geary, 

with feveral ihips from Sir Edward 
Hawke's fleet ; as did Lord Howe 
in his majedy's fhip Magnanime. 
Some of thefe fnips are in a fhatter- 
ed condition, having had very bad 
weather for fome time. Admiral 
Rodney is alio arrived here wiih 
the n-iips under his command from 
off" Ilavre-de-Grace. 

Tiiis morning Admiral Saunders 
arrived in' town from Dublin. 

, Dr. Ward fent this day a 

^7^"' benefadion of 50I. to the 
fubfcription opened at Slaughter's 
cofFee-houfe for the relief of the dif- 
trefled fufferers by the late iire in 
Coven t-garden. 

Died lately Mr. David Lacy, cf 
Limerick, in Ireland, aged 112. 

A few days fince, as Hugh Be- 
thel!, Efq; of Riie, w'as hunting the 
flag between Scarborough and Bur- 
lington, the creature being very 
hard prefied, took down a c'iiF of 
an inimenfe height ; and ten couple 
and a half of the leading hounds fol- 
lowed ; by which accident thev 
were every one killed upon the fpot, 

and the Hag had three of his legs 
broke. One of the wiiippers-in, a 
young lad, being jufl at their heels, 
and ieeing his danger, threw him- 
fclf from iris horfe ; and the horfe 
upon coming near the precipice fud- 
denly fiopt, by which means they 
were both prefer vcd. 
Extraft of a letter from Capt. , 

Richard Maitland, of the 3^^"' * 
Roval regiment or artillery, dat- 
ed Bomb;;y, May 8, 1759- 
♦' Since my lall, nothing parti- 
cular has happened to the d'jtach- 
ment, unti,l February, when I was 
ordered by the governor and cotm- 
cil to take the command of an ex- 
pedition againft the city and caitie 
of Surat, my command confiiilng oF 
850 artillery and infantry, with 
15CO foapoys. 

I embarked my troop? on board 
the company's armed vcfre';^, and In 
ei..^ht days landed theoi all fafe at a 
place called Den ti!owry,d;uant from 
Surat aboufnine miles, where we 
encamped for the refreihn-.enc of the 
troops three or four days. Jn cur 
(irll day's march from the above en- 
campment, Capt. John Northail 
died of an apople6lic fit, and was 
fucceeded in our company by Capt, 
Jofeph Winter. The firlt attack that 
I made, was againft the French ear- 
den, where the enemies (Scydees) 
had lodged a num.ber of men ; them 
I drove out, afrer a very fmart firing 
on both fides, for about four hours ; 
our num.ber loil confilting of about 
tuenty men killed, and as many 
v.ounded. After we had got pofiel- 
fion of the French garden, I thought 
it neceffary to order the engineer to 
pitch upon a proper place to ereft a 
battery, which he did, and com- 
pleated it in two days. 

On this battery were mounted two 
24 pounders, and a 13 inch morrar, 


Fc:- the Y E 

v^hich I ordered to fire again (1 the 
wax], &c. as briflc as p..)frib!e : this I 
continued t") do for three days. Hav- 
ing thought of a more expeditious 
nethod .of getting into the cater 
town, than by a breach in the wal!, 
I crJied a council of war, compofed 
of military and marine ; formed a 
plan of a general atta-jk, which I 
Liid before them, and they as readily 
agreed to, and this to bz put into 
execution at half pafc four the nrjct 
n-,orning. The plan was, that the 
concipany's grab and boTib-ketcJies 
fht>uid warp up the ru'erin thenight, 
and anchor in a line of battle oppo^ 
fite the Scydees Bar.dar, one cf the 
ftrongeii fortified places they had 
got : this they did, and agenersl at- 
tack begun fro iU the veiTels and bat- 
tery at the appointed time. My in- 
tentions iij this were,- to drive the 
eneiny frcrri their batteries^ and to 
fa^jlitate the landing of the infajitry. .. 
at the Eundsr, uhoui I had embark- 
ed on board of boats for their tranf-' 
portation. We made a continual fire 
until half pall eight, when a iignal 
was maUe for the boats to put off, 
and go under the cover of the veffeis. 
This proved very fuceefsftd, for the 
men were landed with the lofs of 
onq man only ; getting pofTeiricn 
cf the Scydees Dundar, and putting 
t'le, men to flight, with the lofs of 
Captain Robert Inglifa mortaiiy 
wounded, and Lieutenant Pepperel 
wounded in the shoulder, our lofs 
of men not very confiderable. 

Having gained this point, and 
getting pofiVCion of the outer town, 
with irs fortifications, the next thing 
to be done, was to attack the inner 
town and caftle. 

I ordered the 13 and 2 ten inch 
mortars to be planted on the Scy- 
dees Bundar, and to begin firing 
into the callle and town as foon as 

AR 1759. - 17^ 

poffible ; diifance from the caflle 
about 7C0 yards, inner town 500. 

About fix in the evening the mor- 
tars began to play very brifely, and 
continued to do fo until half pall 
two the next morning. This conti- 
r.u"] firing of our mortars put the 
callle and town into fuch a confier- 
nation, that they never returned one 
gun. The enemy finding it impof- 
fible to fupport themfclves, fent to 
acquaint me they would open the 
gates for my troops to march into 
the town; v/hich I did, with drums 
beatii;g, and colours flying. After I 
was ill the town, the governor fent 
to acquaint me, that he would give 
ine up the caftie, on provifo, that 
J would allow him and his people 
to march out of the caflle with 
their effcfts, which I agreed to, 
taking pou'efiion without any fur- 
ther moleilation. 

Royal artillery, killed 2, wound- 
ed 4. 

Ill the company's infantry, Cap- 
tains, killed 2. Subaltern I. Killed 
in ail 150. V/ounded about 60. 

Our expedition commenced the 
9th of February, and we arrived at 
BoTibay the 15th of April." 
Letter from Albany in New- „ 
York, 0^/23. 311-- 

" Cayenquiliquoa and Rat- 

tle-fnake Sam, two Mohawk In- 
dians, came here yefterdav. They 
werj about fourteen days ago ac 
Oiv\,'egatch;e, in Canada, on a vifit 
to iome relations who have been 
many years fettled with the French. 
They lav they endeavoured to per- 
fjade their reiations, and the other 
Mohawks at Gowegatchie, to leave 
the French in good tim.e, and re- 
turn to their own country ; telling 
thejn, " That the Englifh, fornner- 
ly women, were now all turned into 
men, and were as thick all over th&. 
K 3 country, 



country, as the trees jn the woods. 
That they have taken the Ohio, 
Niagara, Cataracqui, Ticonderoga, 
Louifbcurg, and now lately Quebec ; 
and they would foon eat tlie re- 
mainder of theTrenc'1 in Canada, 
and Indians that adhered to them." 
But the French Indians aniwered, 
" Brethren, you are deceived, the 
Englifli cannot eat up the French ; 
their mouih is too little, their jaws 
too weak ; and their teeth not Iharp 
enough. Our father Onontion (that 
h, the gnverncr of Canada) has 
told us, and we belitve him, that 
the Englilti, like a thief, have ftolcn 
Louifbourg and Qciebec from the 
great Pving, whilll his back was 
turned, and he was looking another 
way ; but ncv%' he has turned his 
face, and fees what the Englilh have 
done, he is going into their country 
with a thouiand great canoes, and 
all his warriors ; and he will take 
the littlo Englilh King, and pinch 
him till he makes him cry out, and 
give back what he has flolen, as he 
did about ten fummers ago ; and 
this your eyes will loon fee." The 
fame notions and prejudices, v.e 
find, are indullriuufly fpecad amongft 
the fix nations : God grant no- 
tliing may happen at a peace to con- 
firm them. 

The Cheferia, from a place 20 
leagues above Quebec, of near 500 
tons, mounting 23 fix pounders, 
with ICO men, and fix tnglilh pri- 
foners, is fent into Brillol by the 
Rippcn man of war, who took her 
the 20th indant, fevcnty leaoucs 
from the Lizard. She failed from 
Qijebec wirh four or five others; 
the forr"! fired as they palled the 
town ; but did them little or <to 
damage. It was thought impoffible 
that they could of ape. 

Letters from Gibraltar advife, that 

Mr. Milbank, who was lately fent 
to Morocco with two men of war, to 
treat about the ranfom of the crew 
of the Litchfield man of war, and a 
tranlport that was wrecked laii year 
on the Barhary coall, is not able to 
fuccecd in his commiffion ; for, be- 
fides the fum of money required, 
which is very large, the emperor 
demands a certain number of can- 
non with powder and hill anf.vcr- 
able, and cordaj;e, tackle, &cc. funi- 
cicnt to equip four men of war. 

In Paris 19,148 children were 
baptized, 4',-}-' couple marrit-d, 
19,202 died during this year; and 
5028 foundlings were taken into 
t'leir foundling hofpital in the fame 

Amflerdam. The number of 
perfons who have died in this city 
in 1759, ^'nf>u>its to 7771, and the 
chriiieningi (04317, 
Extract of a letter from Bombay, 
dated April 7, i"59. 

There have three very ex- 
traordinary appearances here. On 
the I 3 th of December lall, there was 
almolt a toral ecliple of the lun, 
which lailed from ten in the morn- 
ing till near one o'clock. A comet 
has been feen thefe twenty days, and 
remains Hill vifible about four 
o'clock in the morning. A viry large 
meteor in the air was feen on 'he 
4M1 of this month, at about fevcn 
o'clock at night, which appeared in 
the fime fnape, but much larger 
than the comet, and had the fame 
d!ie>!:lion. Jt lafted about ten le- 
couds, and was of fo great a brighr- 
ncls, that it was nor pclfible lor a 
perfon to look fteadfalliy at it. As 
for myfelf, I narrowly efcaped feel- 
ing the effeds of it ; being then re- 
turning from a village near Bombay 
to»vn, and in the open road, feeing 
an extraoruir.ary light in the air, I 


For the YEAR 

turned my head that way, to fee 
what it was, when it immediately 
caught my eyes, in a manner, that 
1 was not then ienfible whethei- I 
had loft them or not, and was oblig- 
ed to put up my hand to fcreen 
them. Every houfe was illuminat- 
ed by it, as if there was a number 
of flambeaux lighted. 

Yours, Sec. A. B. 

A general BILL of all the Chriit- 
enings and Burials in London, 
from December I z, 1-58, to De- 
cember II, 1759. 

Chriftened Burled 

Males 7294 Males 9Q^9 

Females 6959 Females e,t,o^ 

14,25? 19,604 

iK 1759. 


Increafed in the burials 

this year 


Died under 2 

years of ag 

;e 6905 

bciween 2 























1 583 




14.1 "5 





















/ 9,604 

j^cccrdiftg lo our meihod in the laji yearns E.£gijler, refer'-oe an ar- 
ticle at the conclnjton of the Chronicle, for ihfe matters, ivhich, though 
curious end intertjiing, cannot be injerted in that part, agreeable to 
our plan. 

At the end of April of this year the following advertifement appeared, 
and has been often repeated in fome of the daily papers. 

JJ/Hcreus on Wednefday the 7^th of April, feueral pcrfcns armed njoith 
cutlafjes, J-TMords, and other o^enfve 'weapons, did forcibly enter the 
boufc of Mr. Campbell, Jenxieller, in King-Jheet, Soho, break cpen his parlour 
door, greatly abuje him and his ixiife, take a^vay a lady by force ^ and commit 
jnany ads cf great •violence and outrage : y'nd -luhereas only four of the faid 
perfons ha-ve as yet been taken ; -ivhoe-oer ivill make difconjery, or caufs 10 be 
dijcovered and taken, the principal ringleader of this confpiracy, or riot, Jo 
thit he may he brought to jv.Jlics, (the lord chief juf ice's vjarrant having been 
granted for that purpr^/ej jbail, on his commitme/U, receive a re-jjard rffive 
guineas, to be paid by ?ne Jof. Campbell. 

N. B. He is about five feet five or fix inches high, ravj boned and fender 
in his perjon, pitted <vjith the J mall-pox, of a dark complexion, broad black 
eye bro^Cs, grey eyes, looking a little red or Jore about the lids, a Icngijh faarp 
nnfe, luide mouth, had on a large grizzle -vjig, and black coat. 

THIS extraordinary advertife- violence which occafioned it, hai 
mem has been the lubj'-cl been varioufly, but neither truly nor 
ol inuch fpecuiation, and the acl of circumftantially reUted. It v*as, in- 

Iv 4 deed» 


deed, one of the mpft darirg and 
flagitious breaches of the peace that 
ever happened in this kingdoin, as 
will appear by the following narra- 
tive, winch is drawn up from an ac- 
count given in writing, by the lady 

Mrs. A. M B. in the month of 
December, 1757, after having been 
married three years to ?v'Jr. B. B. 
was obliged, by a feii>;s of unpro- 
voked cruelty, to fvvear the peace 
again [1 him before a m?.giiirate, to 
remove from his houfeirii'Vuh-llreet, 
Soho, leaving with him their only 
child, a little boy, then about a y^.-ar 
and a half old, and take fheltcr at 
Mr. C'ampboll's,a jeweller, in King- 
Ihcet,. cot far diilanr. In the next 
Hilary term ihe exhibited the ar- 
ticles of peace in the court of King's- 
Eench,_and commenced a fuit in the 
fpiritual court, by which (he ob- 
tained -a divorce a vienfa et toro with 
coA^ §nd damage:, en the 15th of 
pecember 1758. 

On the 15 th of April, 1759, a- 
bout i'our months.- after, the divorce 
hriu •been obtained, as M.'-s. B. v/as 
fitting in the parlour* at Mr. Oanip- 
bcM's, with Mr. Campbell and his 
v/ife, between eight and nine o'clock 
in fhe evening, fhe heard three 
loud.knocks at the ftreet door. I'he 
parlour where they were fitting is a 
back room, with two doors ; one 
door •opens irito the paflV-ge, at the 
eiid of which is the l^reet door, and 
the other opens into the. (hop, in 
wiiiwh tisere is a glafs door, that 
cpcns into the fame paflage clofe by 
the iirtet door. 

Being ftartled at the loudnefs of 
the knocking, Mr. Campbell went 
out at the pafiage door, which Mrs. 
Campbell immedlarcly bolted after 
him, and while hewas going along 
the PMT<;ge to the llreet door, Mrs. 


B. went out at the other door into 
the ijiop, and looked through tlie 
glafs door, which was always kept 
bolted at nij^ht, to fee who was 
coining. As foon a? Mr. Camp- 
bell opened the flreet door, (he law 
a tall elderly ill-looking fnan, and 
hearing him enquire if Mrs. B. did 
not lodge thei-e, (he in(lant^y fuf- 
petled fome violence was intended 
sgainil her, and being extremely 
frighted, fhe f:reamed out. The 
next moment fhe dillinguilhed Mr. 
B.'s voice, and heard him fay, 
" Come on my boys." Several 
ruinans then ruihed into the-pafTage, 
armed with fhcrt bludgeons, violent- 
ly threw Mr. Campb-lJ down, wlio 
endeavoured to iltip them, and get- 
ting at length to the parlour door, 
B. alter feveral efforts, burfl it open, 
by forcing off the box of the lock. 
Mrs, B. was Hill at the glafs door in' 
the fiiop, B. difcovering her, ran 
to her, and dropping hi» bludgeon, 
laid hold of her, anti forcibly drag- 
ged her quite round throitgh the 
parlour and pail'age, to the llreet 
door, not having prefence of mind 
to unbolt the glafs door, which, 
when hs was in the (hop, he might 
ealily have done. Mrs. Campbell, 
endeavouring to fave her, was ex- 
tremely ill-treated, and had her 
cIoa:hs torn from her back ; and 
Mrs. B. in the itruggleloil both her 
flioes, and her linen and cloaths 
were torn almoft to rags.. In this 
condition (he was dragged into ti:e 
fbcer, where ftie faw a landau ; 
while the gang were attempting to 
force her into it, (he heard a wo- 
man's voice, v.ho called her by her 
name, and laid, " Don't be afraid, 
" Mrs. B. come in." M.-s. B. how- 
ever, continued to flruggle with all 
her llrength, but was at lall over- 
po'Acred, ar.d, with great violence, 


For the YEAR 1759. 

ard great indecency, forced isto the 
coach. She im mediately perceived 
that the woman, having done her 
ofnce, had got oat at one door, jufl 
as ihe was fcr^ed in at the other. 
Or.e Aldrich came into the coach to 
iier, and was immediately followed 
bv B. The coach then drove away 
with great fpeed, leaving behind 
many perions, who Hopped to gaze 
at the tumult, and wh;»^ notwith- 
fianciing the cries, and entreaties, 
and ilruggles cfthe la^'ly, patiently 
fjitered ner to be thi/s treated, be- 
Caufe feme of the gang had told 
them it was only a fquaboie between 
a man and his wife. 

Mrs.B. ililkcntinuedherfcreams, 
and threw her hands out of the 
coach, imploring alliltance, which 
was llill prevented by I'ome of the 
gang, who followed the coach on 
foot, which drove at a great rate up 
Greek-ilrcet, croTs iioh.o fquare, 
tlirough Hog-lane, and fo to the 
turnpike at Tottenham-court. This 
turnpike, and the next, being al- 
ready opened, they drove furioully 
through, without rlopping, and, as 
they laid, went through the back 
part of lilington. B. all the time 
beinj half out of the coach, curling 
and fwearing at the coachman to 
puih on, and to keep the lower 
road. They came at length to a 
third turnpike, which they faid led 
to Hackney, and this not being 
opened, the coach flopped to pay 
the toll. Mrs. B. faw that there 
was but one man a* this gate, and 
though fhe could not hope much 
from his ailiftance, yet ihe would 
have called out to him, if B. had not 
forcibly held lier back in the coach, 
and Hopped her mouth with his 
hand. Some time after they had 
got througii this turnpike, the: coach 
ilopped again by B.'s order ; and 


it being now late in the evenino-, 
and the place lonely, Mrs. B. was 
f.ruck with the dread.^ul apprchen- 
fion that (he was now about to be . 
murdered ^ this apprehenfion was 
increafed by a motion, which B. 
mace to get out, under pretence of. 
enquiring the way ; fiie thcuo^hi he 
could not either perpetrat.- her mur- 
der with his own hands, or be pre- 
ient while it was perpetrated by the . 
rufnan, whom he had engaged for. 
that purpofe ; fhe therefore laviro- 
hold of his hand, earneftly intreated ' 
him not to leave her ; to this he at . 
laft filently confented, and Aldrich 
went out in his ftead, which it was . 
neceffary to do to fare appearances, 
whatever were their real intentions, 
as they pretended it was necefTary 
to enquire the wr.y : in a fnort time 
Aldrich returned into the coach, and 
the man was ordered again to drive 
on : Mrs. B. then begged and con- 
jured B. that he would neither mur-. 
der her himfelf,' nor permit her to be 
murdered by the man that was with 
him ; B. made no anfwer, but dur- 
ing Mrs. B.'s en treaties and expollu- 
lations, kept his eyes wildly iixed 
upon Aldrich ; this ftill increafed 
her fears, and fne was thrown al- 
moft into an agony foon afier, by 
feeing them whifper. She then, in 
fach words as diftrefs and terror fug-- 
gefced, begged they would not whn"- 
per, as fne could not but regard 
fuch dark confultations as the pre- 
lude to her death, t'. then faid 
aloud to Aldrich, '* Will you go 
" through :" and Aldrich anlwered, 
" Yes, that I will ; I'll do any thing 
" for you, and go through the 
" world with you." B. replied, 
" Siy you fo ? give me your hand, 
" rry boy." On which they Ihook 
hands. S. then looked out of the 
coach, and feeicg none of the gang. 



fame of whom had fdloweJ the 
coach on foot to the iecond turn- 
pike, he exprefled great uneafinefs 
leil fome of them fhould betray him, 
either through remoife or fear, and 
that a party, by their informaion, 
fnould get at the place of rendezvous 
before the coach, and refcue the la- 
dy : he therefore told Aldrich in a 
low voice, that he had a great mind 
to alter his fchen^e ; but Aldrich 
fjling him, that none of the gang 
t new'his icheme iufhciently to fruf- 
tratc it, if thcv had any fuch inten- 
tion, he feemed fatisfied, and only 
whifpercd, " H-ve yoa get every 
•' thiii^T ready ?'' to which Aldrich 
replied'aloud,' «' I have " B. then 
turning to Mrs. B. told her that 
Aldrich bJouged to a very great 
man, and that he had got what 
vTuld do for any body ; upon which 
/Mdrich, at his requell, produced a 
ihort painted fta::?, like that which 
conftabl^s carry in their pock-ns, 
as a token of their authority ; Al- 
drich, however, defired B. not to 
n^eddle with it, and foon after took 
i'- from him. B. then pat his hind 
down to the bottom of the coach 
vvhere Mrs. B. fat, as (he thnught 
v.'iih a defign of taking off her 
fioes ; upon which fiie told him fhe 
h-.d none on. He replied, "We will 
'• aet you flioes in the country." He 
tiien produced two drawn fvvords, 
which he faid, if he met with any 
rppofition, fhould be the death of 
him, or of thofe who oppofed him : 
Mrs. B. then burft into tears, and 
intreated him to tell her where fhe 
'vas to go ; he replied, fhe was go- 
in^ to her country lodging to fee 
heT little boy. After this cop.-erfa- 
ticn he called out to the coachman 
to make halle, oflering him any mo- 
pev to drive fafier, upon which Mrs. 
B.'a^ain fcreameJ cut, and calling 

to the coachman, faid, " Surely 
" you *.ill not carry me to be mur- 
•' derc-d ; how much farther am I 
'« to gof" The coachman replied, 
" Only a quarter of a mile;" and 
then drove at a prodigious rate till 
he came to. L-mehoufe-hole, where 
he Hopped. B. ordered him to go 
on to the JGe of Dogs. He repli-d 
that he did not know the way ; th-y 
ordered him to enquire. Julk as the 
coach began \o go on again, it was 
Hopped by an ill-looking fello.v 
muffled up in a blue great coat, who 
coining to the window laid, " Sir, 
'* was you at Billingfg.ite to-dav r" 
B. anfvvered, " Yes." Then, fays 
the fellow, " I am right ; get out 
" here; the boat is a: the bottom 
" of the place, and the fliip not 
" far oi\." Mrs B. upon hearing 
this cried out, ♦' Lord have mercy 
♦' upon me, fure 1 am not going up- 
" on the water :" and B. endeavour- 
ing to pacify her, faid, " M v dear, 
" you know my coufin Atkinion, 
" we are only going on board his 
" fliip." The fc:llow had now dif- 
appcared, and they were preparing 
to get out ; but Mrs. B.'s fcrean-.s 
terrified them, and they ordered 
the man to drive a little farther. As 
the coach wer.t on, it pafTed dole 
by the Royal Oak, a public-houfe, 
and Mrs. B. feeing a light in the 
window, continued to cry out for 
help, and her voice brought ou: two 
or three women. Aldrich then got 
out of the coach, and B. llood up m 
the coach, fo as to hide Mrs. B. 
from the women, and ordered the 
coachman to drive to any pla^e 
where he might procure a polf- 
chaife, enconraging him by the pro- 
mifeof any money he would requite. 
It is probable, that B.'s original in- 
tention was to force Mr«:. B. in'-o a 
boat at Limehoulc-holc, but nac 


For the Y E 

imme<^UstcI}' ir.eetlng with the man, 
who atterwaros aflced if" he had been 
at Biilir.gfgate, which feems ro have 
bten a watch word, and finding 
that there were houies near, he con- 
cluded it better to proceed to the 
Iile of Dcgs, a folicary place, where 
he might have kept her without fear 
of dikovery, till the boat had been 
ordered thither to take her in. He 
was now inroniied that the boat 
was read)', but fearing to maice his 
attc-mpc here, as the neighbourhood 
w;l!^ alarmed, and deipairing to get 
on with the coach, was defircus per- 
haps to pn^cetd to the Ifie of Dogs 
in a poll chaile, while Aldrich di- 
reftea the boat to meet him there. 
However this be, the coachman laid 
he could go no farther, for there was 
no road : B. then got out, and Mrs. 
B. feeing his m.ealures precipitated 
by their fituation, and that the ef- 
fort to rret on the water mull be 


made on the fpot, redoubled her 
cries for aihUance, and called out 
murder with all her ftrength many 
times : this brought feveral more 
women out of the Royal Oak, and 
one man : upon their comintr up to 
the coach (he Tnewed her feet, which 
were without iTioes, and her cloaths 
that were almoft torn from her 
back, and told them ilis was for- 
cibly taken away by ruflians, who 
file feared were about to throw her 
into the Thames, or otherwife 
take away her life. B. then faid, 
that *' fhe was his wife, that 
" fne was mad, and that he was 
" carrying her to a mad-houfe." 
This iht denied in fuch a manner, 
as convinced the people who faw 
her, that fhe fpoke truth ; and B. 
perceiving that every moiTient of 
delay muit produce new oppofition, 
peremptorily commanded Aldrich 
to take her, and carry her to the 

AR 1759. i-g 

boat by force. Aldrich immediate- 
ly feiztrd her, with that dehgn, but 
the man who came out of the Roval 
Oak reicued her from him, and 
carried her into the houfe, whither 
B. and Aldrich followed her. The 
man in the blue coat, who had (lopt 
the coach jull before, now returned 
with the waterman, and brought 
him into the room to them. B. 
then ordered the waterman to affill 
in forcing her to the water fide ; but 
the man replied, •' Not I indeed ; 
" if the lady chufes to go in my 
" boat, ihe is welcome; but I'jl 
*' carry nobody againll their will." 
P. now found it impracticable to 
execute his meafures, and being 
fenfible of the danger of his fitua- 
tion, made his efcape by drawing 
his fvvord upon fome of the women, 
who endeavoured to detain him. 
Aldrich fecurcd till a conftablc 
was called, who condufled him to 
1 oplar round-houfe. Mrs. B. fat 
up the rell of the night, at ths 
Royal Oak, and in the morning 
fent the following letter to Mi. 

Mr. Campbell, 

I have, through God's mercy, 
efcaped death that was defigned me, 
and have got to an honeft houfe, 
the Royal Oak in Limehoufe-hole, 
where I beg to fee you, and more 
with you, as I am in fear of being 
molefted every hour. 

Thurfday morning. A. M. E. 

M*-. Cam.pbell immediately com- 
municated this to fome friends, who 
went and brought back the lady 
with Aldrich, who was by Juftice St. 
Lawrence committed to the Gate- 
lioufe, with two more of the gang, 
who had been feized the night be- 
fore, upon the information of the 
mailer of the Hercules Pillars in 
Greek llrcet, Soho, who f>sore he 


A N N U A L R E G I S T E R 

btlieved thenrto, be in theconfiyi- 
racyj becaufe they and many more 
had been cabailiiig three nights luc- 
ceffitely at 'his houfe with H. 

The lady, who, with the terror, 
liurryv and fatigue, and the bruifes 
fi^e received, was.many days in dan- 
ger of her life, is now recovered. 
B. is not yet taken, but a profecu- 
tion is, in the mean time, carrying 
va againft the other confpirators, of 
v-hich a further account will here- 
after be given. 

installation; &e. at Oxford, 

Oxford, July 7. 
^N Monday laU,'at two o'clock 

"in the afternoon, the right 

hdn. J.ohn Earl of Wellniorland, 
chancellor eleft .of this univerfit,y, 
tiiade rhis public entrance, by the 
es-iji. ga,\e:, into this city. His lord- 
fhip, was attended at bis entrance, 
a!\d-for a great part of the 'vVycotnb 
roadi by a long train cf coaches T.nd 
otheT'eq.ivp^ges.'of the nobility and 
gentry cf the country. Notice 
was given of his nearapproach, by 
the.jinging-cf Jt\bell at it. Mary's, 
v»/Hil:b caviled together the geirtlemen 
cf.tiie C^i^'erfuy, who were- ran li- 
ed',."^ ■according to their dilferent or- 
ders and' derives, on his lordfnip's 
righf:: tiand, from the eafi gate to 
St." Mary's church. The lefc hand 
fidarofTthe Ibeet was referved for 
the townfmen. 

Prc-^ioiis to Kis lordfhip's arrival, 
the following orders were agreed 
to by the vice-chancellor and dele- 
gates, -and were communicated to 
all [he heads of the .houii;s,- and by 
them to their refpcflive focietics: 

1. That the fcudents' appear no 
where abroad during the chancel- 
lor's abode ill. the univerfity wichouc 

their caps and gowns fuitable to 
tlieir degree and condition, and 
their apparel be i'uch as the ftatutes 
requited, and that they behave with 
fuch o,der and decency, as become 
gentlemen of a liberal education. 

2. I'hat no fcholar of what con- 
dition foever, (hall, without fpecial 
orders from his fups.-iors, prcfume 
to go out to meet the chancellor, 
either on horfeback or on foot, or 
to be af, or upon the way, where 
the chancellor is to come ; but 
Ihall attend in that place and pof- 
ture, in which he fliail be required 
to be, upon notice from his fupe- 

3. That the- chancellor's ap- 
proach to the town be fjgnified by 
the ringing of St. Mary's great bell, 
and that the vice-chancellor and 
doftors in their fcarlct gowns, and 
the proflors and noblemen in their 
proper habits, waitjat St. Mary's 
church' for the chancellor, where 
the public orator is to compliment 
his loid(hip on his arrival in a fnort 
Latin fpeech. That the other fcho- 
lers range themfelves from St. Ma- 
ry's church to the ^a(l gate on the 
north' fide of the ftreet ; the mafters 

lof arts arp next to St. Mary's, the 
batchelors are next t<i) them, and be- 
low fherrt the undergraduates; and 
that tjtie occafional prodors take ail that order and decen- 

iCy bo obierved, ?.nd that as foon 
as the chancellor and retinue are 
pall, every one iniinediately depart 
to hi.s refpedive college or hall, and 
there remain. 

4. That during his lordffiip's 
; iulcailation, and the following com- 
memoration and encxnia, all per- 
fons repair to and keep. their pro- 
per feats and places in the theatre. 
The riling iemicircle of the theatre 
is ref.Tved for the noblemen and 


For the YEAR 1759. 

dcftnrs. Tlie enclofure within the 
rails is the place for mai'ier.') of ar^s. 
The gallery behind ths dcctcrs in 
the circular part of the theatre ai-,d 
the eaft and weftward fide galleries 
are referved for the ladies and gran- 
gers, annong whom all govvnimen 
arc forbid to internum. 'I'/.c upper 
g.illerv above the noblemen and 
d'jttors is appointed for the gen- 
t'emen-comnioners lind batthelors ; 
and the upper galleries eaft and 
welKvard are for under graduate 
f.holars of houfes and comrnoners. 
The rell of the area fur bacteicjs, 
fervitors, Sec. 

5. That the proftors appoint a 
fuiScient number of cccailcn:;! proc- 
tors, to attend and preferve order 
and decency during his lordfliip's 
ftav in the univerfity. 

It is ftriflly required, during the 
tin'iC of iliis foieiiuiity, all perfons 
obferve the aforefaid orders, a:;d 
comport themlVlves wi:h that fo- 
briety and niodefty, as may tend to 
the reputaiioa and honour of the 
univeiiity, upon pain of being en- 
tered in the black book, and otlier- 
v.ife proceeded againll, as the exi- 
gence of their fault fhall require. 

On his lordlhip's arrival at St. 
Mary's he v^as received by the vice- 
chancellor, noblemen, and doctors, 
in their robes ; and being conducled 
into the church, was complimented 
by the public orator, in a ihort Latin 
fpeech, to which his lordihip re^-^lied 
in the fame language. After this 
his lordihip dined at St. Mary- 
Hall, wht-re aparrm.ents were pro- 
vided for him, and many gentlemen 
and ladies of his train. 

On Tuefday, at ten o'clock in 
the morning, the noblemen and 
the dotlors in their robes, waited 
on his lordihip at the vice-chancel- 
lor's lodgings at Gcrpus Chrifii 

college ; ar,d about eleven the 
proceiiion (which was rr ore. nume- 
rous than has been fcen here in the 
memory of many bt-gan from thence, 
and pafied through St. Mary's, 
where-it was joined by the malters 
of arts in their proper habits ; and 
then proceeded through the ^reat 
gate cf the Ichccls to the divlnirv 
Ichool, and from thence into the 

Here the vice-chancellor, in a 
Latin fpeech, opened the bufinefs of 
the convocation, and then addref- 
fing himfelf to the chancellor, 
who was featcd at his right hand, 
after applauding in a proper and 
polite manner ihe choice the uni- 
verfity had made, and congratu- 
lating his Icrdfhip upon it, adnu- 
niilercd to him. the neceifary oatJis, 
and prefented him with the infifrqia 
ot his olTice, viz, the key, the leal, 
and the book of fiatutes. Tlie 
vice-chancellor then quirted the 
chair, which was immediately filled 
by the chancellor, who iinilhedthis 
ceremony of the inflalment- by ad- 
drelnng himfelf to the univerfity 
in an elegant Latin oration. The» 
his lordiliip admitted the following 
noblemen and gentlemen to the 
honorary degree of dcdors cf law, 

The right hon. the Earl of North- 
The right hon. the Earl of Mac- 

Lord Wil lough by de Broke. 
Count Sh'.llenburgh, lord cf the 
bed-chamber to the King of Den- 

deputies from 
the States 
William Ger-.rd Dedel, commiffar/ 

of Amll:erdam. 
Sij Richard Glyn, lord mayor, and 



araes Boreel, V ' 

ierard Meerman, 5 



reprefentative in parliament for 

the city of London. 
Sir Charles Mordaunt, Bart, knight 

of the ihire for the county of 

War A'ick. 
Sir Edward Dcering, Bart. 
Sir Philip Boteler, Bart. 
Sir Roger Twifden, Bart. 
Sir Charles Kemeys Tynte, Bart. 

knight of the (hire for Somerier. 
William Cartwright, Efq; knight of 

the ftiire for Northampton. 
Thomas Cholmondeley, Efq; knight 

of the Ihire for CheJler. 
Edward Popham, Rlq; knight of 

the ftiire fur Wils. 
Henry Dawkins, of London, Efq; 

and Thomas Lambert, of Seven- 
oak, Kent, Efq; 

The convocation concluded with 
a fpcech from the public orator. — 
And then the proceflion returned to 
Corpus Chrilli college, where the 
noblemen and doctors were enter- 
tained at dinner with the chancellor. 

Afterwards the following noole- 
ir.en of the univerfity fpoke their 
congratulatory verfe?, which were 
received by the audience wiih un- 
common but deferved applaufe, viz. 
the Earl of Suffolk, Englifti verfe ; 
the Earl of Donegal, Latin ; and 
Lord Norreys, Latin. 

In the evening the oratorio of 
Samfon wr.s performed, in the 
theatre, by a ieleft and numerous 
band, conduced by Dr. Hays. 

On Wednefday, being the day 
of Lord Crewe's commemoration, 
the doctors, &c. met again at the 
vice-chancellor's lodgings, between 
ten and eleven o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and went in proceffion with 
the chancellor, from thence to the 
theatre. The vice-chancellor hav- 
ing opened the bufinets of the 
convocation, the commemoration 
fpeech was fpokea by Mr. Wiycon, 


the poetry profeflor. The fubjert 
of this elegant and admired fpeech 
was, with great propriety, confined 
to iiiofe benefactors who had beeri 
chancellors of the univerfity. The 
degree of D. C. L. was conferred, 
in this convocation, on the right 
hon. Lord Fane, membet of par- 
liament for Reading ; the hon. 
William Craven, member of par- 
liament for Warwickfhire, who 
were prefented by Dr. Seward, of 
St. John's college, who aded for the 
proiefll-r of law. Afierw,ards the 
right hon. the Earl of Suffolk was 
admitted to the degree of mailer of 
arts, to which he was prefented in 
a much applauded fpeech by the 
public orator. The encxnia were 
then continued by the following 
gentlemen, viz. hon. Mr. Beau- 
clerk, of Queen's, Englilli ; Sir 
B. B. Delves, M.ij^^dalen college, 
Latin ; Sir James Macdonal, Chrilt- 
Churth, Latin ; Mr. Beckford, 
New college, Englifh ; Mr. Wode- 
houfe, and Mr. J^a Maillre, Chrift- 
Church, Latin dialogue ; Mr. 
Nibbes, St. John's, Latin. All thefe 
exerciies were performed with great 
propriety of elocution and adlion, 
and were highly applauded by the 
audience. In the evening was per- 
formed the oratorio of Either. 

On Thurfday the chancello' met 
the heads of the houfes, at the dele- 
gates room, and prehded in their 
confultations on the bufincls of the 
univerfity ; and from thence was 
accompanied by them to the thea- 
tre. Here the encjenia, or congra- 
tulatory exercifes, were again re- 
fumed, by Mr. Hopton and Mr. 
Walcot, of Magdalen college, who 
fpoke a dialogue in Latin verfe, 
on the late improvements and be- 
nefactions to the univerfity ; Mr. 
Bagot, of Chriil Churcii, Latin 

vcjfe J 

For the Y E 

verfe ; Mr. Ilbert, of Magdalen, 
Engiiili verfe ; Mr. Way, of Chril!:- 
Church, Latin ; Mr. Bragge, of 
Magdrtlen, Latin ; Mr. Cugder., of 
Triniry, Engiifh ; Mr. Kaye, of 
Brazen-nofe, cnglilh oration. 

The degree cf dodlor of civil 
law was conferred on the following 
gentlemen : 
Right hon. Robert Shirley, fon to 

the earl Ferrers. 
Hen. Wilmot Vaughan, member of 

parliament for Cardigan fhire, and 

Ion to Lord Liiburne. 
Sir Richard Chafe. 
Harbord Harbord, Efq; member of 

parliament for Norwich. 
James Evelyn, of r ulbridge, S'jfTex, 


And the following gentlemen had 
the degree of maJter of arts con- 
ferred on them, viz. 
The right hon. the earl of Done- 
gal, of Trinity colieg'^. 
Sir Brian Broughton Delves, of 

Magdalen colleire. 
Alexander Courrhorpe, of Horfe- 

monden, K"cnt, Efq; 
John Childen, of Tunbridge, Kent, 

Roger Twifden, Efq; cldcil fon of 

Sir R. Twifden, Bart. 
Thomas Popkin, of Kettle Hill, 

Glamorganfhire, Efq; 
John Sawbridge, jun. of Alantigh, 

in Kent, Efq; 
Wm. Deahry, of Magdalen col- 
lege, Efq; 
Powell Snell, jun. of Baliol college, 

John Toke, of Univerfitv college, 

William Guife, of Qiieen's coIle<TP, 

Thomas Knight, of Trinirv college, 

Henry St. John, of New coileoe, 


A R 1759. 14^ 

On Friday the encafnia were re- 
fumed in the theatre, when an Ira- 
lian ode, in praife of ihe chancelior, 
was performed by the whole opera 
band : after which the degree «»f 
D. C. L. was conferred on the fol- 
lowing gentlemen, \iz. 
Henry Pye, Efq; member of par- 
liament for Bdrklhire. 
William Grove, Efq; member of 

parliament for Coventry. 
John Harvey I hurfby, Efq; mem- 
ber of parliament for Stamford. 
Jofiah George Hort, Efq; fon to 
the late ArchbilLop of Tuam. 
The degree of A. ,Vi. vvas alfo 
conferred on Henry Hunter. Efa; 
of Trinity college; iVIr. Thomas 
Auguitine Arne was admitted to 
the degree cf doctor of mufic ; an.i 
verfes were fpoken by the foilowin<y 
gentlemen ; Mr. IVlundy, New col- 
lege, Englilh ; Mr. Fcriter, Corpus 
Chrifti college, Englilh; Tv^r. Pipvi, 
Chr;!t-Church, Latin ; M". Sinip- 
fon, Chriil-Church, Latin ; Mr. De 
Salis, Qiieen's college, Latin ; and 
Mr. Sandys, of Queen's collc"*?, 

Then the folemnitv of the LnAal- 
lation and commemoration was 
clofed by Dr. King, principal of 
bt. Mary- Hall, who in a fpirited 
and eloquent oration, delivered wita 
his ufual grace and dignity, enlarged 
on the propriety of the choice the 
Univerfity Had made; difplayed hit 
lordfaip's eminent abilities ; intro- 
duced lady Pom fret's and Mr. Daw- 
kin's late benefactions ; and co.i- 
cluded with an exhortation to th« 
youth of this place, and his ardent 
wilhes for the perpetual peace and 
profperity of the univerfity. 

The iplendor of the appearance 
on this occaficn, the harmony ani 
decorum with which the whole ce- 
remony waj ccr.d'.:<rced, and th« 




entertainment afforded to fo polite fore the tent, others doing duty on 

and rclpeftable an audience, by the 
exerciles and orations ot each day, 
refledl the highcft honour on die 
prudence of the magillrates, and 
abilities of the members of this 
dillinguiihed feat of learning. 

Inveftiture of Prince Ferdinand of 


foct. His Icrciie highncis was re- 
ceived by the plenipotentiaries in 
the leffcr tent, where the habit apd 
enfigPb had been previoully laid on 
a table, and he was immediately in- 
veltcd with the furcoat and fwuid. 
A procefiion was then made to the 
great tent in the following order : 

Genilemen ofhcers of his ferene 

Garter's fecretary carrying the 
book of llatutcs. 

The Marquis of Granby's fecre- 

Camp at Corfdorf, 061. 17. 

TH E King of Great Britain 
having conlHtuted the right tary carrying the hood. 
hon. the Marquis of Granby, and Colonel Ligonier, aid de camp ro 
Stephen Martin Leake, Efq; Gart-er his Icrene highncis, carrying the 
principal king of arms, plenipoten- cap and feather. 

hiiih- Colonel Fitzroy, aid de camp to 

liis ferene highnefs, carrying the 

Chcfler her<.ld, in his coat of arms 
and collar, carrying the king's coai- 

Garter king of arms, in his pro- 
per mantle, carrying the mantle of 
the order on a crimfon velvet cu- 

The Marquis of Granby, as firft 

tiaries for iiivelling his Icicnt 
nefs Prince Ferdinand of Brunfwuk 
with the mol^ noble order of the gar- 
ter, Mr. Leake ar/ived at the camp, 
with the habit and enfigns, on 
Monday the 15th. The next day 
the plenipotentiaries had their firlt 
audience of his ferene highnefs, 
at the head quarters, and prefented 
their credentials, and the book of 
ftatutes ; and his ferene highnefs, 
having agreed to accept the elefiion, plenipotentiary, 
with the ufualrefervations, the pie- flis ferene highnefs the Prince, 
jiipoten tiaries immediately inverted fupported by Lieutenant-Generals 
him with the garter, ribband, and Waldegrave and Mcllyn. 
george ; Garter pronouncing tlie In this m.anncr they proceeded 

ufual adm.onitions in Latin. The 
next day was appointed for the pub- 
lic inveltiture ; and, lor that pur- 
pofe, a large tent was prepared on 

to the great tent, where two chairs of 
liate were placed, one for tne So- 
vereign, havinir an efcutcheon of his 
royal arms and titles over his chair. 

a hill, in full view of the French Upon entering the tent, every per- 

camp, and another lefTer tent at a fon made three reverences to the 

little diiiance from the great one, Sovereign's fiate, and the habit and 

for his highnefs to receive the firll enfigns were fcverally laid, by the 

part of the invelUture : to this perfons who bore them, upon a 

tent the Prince came, about twelve table before the Sovereignfs ftall. 

o'clock, efcorted by a large detach- The Piince fat dovvn in his chair, 

ment of the horfe-guards blue, who the two plenipotentiaries in chairs, 

were afterwards drawn up on either on each fide of him ; the mufic play- 

^de upon tiw llojpe of the hill, be- ing. After a little paufe, the Mar- 

quis of Granby ftanding up, made 
a fhort fpeech in French, which 
was anfwered by the Prince. Gar- 
ter then prefented the King's com- 
miffion, which was read by the 
Prince's fecretary. The plenipo- 
tentiaries then invelted his highnefs 
with the habit and eufigns, viz. 
ift. the mantle, then the hood, 
then the collar, Garter pronouncing 
the ufual admonitions. They then 
placed the cap and feather on the 
Prince's head, and feared him in his 
ftall ; the mulick playing. Laftly, 
Garter proclaimed the Sovereign's 
ftile in French, and then the 
Prince's; the drums beating and 
trumpets founding. This being 
done, a proceffion was made back 
to the lefTer tent, in the fame man- 
ner as before, his ferene highnefs 
having the train of his mantle 
borne by a page. His highnefs 
continued in this tent about an 
hour, till the great tent was pre- 
pared for dinner, which was given 
by the Marquis of Granby, his fe- 
rene highnefs fitting at table in the 
habit of the orde.*-, having his cap 
held behind his chair, the plenipo- 
tentiaries on his right hand, and 
the hereditary Prince of Brunfwick 
on his left. The fecond coarfe be- 
ing ferved up, his ferene highnefs 
Hood up, put on his cap, and then 
taking it off, drank, ift. The So- 
vereign's health ; 2d. The rail of 
the royal family ; 3d. The knights 
companions of the order : In return 
-whereof, the Marquis of Grr.nby 
drank, ift. The health of the Prince; 
2d. The reft of his family; 3d. The 
King of Pruffia. 

The next day his ferene highnefs 
gave an entertainment, in the three 
tents near the head-quarters, at 
which were prefent (as at the for- 
mer) all the principal officers of the 

For the YEAR 1759^ 145 

army. The whole being condudled 

with as much order and fplendor, 
as the circumflanees of a camp 
would admit ; and to the entire fa- 
tisfadlion of his ferene highnefs. 

Account of the Funeral Proceffion 
of the King of Spain. 

ON the loth of Auguft, as foon 
as his catholick majell:y ex- 
pired, the Duke of Bejar ordered 
the lords of the bed-chamber, twa 
and two alternately, affiiled by two 
pages, to guard the body; two 
priefls and two phyficians always 
watching it. Three altars were 
placed in the chamber, where mafs 
was conflantly faid both on that and 
the next morning. — The body be- 
ing then dreiTed by the lords and 
gentlemen of the bed-chamber, was 
placed in a leaden coffin, inclofed 
in another of wood, which was 
covered with tiffiae and gold lace, 
and locked with three keys. On 
the I ith at noon, it was conveyed 
by the nobility and officers of the 
houfhold from the royal bed-cham- 
ber to the great hall, where it lay 
in ftate upon a rich bed under a 
magnificent canopy. It was there 
delivered, in form, by the Duke of 
Bejar to tbe Duke of Alva, who im- 
mediatelv committed it to the care 
of the guard called Montores de 
Ef[5inofa ; two of them ftanding at 
the head with the crown and fcep- 
ter ; and two at the feet. The vigil 
was fung in th.e hall ; and the bi- 
fhop of Palentia celebrated m.afs ; 
at which a n'jmber of grandees, 
and all the officers of the court, 

At half an hour part fix in the 
evening, the Conde del Moatijo, 
the Duke of Alva, the Pr nee or 



MazarenO, the Duke of Bournon- 
ville. the Duke of" Medina Sidonia, 
arid the Condt de Aranila, all 
kniphts oi' the golden fleece, Torm- 
itii a chapter of that order in 
the hij'-h fleward's chamber, from 
vhc.nrr they proceeded to divert 
the ro^al body of the collar; 
vvhki; ceremony was performed by 
the CoiKi! del Montijo, as the 
elJeil knight. On Sunday the 1 2th, 
the body, being carried d-- wn to 
the foot of the palr^ce flairs by the 
lords of the bed-chamber, was there 
delivered to the oflicercof the houfe- 
hold, who placed it in the hearfe, 
which was prepared to convey it to 
the convent of the Vifitation at 
Madrid. At certain intervals the 
bifiiop of Placentia, who attended 
with the prleils of the royal chapel, 
repeated the refponfes. 

The procefTioii fet out from Vil- 
la Viciofa at half an hour paft four 
5n the rnornLiig, and arrived at 
Madrid before ten. 

The. proceiTion entered Madrid 
through the gate de los Recoletos, 
where it was received by the body 
of inviili'ls, with their colonel at 
their head. It then proceeded to the 
convent of the Vifitation, thcllreets 
through which it pafled being- lin- 
ed with the Spanifh and Walloon 
guards, as far as the portico, with- 
in which a part of the guards were 
ready to receive the body, and a 
company of halberdiers at the 
church gate. 

The equerries took it down 
from the hearfe. The gentlemen 
of the houlhold carried it to the 
church door from whence the gran- 
dees and ilcward? of the houfhold 
conveyed it to the tomb. When 
all the great officers, grandees, and 
other perfons prefent, had taken 
their places, pontifical mafs was 


faid by the bifhop of Santander, 

at which the muficians of the royal- 
chapel affifted. Divine fervice be- 
ing over, the body was delivered 
to the priorefs of the Vjfiiation, 
who received it in form from the 
Duke of Alva, after opening the 
coffin to examine it in prefence of 
the whole company. 

When the royai body entered the 
church, the company of guard-, the 
Spauilh and Walloon infantry, and 
the invalids, made a general dif- 
charge ; another at the elevation of 
the hofl; and a third about noon, 
when the body entered the choir, 
in order to be delivered to the nuns. 

An account of the Plans that have 
been laid before the Committee 
for building a Bridge at Black- 
fry ars. 

N confequence of feveral plans 
that have been exhibited for 
building a bridge over the Thames 
atBlack-fryars, in fome of which th« 
arches have been parts of circles, 
and in others parf: of ovals ; many 
pieces have appeared in the pub- 
lic papers, in which different parties 
h?ve endeavoured to prove the fu- 
perior excellency of different plans. 

The advocates for the femi-cir- 
cular arch fay, that it is flronger 
rhan the oval or elliptical, that its 
figure is more beautiful, and its con- 
llrudlion lefs expenfive ; that it is 
Itronger, they fay, is to be proved 
1 y mathematical demonftration ; 
that it is more beautiful, is the ne- 
ceffary confequence of its fuperior 
regularity, and fimpliclty, as the 
excefs of the femi-elliptical arch 
one way ferves only to fiievv the de- 
feft of it in another, and make? it 
low to appearance, whatever is its 



real height; that the conjbuftion 
of this arch is more expcafive than 
the femi-circular foilows from its 
being in itlelf lefs itrong ; for, as 
the lateral prefiure is greater, the 
piers and abutments muft be con- 
llrucled fo as to make greater 're- 
finance ; it is alfo alledged that the 
femi-circular arch will be more con- 
venient for the paffage of vefTels, 
and will lefs impede the courfe of 
the water, becaufe this arch will 
be more lofty, and the piers and 
abutments lefs wide, 

A difpute has alfo arifen, whe- 
ther the bridge fhall be fenced with 
iron rails, or a baluftrade of 
ftone ; the advocates for the ftone 
baluftrade fay, that rails are too 
light and trival for a flrudure of 
fuch magnitude and dignity, and 
deftroy that fimple uniformity of 
parts and defign from which alone 
true beanty can refult. 

On the other fide, it is alledged, 
that if the arches are femi-circular, 
they muft either be large or nu- 
merous ; if they are large, the af- 
cent of the bridge will be fo fteep 
as to render it extremely inconve- 
nient to thofe v/ho pafs over it, 
and carriages will fcarce be able to 
pafs it at all, the banks of the 
river being very low ; and if the 
arches are numerous, both the na- 
vigation and current of the river 
will be greatly obftrut^ed by the 
piers between them. Thefe dif- 
advantages will all be removed if 
the arch be elliptical, agaiaft which 
there can be no valid objeftion, 
but its want of fuuicient ftreagth ; 
as utility is furely to be preferred 
to appearance, fuppofmg the ap- 
pearance of the femi-circle to be 
more pleafmg. 

To prove that an elliptical arch 

For the YEAR 1759. 


is not fafficiently ftrong, recourHss 
has been had, not to mathematical 
reafoning, but to faft, and it has 
been faid, that a bridge over the 
Arno at Florence,' called. Trinity 
bridge, having been conftrjded 
with elliptical archei, is lo feeble 
that no cart is fuffered to pafi over 
it ; and that feme years jgo, when 
the pavement over one of the abut- 
ments was taken up to be repaired, 
feveral ftones in the adjoining 
arches, moved out of their places, 
and the workmen were therefore 
obliged inftantly to defift, and re- 
load the abutment again with its 
ufual weight, to prevent the arch 
from falling in, and oppofe fufh- 
cient refiftance to the lateral pref- 

But the fad. upon v.hich this ob- 
jeftion is founded is not true, for 
it will appear upon the firft view 
of this bridge, that the arches are 
neither ellipfis, nor cycloid, nor 
any other regular curve, but a 
curve drawn from thofe points 
taken at pleafure. Thefe arches, 
however, irregular as they are, 
have flood two hundred years ; and 
though it is true that carts are not 
allowed to pafs over them, yet it is 
alfo true that the fuppofed vveak- 
nefs of the bridge is not the rea- 
fon, bat the conveniency of the 
nobility, who live in the ilreets to 
which this bridge is the principal 
avenue, there being another bridge 
built for the pafTawe of carts, 
leading to ftreets through which 
they may pafs without ni:ifance. 
That the arch was injured by mov- 
ing the pavement is allowed, but 
it does not follow that a different 
arch would be injured by the fame 
means, neither does the injury fuf- 
fered by that arch appear to aife 
L 2 fro.n 


from a weaknefs efTential to its 
figure, becaiife it is at Icaft equally 
probable that it arole from mere 
defc'61 in its conftruftion. 

It is alfo affirmed, that the au- 
thor of the plan for coiiftru(5ting a 
bridge over nine elliptical arches 
has deviled a method of conllruc- 
tion, by which the weight will 
be thrown entirely upon the piers, 
and the arches have nothing to 
fuftain; it is acknowlcd;ed that 
this device cannot well be explain- 
ed by a written defcription, bat 
we are told that it will be dcmon- 
flrated to the committee. 

It is, however, moft certain, that 
an elliptical arch is not fo ftrong as 
a femi-circular, as may be demon- 


center to each fide, to fo much 
more is the pre/Ture dircdled la- 
terally towards the piers, and fo 
much lefs perpendicular towards 
the vacuity. 

Upon this plain principle the 
femi-circular arch may be demon- 
ftrated to excel in ftrength the el- 
liptical arch, which approaching 
nearer to a ftrait line, mufl: be con- 
ftrudled with ftones, whoie diminu- 
tion downwards is very little, and 
of which the preiTure is almoft per- 

It has yet been fometimes alTert- 
ed by hardy ignorance, that the 
elliptical arch As ftrongcr than 
the femi-circular ; or in other 
terms, that any mafs is more 

flrated by arguments which appeal ftrongly fupported the lefs it rells 
fimply to common reafon, and upon the fupporters. If the ellip- 
which will yet Hand the teft of tical arch be equally ftrong with 

geometrical examinations 

All arches have a certain degree 
of weaknefs. No hollow building 
can be equally Urong with a fohd 
mafs, ot which every upper part 
prefTes perpendiculaily upon the 
lower. Any weight laid upon the 
top of an arch, has a tendency to 
force that top to the vacuity be- 
low ; and the arch thus loaded on 
the top llands only, becaufe the 
ftones that form ic, being wider in 
the upper than in the lower parts, 
that part that fills a wider fpace 
cannot fall through a fpace lefs 
wide ; but the forCe which laid 

the femi-circular, that is, if an arch, 
by approaching to a ftrait line, lofes 
none of its liability, it will follow 
that all arcuation is ufelefs, and 
that the bridge may at laft, 
without any inconvenience, confift 
of Hone laid in ftrait lines from 
pillar to pillar. But if a ftrait line 
will bear no weight, which is evi- 
dent at the frft view, it is plain, 
likewife, that an eliipfis will bear 
very little, and that as the arch is 
more curved, its ftrength is increaf- 

It is alledged in anfwer to this 
reafoning, that though the ellipti- 

upon a flat would prcfs diredly cal arch be not equally ftrong with 

downwards, is difpcrfed each way the femi-circular, yet it is ftronc: 

in a lateral direfdon, as the parts of enouoh to fuilain any weight that 

a beam are pulhed out to the right will ever pafs over it, and that its 

and left by a wedge driven between 
them. In proportion as the Hones 
are wider at the top than at the 
bottom, they can lefs eafily be 
forced downwards; and as their 

convenience both to thofe who go 
under, and thofe who go over, by 
being wider and lower, will abun- 
dantly compenfate for its want of 
beauty, if indeed its appearance 

lateral furfaces tend more from the is lefs'beautiful. It may however be 



For the YE A R 1759. 


replied, that the utmoft ftrength is 
required not to fuftain at firft a 
fuperadded weight, but to fuftain 
itfelf through fucceffive ages : an 
effort perpetually made by the gra- 
vitation of its parts will by degrees 
loofen its texture, pufh its figure 
into irregularities, and bring on 
fucceffive weaknefs perpetually ac- 
celerated by the operation of the 
fame force againll lefs and lefs re- 
Mance till the whole falls into 
ruin, if it be not by its figure fup- 
ported in a perpendicular direftion, 
becaufe it is the perpendicular fiip- 
port alone that will not yield to a 
perpetual effort. 

In defence of iron rails againll a 
balullrade of ftone, it is faid, that 
the upper member of a cornice is 
always made very ligl:t, and that 
therefore the baluftrade, which is 
the finifhing member of the bridge, 
may be made as light and airy, as 
is connftent with necefTary folidity, 
without violating any knov/n rule 
in architecture, confequently with- 
out dellroying that fimplicity, and 
conformity of parts and defign, 
which is eiTential to beauty. 

Iron rails fixed between pedellials 
of ftone will produce a plealing va- 
riety, and give an uninterrupted 
view of the finell; river in the 
world ; to preferve them from the 
weather, they m.ay be waihed with 
the varnini lately invented at Pari?, 
and ufed in the iron raanufaftories 
in France, which at the fame time 
that it defends them from injury by 
the weather, will give them the 
appearance of brafs, than which 
nothing can be more magnificent. 
The celebrated bridge of St. Ange- 
lo at Rome is fenced in this man- 
ner, and the univerfal approbation 
it has received, is fufhcient to au- 
thorize an imitation of it. 

Statutes and Rules relating to the 
infpeflion and ufe of the British 
Museum, lately publifhed by 
order of the Truftees. 

THE firft ftatute direfts the 
times when the Mufeum is 
to be kept open, as follows : 

1. That the Mufeum be kept 
open at the hoars mentioned be- 
low, every day throughout the 
year, except Saturday and Sunday 
in each week; and likewife except 
Chriftmas-day and one week after ; 
one week after Eafter-day and 
Whitfunday refpeftively ; Good- 
Friday, and all days, which are 
now, or fliall hereafter be fpecially 
appointed for thankfgivings or fafts 
by public authority. 

2. That between the months of 
September and April inclufive, from 
Monday to Friday inclufive, the 
Mufeum be opened, from nine o' 
clock in the morning till three in 
the afternoon ; and likewife at the 
fame hours on Tuefday, Wednef- 
day and Thurfday, in May, June, 
July, and Auguft ; but on Monday 
and Friday, only from fcur o'clock 
to eight in the afternoon, duiing 
thofe four months, except at the 
times above excepted. 

The fecond direfts the manner 
of admiiTion to view the Mufeum, 
as follows. 

I. That fuch ftudious and curious 
perfons, as are defirous to lee the 
Mufeum, ihall m.ake their applica- 
tion to the porter, in writing ; 
v/hich application fhall contain 
their names, condition, and places 
of abode ; as aifo the day and hour 
at which they defire to be admit- 
ted ; and fhall be delivered to him 
before nine in the morning, or be- 
tween four and eight in the even- 
L 3 ing. 



inj;, on fome pix^ceding day: and 
that the faid names, together witli 
the relpefdve additions, fhall be 
entered in a regifter, to be kept by 
the porter. And the porter fhall, 
and is hereby required, to lay I'uch 
rejiiiler every night before the 
principal librarian, or in his abfence 
before rhc under liirarian, who 
fhall officiate as fccrerary for the 
time being, or in his abfence, 
before one of the other under 
librarians; to the end that the 
principal, or fuch under librarian, 
may be informed, whether the 


made by a greater number •f per? 
foni than can be accommodated on 
that day and hour, which thev had 
named ; the perfons lall applying 
have tickets granted them for fuch 
other day and hour, as will be 
moft convenient for them j provid- 
ed it be within fcvcn days ; a (nf- 
ficient number of tickets being or- 
dered to be left in the hands of the 
porter, for that purpoi'e. 

4. That if the number of perfons 
producing tickets for any particu- 
lar hour does not exceed five, they 
be defued to join in one company; 

perfons fo applying be proper to be v.'hich may be attended cither by 

.aarnitted according 'o the regula- 
tions made cr to be made, by the 
truilees for that purpofe. And if 
he fhall judge them proper, he 
{ha!l c:ire6t the porter to delivei- 
tickets to them, accor nng to their 

the under librarian, or affiftant, a$ 
fhall be agreed on between them. 

5. That if any perfons having 
obtained tickets, be prevented 
from making ufe of them, they be 
defired to fend them back to the 

rcqu.^ft, on their applying a fccond porter in time; that other perfons 

tin;.' for the laid tickets. wanting to fee the Mafcum may 

2. That no more than ten tickets not be excluded. 

be delivered out, for each hour of 6. That the fpeftators may view 

admiftance ; which tickets, when the whole Mufeum in a regular or- 

Irought by the ref-^eftive perfons der, they are hrit to be conduced 

therein named, are to be (hewn to through the department of manu 

the porter ; who is thereupon to 
direft them to a proper room ap- 
pointed for their reception, till the 
hour of feeing the Mufeum be 
come ; at which time they are to 
deliver their tickets to the proper 
officer of the nrft c'^partment : and 

fcripts and medals ; then the de- 
partment of natural and artificial 
produdtlcns ; and afterwards the 
department of printed books, by 
the particular oiHceis affigned to 
each department. 

7. That one hour only be al- 

that five of the perfons, producing lovv'ed to the feveral companies, for 
fuch tickets, be attended by the gratifying their curicfity in view- 
ing each department, fo that the 
whole infpection for each company 
may be finiflied in three hours ; 
and that each company keep to- 
gether in that room, in which the 
officer who attends them, fhall then 

8. That a catalogue of the re- 

^ under librarian, and the other five 

by the afiiflant in each department. 

■^. That the faid number of 

ticke'^s be delivered for the ad- 

'milTion of company at tl:e hours of 
nine, ten, eleven, or twelve re- 
fpeflivelv, in the morning ; ^.nd at 
the hours of four or five, in the 

afternoon of thofe days, in which fpeftive printed books, manufcripts, 
the Mufeum is to be open at that and other parts of the col!e6lion, 
time : and that, if application be diflinguifhed by numbers, be de- 


1759- ^^^ ^^^ "^ ^ 

pofited in fome one room of each 
department, to which the lame 
fhall rerpeftively belong, as ibon 
as the fame can be prepared. 

9. Tha'c v/ritten numbers, an- 
fwering to thofe in the catalogues, 
be affixed both to the books, and 
other parts of the colle^lion, as far 
as can conveniently be done. 

10. That in palling through the 
rooms, i^ any oi the fpectators de- 
ilre to fee any book, or other part 
of the coUedior, it be handed to 
them by the ohicer, as far as is 
confident with the fecurity of the 
colleftion, to be judged of by the 
faid ofhcer ; who is to refioie it to 
its place, before they leave the 
room : that no more tiian one fuch 
book, or other part of the collec- 
tion, be delivered at a time to 
the fame company : and t^.at the 
officer do giv2 the company any 
information they fnall defire, relat- 
ing to that part of the colledion 
which is under his care. 

11. That upon the expiration of 
each hour, notice fhall be gi^'cn of 
it by ringing a bell ; at v/h.ich 
time the feverai companies fhali re- 
move out of the tiepartment in 
which they then are, to make room 
for frefn companies. 

12. That the coins and medais, 
except fach as the Itandirg com- 
mittee ihair order, from time to 
time, to be placed in glafs cafes, 
be not expoled to view, but by 
leave of the truftees, in a general 
meeting, or the Handing commit- 
tee, or of the principal lib:arian : 
that they be Ihewn between the 
hours of one and three in the af- 
ternoon, by one of the officers, 
who have the cuftcdy of t:iem : 
that no more than two perf:>ns be 
admitted into the room to fee them 
at the fame time, unlefs by particu- 

AR 1759. 151 

lar leave of tne principal librarian ; 
who in fuvT; cafe is required to at- 
tend, together with the faid offi- 
cer, the whole time : and that but 
one thing be taken, or continue 
out of the cabinets and drawers at 
a time, which is to be- done by the 
ofFicer, who Ihall replace it, before 
any perfon prefent goes out of the 

13. That if any of the perfons 
who have tickets, come after the 
hour marked in the faid tickets, 
but before the thr'=:e hours aiJoited 
them are expired, they b-^ permitted 
to join the company av^pointed for 
the iame hour, on their removing 
into another dep/irr;r.tnt, in order 
.to fee the remaialv/^ part of the 
colleftion, if thoy dcfire it. 

14. That the be con- 
ilan.iy ihat up at all other times, 
but tilofe above-mentioned. 

15. That if any per Ions are de- 
firous of vifuing the Mufeum more 
than once, they m.ay apply for 
ticiiets in the manner above- men- 
tioned, at any times, and as 
Oil en as they pleafe : provided that 
no one perfon has tickets at the 
fame time foi more days tnan one. 

16. That no cHi.Jren be admit- 
ted into the Mufeum. 

17. That no ofhcer, or fer.'ant, 
take any fee, reward, or gratuity, 
of any perfon whatfoever, except 
in fuch caies as are "herein after- 
mentioned, under the penalty of 
immediate difmilTum. 

The tliird dirctls the manner of 
admitting p-nons, who defire to 
make ufe of the Mufeum for itudy, 
or thail have occafion to confult the 
fame for evidence, or mformarion : 
but as every fuch perfon will cer- 
tainly provide himfeif with *the 
book itfelf, we flaall not Ipare room 
for it. 

L 4 Aad 


For the fecond greateft quantity 
ditto, a filver medal. 

For the third ditto, a filver medal. 

Certificates of fowing the fame, 
muft be delivered to the fociety, on 
or before the firft Tuefday in No- 
vember, 1760. 

For erefti'ig on or before the ift 
of September, 1761, an apiary, con- 
taining the greateft number of hives 
or bo>;es {locked with bees, not lefs 
than thirty, a gold medal. 

Alfo a iilver medal for the fecond 
greateft number, not lefs than 20. 

Certilicates to be delivered on or 

And at the end there is an order 
£1 follows : 

Although it may be prefumed, 
that perfoiis who fl.all be admitted 
to fee the Muieum, will in general 
conform tl emfelves to the rules 
and orders above-mentioned ; yet 
as it may happen, that thefe rules 
m-ay not always be duly obierved : 
the truftees think it neceftary, for 
the fafety and prefcrvation of the 
Mufeum, and do hereby order. 
That in cafe any perfons Iha'l be- 
have in an improper manner, and 
contrary to the faid rules, and Ihall 

continue fuch mifbehaviour, afrer before the lall Tuefday in Odlober, 

having been admonifhcd by one of 1761. 

the oflicers ; fuch perfons Ihal! be For fowing the greateft quantity 

Cblio-ed forthwith to withdrav/ from of land with Spaniih chefnuts, (for 

the Mufeum ; and their names fhall raifing timber) before the ift day 

be entered in a book to be kept by of May, 1760, and for eftedually 

the porter : who is hereby ordered, fencing and preferving the fame, a 

not to deliver tickets to them for gold raed?l. 

their admiffion for the future, with- 
out a fpecial dirtftion from the 
truftees in a general meeting. 

Premiums of the Society for the en- 
couragement of Alts and Com- 
To the PUBLIC. 

Strand, /'piiiz^, 17 S9- 

THE fociety for the encomage- 
ment of arts, manufactures, 
and commerce, propofe, in pur- 
fuance of their plan, to bcilow the 
following premiums, viz. 
Premiums relating to r.griculture, 
huibandry, planting, &c. 
For fowing the greateft quartlty 
of land with acorns alone before the 

For the fecond greateft quantity 
ditto, a filver medal. 

For the third ditto, a filver medal. 

For properly planting the greateft 
member of the linal! haved Englifti 
e'm, for raifing tiniher, (com.monly 
ufe<' for keels of Ibips and water- 
works) before the fiift day of May, 
1760, and for elFtciualiy fencing 
and preferving the fame, a gold 

Fv,r the fecond greateft number 
of ditto, a filver m-dal. 

For the third ditto, a filver medal. 

In. B. Certificates of having p'ant- 
ed the two Inft articles, niiiit be de- 
livered en or before the firft Tuef- 
day in November, 1760. 

For planting out in the year 1 760, 
at proper diftances, the greateft 
number of that pine, commonly cal- 

firft day of May 17^0, (ten acres at . . 

leaft) with not lefs than four b-^fiiels led Scotch fir, being the tree which 

to each acre, and for fencing and produces the beft red, or yellow 

preferving the fame effcaually, for deal, to be two years old, at leaft, 

raifing timber, a gold medal. >vhen planted out, and for efFeftual- 

■ ' ly 


ly fencing and preferving the fame, 
a gold medal. 

For the fecond greateft number of 
ditto, a filver medal. 

For the third di: c, a filver medal. 

Certificates of Tuch planting mufi: 
be delivered on or before the lalt 
Wednefday in Januar , 1761. 

N. B The like premiums will 
alfo be given for planting out the 
greateft rumber of Scotch frs, at the 
fame age, and after the fame man- 
rier. in the year 1761. And certifi- 
cates thereof mu it be delivered on 
or before the laft Tuefday in Janu- 

For the YEAR 1759. 15^ 

Wednefday in December, 1759, 

ary, 17 


For the mofi: effectual method to 
prevent or deihoy the fly which 
takes the turnip in the leaf, to be 
produced on or before the firfl Wed- 
nefday in December, 171^9, 20I, 

For properly pla^iting with mad- 
der roots the greateft nun^her of 
acres (not lels than ten) and effec- 
tually fencing and preferving the 
fame, 50I. Cejtificates will be re- 
quired of the whole having been 
planted and fenced between the ift 
of June, 1759, and the ift of No- 
vember, 1760. And fuch certifi- 
cates muft be delivered in, on, or be- 
fore the firft Tuefday in December, 

Forthebeft fet of experiments, 
with a differtation on the nature and 
operations of manures, to be pro- 
duced on or before the third Wed- 
nefday in December, 1759, a gold 
medal, if really deferving. 

For the belt fet of experiments, 
with a differtation on foils, and their 
different natures, to be produced on 
or before the firft Wednefday in 
December, 1759, a gold medal, if 

For the moft effedual method to 
prevent or cure the rot in flieep, to 
be produced on or before the firft 

For planting out in the year 1761, 
at proper diftances, thegreateft num- 
ber of the Vv'hite pine, commonly 
called Lord Weymouth's, or the 
New England pine, (being the pro- 
pereft fort for marts) to be four 
years old, at leaft, when planted out, 
and for effeftually fencing and pre- 
ferving the fame, a gold medal. 

For the fecond greateft number of 
ditto, a filver medal. 

For the third ditto, a filver medal. 

Certificaies of fuch planting muft 
be delivered on or before the iail 
Wednefday in January, 1762. 

N. B. The like premiums will 
be given for planting out Lord Wey- 
mouth's pine, as above, in the year 

1762, and alfo in the year 1763. 
Certificates thereof for 1762, muft 
be delivered on or before the laft 
Wednefdayin January, i763,andfor 

1763, on or before the laft Tuefday 
in January, 1764. 

Premiums for difcoveries and im- 
provements in chymiftry, dying, 
mineralogy, &c. 

For the greateft quantity of bif- 
muth, made from minerals or mate- 
rials, the produce of England, not 
lefs than loolb. wt. to be produced 
on or before the third Tuefday ia 
January, 1760, 30I. 

For lolb. wt. of borax, difcover- 
ed or made in this kingdom, having 
the properties of that which is im- 
ported, to be produced on or before 
the third Tuefday in January, 1760, 

For making 200 nefts of the beft 
crucibles, of a fmall fize, each nell 
confifting of not lefs than fix cruci- 
bles, and likewife fifty nefts of a 
larger fize ; the largeft crucibles in 
each of which laft 50 nefts to hold 
two quarts of Britiih materials, and 



equal to tiie crucibles imported for 
mcking niculs and falls, to be pro- 
duced on or bef'o/e the third Tuef- 
day in January, 1760, 3c!. 

For the beft Tample of flaxen yarn 
dyed of a laftinjr ritid iiriii gre-n co- 
lour, not Icfs than z\b. v/t. to be 
produced on or before th3 fecond 
Tuefday in rj.arcli, 1760, 2oi. 

For dying il.-.xcri y.'m fcsrlefi in 
grain, of the bell lyM'^ig cr faft co- 
Jour, 2lb. wt. ai the leaft, to be 
produced s.3 r.bovc, 30!. 

For invprcving giain colours and 
rendering thsm ch.e-apcr ; fpccinicns 
to be produced on or before the fe- 
cond Tuefday in DecG'inber, 1759, 

3-^^- . . . , , . . 

For mailing a quantity oi tne oeit 

fal ammoniac, equal in goodnefs to 

tlie beft imported, nor lefs than 

50or-), wt. at one manufa'?cor/, 

5clb, wt. of which to be produced 

as a famplc, on or before the third 

Tuefday in March, 1760, 30I. 

N. B. If the famoles produced be 
equal in .;ocdne'?, the quantity 
made will determine the premium. 

For the IkA fcarlet in grain dyed 
in England, in a piece of fiiperfme 
broad cloath, notlefo than 25 yards, 
fuperior in colour to any now dyed 
in England, and the neareft to the 
lineft foreign dyed fcarlet in grain 
cloth, with condition to declare 
how much the dying coll: per yard, 
to be produced on or before the 
third Weduefday in December, 1759, 

For the difcovery of the bell and 
chcapeft compofition of a very Urong 
and lafting colour for marking of 
ilieep, which will endure the v/ea- 
ther a proper time, and not damage 
the wool, as pitch, tar, &c. to be 
produced on or before the firfl: 
Tuefday in February, 1760, 20]. 

For the bell andcheapeil compo- 
£tion, which on fufHcient trials lh:dl 


arpcar moll: efteclual for fecuring 
(hips botroms from worms and 
other injuries, 50I. fix plan!;s of 
oak (cat out of the fame piece of 
timber) muft be provided by each 
candidate, each plank being three 
feet long, one foot wide, and two 
inclios thick ; four of the faid planks 
muft be prepared or payed with the 
compofition, and the other tv/o hiufi: 
be left unprepared or unpayed ; and 
all the fiid planks mult be produc- 
ed to the fociety on or before the 
fine day of January, 1760, in iirder 
to be fciic to fuch place:- as the fo- 
ciety Hiall think proper, for making 
trials thereon. 

For ditto in the year 1762, the 
planks to be produced in the fame 
manner, on or before the firft day 
of January, 1 761, 50!. 

In the year 1756^ it was propofed 
to cviv^e lool. for raakino; at any 
one rnanufaiTccry (within three years 
from the date thereof) io,ocoili.wt. 
of the bell falt-pctrc, fit for gun- 
powder, by fome method different 
from Mr. Paul Nightingale's (as 
mentioned in his patent and fpecifi- 
cation) from materials the produce 
of England, or Wales, or from fea- 
vater, loolb. v/t. thereof to be 
produced for fuch trials to be made 
thereon, as the fociety fhall direft. 

Alfo for the fecond like quantity 
£t for gunpowder, made at fome 
other manufaftory, within the fame 
time, 50I. 

It is now further propofed to give 
lool. to the perfon who Ihall make 
the firll icooclb. wt. of fuch falt- 
petre fit for gunpowder (before tlie 
lirft Tuefday in April, 1760) loolb. 
wt. thereof to be produced as above. 

For the fecond like quantity fit 
for gunpowder, at fome other ma- 
nufaftory, and by a different per- 
fon, or perfons, col, 

N. B. 

For the YEAR 


N. B. The fame perfons may be 
entitled to double premiums, it the 
above quantity of falt-petre be made 
by them, before the iiril: Tuefday in 
April, 1760. 

For an efFt£lf al method to edul- 
corate train or r?al oil, for die \ 
not only of the clcthier, foap-boiler, 
^c. but to anfwer the ordinary pur- 
pofes of olive oil, to be produced 
on or before the fecond Wednefday 
in December, 1759, ic\. 

For making one quart, at leaft, of 
the befc, moil tranfparent and co- 
Jourlefs varnifh. equal in all refpefrs 
to Martin's at Paris, commonly cal- 
led copal varnllh, the properties 
whereof are great hardncfs, perfeft 
tranfparency, witliout difcolouring 
any paint it is laid over, being ca- 
pable of the fineft polifh, and not 
liable to crack, 20!. The varnifh 
that gains the premium mull: be 
better than any before produced ; 
and each candidate, v/hen his var- 
niih is produced, mull: produce alfo 
a pannel of wood (large enough for 
a coach door) painted with the 
finert ground of v.fhite, blue, green, 
pompadour, carmine, andred.finifli- 
ed with the fame varnifn, the molt 
perfeftly fecured and poliihed, fo 
as to be proof againfl. a hot fun, 
froft, or wet, to be left with the {o- 
ciety for fix months, at leaft, in or- 
der to afcertain its merit. 

Specimens of the varnilli and 
panncls fo finifhed, are to be de- 
livered on or before the firft Tuef- 
day in March, 1760, and to be de- 
termined on the laft Wednefday in 
September, 1760. 

For making the moll and bell 
verdigreafe, equal in goodnefs to 
the French, not lefs than looib. \\t. 
to be produced on or before the 
third Tuefday in January, 176c, 

1759- ^55 

N. B. The procefs of making 
verdigreafe, is given in the memoirs 
of the royal academy of fciences at 
Paris, for the year^ 1750 and 1753. 

For making the moil and bel! 
z?ffre and fmalt from Englifh co- 
balt, (not lefs than lib. wr. of zaiTre, 
and clb. wt. of fmalt) to be pro- 
duced on or before the third Tuef- 
day in Januar)-, 1760, together with 
one pound of the ore they were pro- 
duced from, in order to a counter 
proof; 30I. 
Premiums for improving arts, &c. 

For the bell drawings of a human 
figure, after life, by youths under 
the age of twenty-four, during their 
meetings next winter, at the aca- 
d:;my for painting, &c. in St. Mar- 
tin's-Iane (according to the rules 
hung up there) 30 guineas, to be pro- 
duced on or before the firll Tuefday 
in Februar}', 1760, and determined 
in proportion to their merit. 

For the bell drav/ings of any 
Hatue, at the candidate's own elec- 
tion, in the Duke of Richmond's 
gallery, by youths under the age of 
tv.-enty-one, to be produced and de- 
termined as above, 25 guineas. 

The drawings muli be left with 
the perfon who takes care of the 
ftatues, until they are delivered to 
the fociety. 

For the beft drawings of a humari 
figure, or figures, from models, calls, 
or bafib-relievos, the principal figure 
not lefs than twelve inches, by youths 
under the age of tv.enty, to be pro- 
duced on or before the third Tuef- 
day in February, 1760, and deter- 
mined as above, 15 guineas. 

All the above drawings to be 
made with chalks only. 

For the beft drawings of a human 
figure, after a print or drawing, by 
youths under the age of fixteen, to 




be produced and determined as 
above, 15 guineas. 

To be made with chalks, pencil, 
or pen, and of a different fize from 
the original. 

For the beft drawings of land- 
fcapes after nature, by youths under 
the age of nineteen, to be made 
with chalks, pen, pencil, Indian 
ink, or bii'cre, and produced on or 
before the firft Tuclday in Novem- 
ber, 1759, to be determined as 
above, 20 guineas. 

On the back of each drawing, 
mention fhall be made whence the 
view was taken. 

For the beft drawings, or compo- 
fitions after nature, of beads, birds, 
fruit, or flowers, by youths under 
the age of twenty, to be produced on 
or before the third Tuei'day in Ja- 
nuar}', 1760, and determined as 
above, 20 guinea^. 

To be made with crayons, or 
water-colours. \ 

For the beft drawings or compo- 
litions, as above, by youths under 
the age of fixtcen, to be produc- 
ed and determined as above, 15 

To be made with chalks, pencil, 
pen, or Indian ink. 

For the bed drawings or compofi- 
tions as above, hy girls under the 
age of t'.vcnty, to be produced and 
determined as above, 15 guineas. 

To be made with crayons, or 

For the bed drawings or compcfi- 
tions of ornaments, confiding of 
birds, beads, flowrs, and foliage, 
fit for weavers, embroiderers, or any 
art or manufacture, by girls under 
the age of eighteen, to be produced 
and determined as above, 15 gui- 

To be coloured, or not coloured, 
at the option of the candidate. 

For the beft drawings or compoil- 
tions of ornaments, being original 
defigns, fit for weavers, callico-prin- 
tcrs, or any art or manufaflure, by 
youths under the age of twenty, to 
be produced and determined as 
above, 15 guineas. 

To be coloured, or not coloured, 
at the option of the candidate. 

For the beft drawings or compofi- 
tions of ornaments, being original 
defigns, fit for weavers, callico-prin- 
ters, or any art or manufacture, by 
youths under the age of fixiecn, to 
be produced and determined at 
above, 15 guineas. 

To be coloured, or not coloured, 
at the option of the candidate. 

For the beft drav,'!n;;s of a human 
figure, or heads, alter drawings or 
prints, by boys under the age of 
tou; teen, to be produced and deter- 
mined as above, 15 guineas. 

To be made v/ith chalks, pencil, 
pen, or Indian ink. 

For the bed drawings of any 
kind (human figures and heads ex- 
cepted) by bovs undor the age of 
fourteen, to be produced and de- 
termined as above, 15 nuinea-s. 

To be made with chalks, pencil, 
pen, or Indian ink. 

For the bed drawings of a horfe, 
from the life, by youths under the 
a^e of twenty, to be oroduced and 
determined as above, 10 guineas. 

The height of the figure to be 
not lef^ than ten inche;, and to be 
mnde with chalks only. 

A gold medal will be given for 
the bed ori^-;inal drawing of any 
kind, and a filver medal for the fe- 
cond beft, by young ladies or gen- 
tlemen under the age of twenty, to 
be produced on or before the firft 
Tueiday in March, 1760. 

Alfo two medals, one gold and 

the other filver, for the beft original 



For the YE 

rawings of any kind, by young 
ladies or gentlemen under the age 
of fixteen, to be produced and de- 
termined as the lalf. 

To be made with chalks, pencil, 
pen, Indian ink, or biiire. 

The candidates muft fend in their 
drawings, without franie or glafs, 
fealed up, and marked with the 
number of the clafs they belong to, 
and their names muit be wrote on 
the margin of each drawing, on the 
infide, and covered by themfelves 

For a copper medal, the fizeofan 
Engli{h crown, which fhall be exe- 
cuted the beft, in point of workman- 
fhip, and boldnefs of relief, by per- 
fons under the age of twenty-five, 
after a model firft produced by the 
candidate, and approved by the fo- 
ciety ; the medal and dyes are to be 
delivered on or before the firll: Tuef- 
day in February, 1760, 20 gui- 

The medal to be .he property' of 
the fociety. 

For the beft model of the face, and 
reverfe of a medallion, its diameter 
not lefs than three inches, by youths 
under the age of twenty-two, being 
their own compolition, to be pro- 
duced and determined as above, 10 

The fubjedt to be given by the 

For the beft models in clay of 
baiTo-relievos, by youths under the 
age of twenty-ftvf, being their own 
invention, the height of the princi- 
pal figure net lefs than twelve inches, 
to be produced oi or before the firll 
Tuefday in Ft braary, 1 760, and de- 
termined in proportion to their me- 
rit, 30 guineas. 

The fubjed to be Jephtha's rafh 

For tic beft models in clav, of 

AR 1759. 157 

figures or bafTo-relievos, by youths 
under the age of twenty, being their 
own invention, to be produced and 
determined as the laft, 15 guineas. 

For the beft models in clav, (not 
lefs than twenty inches high) from 
the dancing fawn, in the Duke of 
Richmond's gallery, by youths under 
the age of twenty-two, to be pro- 
duced and determined as the laft, 20 

For the beft models or compoll. 
tlons of ornaments in clay, confuting 
of birds, beafts, fruit, flowers, or 
foliage, by youths under the age of 
twenty-two, being their own inven- 
tion, to be produced and determin- 
ed as the laft, 15 guineas. 

For the beil models or compoli- 
tion s of ornaments in clay, confLft- 
in^ of birds, beaftf, fruit, flowers, or 
foliage, by youths under the age of 
nineteen, to be produced and deter- 
mined as the laft, 10 guineas. 

N. B. The clay of all thefe mo- 
dels muft be left in its natural co- 
lour, and quite dry when produced. 

For the beft models in wax (nt 
for artiiis who work in metal) by 
youths under the age of nineteen, 
being their own invention, to be 
produced on or before the firft Tuef- 
day in February, 1760, and dcter- 
rr^ined in proportion to their merit, 
10 guineas. 

No candidate who has gained 
the nrft premium in any clafs, will 
be permitted to enter him or herfelf 
as a candidate in any clafs of an in- 
ferior age ; and no candidate ihall 
receive more than one premium in 
one year. 

A candidate being detecled in any 
difinger.uous methods to impofe on 
the lociety, will forfeit tiie premium 
for which he is a competitor, and 
be deemed incapable of obtaining 
any premium for the future. 




N. B. All candidates for drawing 
or modelling (except thofe who draw 
or model in the Duke of Richmond's 
gallery, or at the academy) may 
draw or model at their refpeftive 
dwellings ; but the perfons to whom 
premiums fhallbe adjudged, will be 
expedled to give fatisfa^lory proofs, 
that the drawings or models by them 
produced, were entirely their own 
performance, without the affiilance 
of any perfon ; and the drawings 
and models, for which premiums 
are given, fhall Lccomc the property 
of the fociety ; excepting, however, 
fuch as gain honorary premiums, 
which fhall remain with the fociety 
two months, and be then returned, 
if defired, to their owners. 

For the befl engraving of a hiftciy 
piece, confifting of not lefs than 
three human figures, the principal 
one not under eight inches high, to 
be produced to the fociety on or 
before the fecond Tuefday in Janu- 
ary, 1 76 1, 40 guineas. 

For the beil engraving, perform- 
ed by youths under the age of tv/en- 
ty-two, from a fubjeft to be appoint- 
ed by the fociety, to be delivered on 
or before the fecond Tuefday in Ja- 
nuary, 1760, 20 guineas. 

For the befl fcraping in metzo:in- 
to, after a pidlure or drawing ap- 
proved of by the fociety, by youths 
under the age of twenty-two, to be 
produced on or before the fecond 
Tuefday in January, 1760, 10 gui- 

The plates to be produced to the 
fociety, and three impreiTions to be 
taken from each of them, for the 
ufe of the Ibciety. 

For an engraving in wood, in the 
manner of Albert Durer, or of thofe 
prints commonly called Titians, 
which fhall be performed the beil, 
with regard to the drawing, know- 
ledge of the lights and ll^ades, and 


freedom of cutting, by youths under- 
the age of nineteen, after drawings 
approved by the fociety, 6 guineas. 

The blocks, with impreffions, to 
be produced to the fociety on or be- 
fore the lad Tuefday in Januarv, 
r76o, and three impreffions from 
each of them to become their pro- 

For the bcfl etching, performed 
by boys under the age of eighteen, to 
be produced on or before the fecond 
Tuefday in January, 1760, 10 gui- 

The fubjetfl to be appointed by 
the fociety. 

For a naked human figure, the 
beil engraven in intaglio, on an oval 
red cornelian, and executed the 
befl, with regard to drawing, depth 
and freedom of engraving, and ex- 
cellence of polh^h, by perfbns under 
the age of twenty-fix, (after a model 
appointed by the fociety) to be de- 
livered, fealed up, on or before the 
lail Tuefday in January, 1760, 10 

N. B. The gem to be left with 
the fociety one month, and three 
impreffions in fulphur, to be made 
from it for the ufe of the fociety. 

For the greatefl number of cafls 
or irnpreflions in glafs, commonly 
called pafles, not lefs than thirty, 
the mofl varied, compounded, and 
perfedt, both in colours and fubjefls, 
and nearefl in excellence to antique 
partes, as well cameos as intaglios, 
to be produced on or before the laft 
Tuefday in January, 1760, 15 gui- 

The cails or impreffions to be the 
property of the fociety. 

For the beft original hiflorical 
pifture, the fubjeft to be taken from 
the EngliHi hiilory only, containing 
not lefs that three human figures, 
as large as the life, ico guineas. 


1759- f'o^ ^'^^ Y^ 

For the fecond beft, 50 guineas. 

For the bell original landfcape, on 
a canvas, four feet two inches in 
length, by three feet four inches in 
height, .5 ol. 

For the fecond bcft, 25I. 

Proof n^/ait be made to the fatif- 
fadlion of the focicty, that the whole 
of each piilure was painted in Eng- 
land, and fmce the firil: day of Janu- 
ary, ^7S9' The pifturrs to be de- 
livered wirhout frame, on or before 
the lait Tuefday in March, 1760. 
Thofe which gain pre-niums, mull 
remain with the fociety for two 
months afrer the decifion, and tiien 
be returned to their owners. 

For calling in bronze the bell 
£gure or groupe, and repairing the 
fame in the bell;-, if a fmgle 
figure, not lefs than 15 inches high, 
and if a groupe, not lefs than 12 
inches, to be produced on or before 
thefirll Tuefday in February, 1760, 
15 guineas. 

N. B. The calls to be fhewn to 
the fociety before thty are begun 
to be repaired. The brnn:::e which 
gains the premium, to be left with 
the fociety one month. 

A fum not exceeding I op 1. will 
be given as a gratuity to any per ■ 
fon or perfons, Vv'ho iball make an 
accurate adlual furvey of any coun- 
ty ; but this advertifement is not 
intended to bind the fociety to any 
particular time of paying the laid 
gratuity, as fatisfadlory proofs will 
b^ required of the merits of fuch 
performance. Ifanyperfon or per- 
fons propofe to make fuch furvey, 
they are denred to fi^nifiy their par- 
ticular intentions on or before the 
fecond Tuefday in November next, 
that the fociety may not engage in 
greater expencc than {hall b; found 

AR 1759. 159 

As a further encouragement, the 
furveyor that will give an exa6l and 
accurate level and fecHon of the 
rivers in any county furveyed, that 
are capable of being made naviga- 
ble, Ihall be intitled to an additi- 
onal gratuit^,-. 
Premiums to encotjrage andimprove 

manufaclures, machines. Sec. 
. For making the largeit quantity 
of the crapes, conimonly ufed for 
mourning hatbands, fcarvcs, ,1-c. 
nearly equal in goodnef? to the bell 
foreign crapes, not lefs than 100 
yards, to be produced on or be- 
fore the Hrft Tuefday in February, 
1760, 30 1. 

For making a piece of drugget, 
of the fame qualit}' ana ia 
price to a pattern which will be de- 
livered by the rcgifter of the fociety, 
to be produced on or before the firfl 
Tuefday in February, 1760, 20 1. 
The length of the piece to be not 
lefs than 30 yards, the breadth a- 
bout 21 inches. N. B. The perfon 
v/ho pained the firll premium lail 
year v/iil not be admitted as a clai- 
raant for this year's premium. 

A premium of icol. will be gi- 
ven for the firll year, 50 1. for the 
fecond year, and 25 1. a year for 
the three fucceeding years, to tlie 
perfon or perfons who ihall firll 
erect and exercife a faw-mill capable 
of fawing timber into ufeful pianks 
and fcantlings. 

To the perfon who Ihall invent 
or produce to the fociety, on or b-'- 
fore the firil Tuefday in April, 1760, 
the bell model of a tide-mill, made 
by a fcale of at leall one inch to a 
foot, and capable of being tried by 
water, in which, from the proper 
height and width of the water wheel, 
the number, fize, and pofition cJ: 
its floats or ladles, and theivllap- 



plication of the water to the Tame, 
of the firfl: drawing, and al! tl^r i,i 
termediatc height? of 12 feet do-vn 
to a four foot head or fill, mcafur- 
ing from the bottom of the conduit 
to the tx»p of the water, and the 
moft proper and fimple conftru£lion 
of the gears, to move or drive the 
ftones or other work of the mil!, 
the greateft effeft which fhall be pro- 
duced in proportion to the quanti- 
ty of water expended, 50 1. 

To the perfon who Ihall invent, 
and produce to the fociety on or 
before the firll: Tuefday in April, 
1760, the beft model of a windmill, 
in which the number, form, fize, 
and pofitions of the fails are fuch 
as produce the greatell effects from 
the a£lion of the wind in all its 
various velocities, and the machine- 
ry of the whole fuch as to commu- 
nicate, in the moft fimple manner, 
a proper uniform motion to the 
fhaft of the mill in all the varia- 
tions of the wind's velocity : the 
model to be made by a fcale of one 
inch to a foot, 50I. 

For marbling the greateft quan- 
tity of paper, equal in goodnefs to 
the beft marble paper imported, 
not lefs than one ream, to be pro- 
duced on or before the the fecond 
Tuefday in February, 1760, lol. 

For making the greateft quantity 
of paper, and beft quality, from filk 
rags alone, not lefs than two reams 
of white paper, and five reams of 
paper of a light brown colour, 
neareft and moft agreeable to the 
colour of a pattern which will be 
delivered by tl:e regiftcr of the fo- 
ciety, to be produced on or be- 
fore the laft Tuefday in April, 
1760, 20 1. For the fecond greatefl 
quantity, and beft in quality, not 
lefs than two reams of white, and 
five reams of the light brown colour, 


lol. For the third ditto, not lefs 

than the above quantity, 5 I. 

For difcovering and producing. 
Oil or before the firft Tuefday 
in November next, the moft effec- 
tual, eafy, expeditious, and cheap 
method, whereby the various co- 
lours of a large quantity of filk rags 
may be readily difcharged, yet the 
fibres of the filk may ftill keep their 
ftrength firm as before, and be no 
ways rendered unfit for the purpofe 
of making filk paper, and on con- 
dition that fuch method may be 
publifhed for the benefit of the pa- 
per manufaflurer, lol. N. B. All 
perfons axe defired to fave their filk 

To the perfon who fhall produce 
the beft block of a fhip, to drawr 
17 feet water (depth of keel in- 
cluded) and to be 650 tons bur- 
then, with thofe two properties 
united in the greateft degree, 50 1. 
Alfo, to the perfon who fhall pro- 
duce the beft block, on the fama 
principles, of 12 feet draught of 
water, and 3 80 tons, 30I. Each block 
to be made by a quarter fcale, that 
is a quarter of an inch to a foot. 
The bodies of the blocks of each 
fize to be hollowed and worked 
nearly to the fame fcantling or thick- 
nefs which the timber and plank* 
together of fhips of fuch bur- 
thens refpeflively ufually are. The 
keel of the larger fize not exceed- 
ing one foot four inches : the 
keel of the lefs not to exceed one 
foot. Each block to have the knee 
of the head, or cutwater, as well 
as the rudder, fixed to it. A deck 
to be fixed in each, with a hatch- 
way large enough to pafs the hand 
through, to fhift her load or bal- 
laft for trimming her ; and a maft 
of proportionable dimeniions to bf 
fixed in each, for making the expe- 


riments necefl'ary to afcertain her 
ftifFnefs. The bottoms to be painted 
with white paint, up to the failing 
water line, which is to be marked 
in feet upon the iism and poi}. 
The wales not to be raifed, but to 
be exprefled in black paint, and no 
decorations to be allowed except in 
paint only. The configuration of 
the body and every circumllance not 
prefcribed above, is left to the judg- 
ment, genius, and choice of the ar- 
tift. The angle at which the ftifF- 
nefe will be tried, is to be 20 de- 
grees of inclination from the per- 
pendicular, that which requires 
mod force to heel her to that an- 
gle being accounted the flifFeft. 
Each candidate muil produce his 
block to the fociety, with an exadt 
draught thereof, and his reafons in 
writing why he prefers that parti- 
cular form, on or before the I aft 
Tuefday in March 1 760, and the 
trial to be on (or as near as may be 
to) the firft of May following. A 
method of trial will be contrived by 
rhe fociety, in order to determine 
which has the greateft (hare, or ma- 
:ximum, of both qualities taken to- 
gether, fo that a deficiency in either 
property fhall be ballanced by a 
proportionable excellence in the 
other. If no more than one candi- 
date for each kind do offer ; or in 
cafe no more than one model in 
e£ch kind be thought, by the focie- 
ty, to anfwer their defcription, or 
be worthy of trial; then fuch can- 
didate or model, in either kind, 
to be intitled to 15 1. The candi- 
dates are to take notice, that the 
tonnage, weight of the body, bal- 
]aft, mafti, yards, ftores, provifionf, 
&c. included, are to bring the fhip 
down to her failing water Jiiie. 

For the fineil fpun yarn, from 
of Englifh growth, co; lefs than 
Vol. II. 

For the YEAR 1739. i6r 

fix pounds weight, to be produced 
en or before tiie fecond Tuefday in 
February, 1760, 10 ]. 

Twenty pounds will be given to 
any pariih, within the bills of mor- 
tality, in whofe workhoufe the 
greateft quantity of wheat {hail be 
ground into meal, with handmills 
worked by the poor, in proportion 
to the number maintained therein, 
which meal fhall be confumed in 
the faid workhoufe, or fold out to 
other perfons ; fatistaciory proof 
to be made thereof on or before 
the fecond 1 uefday in February, 
1760. For the fecond greateft 
quantity, in 'ike manner, 15 1. For 
the third ditto, 10 1. 

To the mafters or mi (Irenes, or 
thofe who under any denomination 
iuperintend the labour cf the poor 
in workhcufes, the following pre- 
miums will be given, viz. For 
fpinning the beft worfted yarn, in 
any workhoufe wherein the poor 
are not let to farm, not lefs than 
5C0 lb. wt. (fit for the ufe of wea- 
vers ) which (hali on or before the 
third Tuefday in February, 1760, 
be proved to have been fpun there- 
in, between the prefent date and 
that cay, by fuch poor perfons only 
as fhal! have been therein relieved, 
20 1. 

For fpinning no lefs than i cod lb. 
wt. of linen yarn, from hemp or 
flax (fit for any handicraft trade in 
the lower branches of weaving) in 
any fuch workhoufe, and by fuch 
poor perfons as above, vviihin the 
time aforefaid, fufncient famples to 
be produced, 20 1. to the bell de- 

For fpinning no lefs than 2CO lb. 
wt. of the fineft linen yarn (fit for 
the pd'Ticipal branches of weav- 
ing) for making fto'-kings, or to be 
uTed as fewing thread ; the time 
M and 



and conditions as above mentioned, 
20 .1. 

For fpinning not lefs than4oolb. 
wt. of cotton yarn, nearell the fort 
calied Surat or Turkey cotton yarn, 
in any workhoufe ; time and con- 
ditions as above, 20 1. 

For caufing to be knit, within the 
time above mentioned, in the woik- 
houfe of any pariih whofe poor are 
net farmed our, by not lefs than 
20 women and children, the largell 
quantity in proportion to the num- 
ber fo employed, of white, low- 
priced, flight worfted hofe for wo- 
men, from yarn fpun in the faid 
workhoufe ; fach hofe to weigh 
about 3 lb. per dozen, and each 
flecking to meafure full 23 inches 
in the leg, and nine inches in the 
foot, arid to be knit from two 
threads of foft worfted, fpun on 
the n^ort wheel, called the Can- 
terbury or Leicefler wheel, 20 1. 
N. B. The premium will be given 
for the greatell number of fuch 
hofe as come neareft to a pattern 
to be given by the fociety, in pro- 
portfon of one dozen at leaft, for 
each v/oman and child. For the 
fecond parcel, in quantity and 
quality, of the like hofe, on the 
fame conditions, 10 1. 

For caufjng to be knit, on the 
above conditions, the beft and larg- 
efl quantity of the like worfted 
hofe, of the fame fize, and about 
the fame v/eight, but knit from 
three threads, the long wheel ipin- 
Bing, 15 1. For the fscond parcel 
ditto in quantity and goodnefs, 10 1. 
The hofe muft be produced to the fo- 
ciety, or to fuch perfon as they Ihall 
appoint to examine the fame : and 
mull; be made as near as cap be, to 
famples of each fort, which will 
be delivered by the regifter, to any 
Vrho fhall apply by a iubfcriber. 


N.B. Certificates will be requir- 
ed from the maflers, miftreffes, or 
fuperintendants of fuch workhoufes 
as are candidates for fpinning or 
knitting, fpecifying the number, 
fex, and ages of the poor maintained 
in thi-'ir reipedive workhoufes, dif- 
tinguilhing luch of them as are em- 
ployed therein, and the juftnefs of 
the famples delivered in, and alfo a 
certificate, or certificates, from the 
redtor, vicar or curate, and from the 
overfeers of the poor of the pariih 
where each workhoufe is fituated, 
that they have refpedlively examin- 
ed into the fafts certified by fuch 
mafter or other perfon, believe the 
fame to be true, and that the poor 
have been treated, in the mean time, 
with humanity and compaffion. No 
perfon will be intitled to more than 
one of the above premiums. 

I'o fuch parifh or parifhes as fhall 
feparatcly or jointly fet up, open, 
or regulate workhoufes, for the re- 
lief and employment of their poor, 
upon the plan lately printed and 
publilhed by Mr. Bailey, and fhall, 
before the third Wednefday in Fe- 
brijary, 1760, lay before the fociety, 
in writing, an account or narrative 
of their proceedings, with fuch re- 
marks, as their experience in the 
execution of the faid plan fhall point 
out as material for the improve- 
ment thereof, or for remedy'.ig any 
defects therein : to the pariih or 
parifhes which in managing their 
workhoufe, fhall appear to the fo- 
ciety to have kept neareft the faid 
plan, to have made the moft effec- 
tual trials thereof, and to have fug- 
gefted the beft remarks for improve- 
ments to be made upon it, 150 1. 
And to fuch other parifti or parifties, 
as fhall, in the judgment of the fo- 
ciety ftand in the fecond degree of 
merit, on the like account, 100 1, 



Premiums for tlie advantage of the 
Britifti colonies. 

For the greateft quantity of co- 
chineal, properly cured, not lefs 
than 25 lb. \vt. iirft produced from 
any plantatioa or plantations in 
South Carolina, within the fpace of 
three years from the date hereof, 
lool. For the fecondgreateft quan- 
tity, not lefs than 25 ib. weight, as 
above, 50!. For the greatert quan- 
tity, not lei's than 25 lb. wt. pro- 
duced as above in Jamaica, looI. 
For the fecond greateft quantity, 
not lefs than 25 lb. wt. 50 1. The 
like premiums will be given to any 
perfon who fhall firfl produce, in 
any of the Britifh colonies, fettle- 
ments, or dominions, the above- 
mentioned quantity. A certificate 
under the hands of two or more 
jullices of the peace refiding in the 
country, or of the minifter and 
church-wardens of the parifh where 
fuch cochineal was cured, fetting 
forth that the faid cochineal was 
cured at the place mentioned there- 
in, and fuch certificate backed or 
counter-figned by the governor or 
commander in chief in council, 
under the feal of the colony, will 
be expefled by the fociety at the 
time the premium is claimed. 

For planting the greateft quan- 
tity of logwood, in any of the plan- 
tations, before the 25th of Decem- 
ber, 1759, 20 1. Certificates of 
fuch planting muft be delivered on 
or before the firlt Wednefday in 
June, 1760. 

For planting, fencing, and fe- 
curing the greateft number of log- 
wood trees ( not lefs than 500 ) in 
any of our plantations, before the 
third Wednefday in December, 
1760, 40 1. and certificates ihere- 

For the YE AR 17^9: 


of to be delivered on or before the 
laft Wednefday in June, 1761. 

Thirty pounds will be given for 
the greateft quantity of myrtle 
wax, imported from any of the 
Britiih colonies in America, not 
lefs than 500 lb. wt. at one impor- 
tation, in the port of London, on or 
before the laft Tuefday in March, 
1 7^1. For the fecond greateft 
quantity, not lefs than 500 lb. wt. 
20 ]. For the third ditto, not lefs 
than 500 lb. wt. 10 1. A certificate 
or certificates under the hands of 
the colledtor of the cuftoms and 
naval officers of the port where the 
wax is fhipped will be required. 
If the quaritities fnould be equal, 
the quality will determine the pre- 

Whereas the fociety, on the 5th 
day of April, 1^5^, offered a pre- 
mium of 50 1. for planting, culti- 
vating, and properly fccuring, 
within four years from the date 
thereof, in any of our colonies 
fouthward of the Delaware river, 
the greateft number of olive-trees, 
rot lefs than loco, for the pro- 
dudlion of oil ; alfo a premium of 
40 1. for the fecond greateft num- 
ber, not lefo than 8co ; and like- 
wife a premium of 30 1. for the 
third greateft number, not lefs than 
6co : the fociety hereby propofes 
to give three other premiums of 50, 
40, and ^o 1. on the above ccn- 
ditions, for planting, cultivating, 
and properly fecuring, within four 
years from the dare hereof, in any 
of our faid colonies fouthwa.-d of 
the Delaware river, the greateft 
number of olive trees. Each claim- 
ant will be requi-ed to produce 
(within fix months after the ex- 
piration of the faid fcur years r&- 
M 2 fpedively) 


fpeflively) a certificate under« the 
hand of the governor of the pro- 
vince, that a fufficient proof had 
been made before him that the num- 
ber of trees mentioned in the faid 
certificate arc under aftual improve- 
ment and cultivation. 

To the perfon whofhall, on or 
before the fecond Wednefday in De- 
cember, 1760, import into any one 
port in England from any of his ma- 
jefty'scoloni;-sin America,the great- 
er quantity of pot-a(h, the produce 
of the faid colonies, not lefs than 
50 ton, neareft in goodnefs to the 
beft foreign pot-alh : the quantity 
landed to be afcertained by certifi- 
cates under the hands of the collec- 
tor and comptroller of the cuftoms, 
and the quality to be afcertained in 
fuch manner as the fociety ftiall di- 
reft, lool. 

N. B. The fame premium will 
be given, on the fame conditions, 
to the perfon who Ihall, after the 
fecond Wednefday in December, 
1760, and on or before the fecond 
Tuefday in December, 1 761, im- 
port into England, from any of his 
majeily's colonies in America, the 
greateft quantity ofpot-afh, not lefs 
than 50 ton. 

To the perfon in any of our Ame- 
rican colonie=, who fliall firft raife 
and cure from his own plantation, 
and import into the port of London 
within fix years from the 25th of 
March, 1759, 500 lb. wt. of good 
raifins, 50 1. A certificate under 
the hands of two or more juftices of 
the peace refiding in the country, 
or of the minifler and church-war- 
dens of the parifhes where fuch rai- 
fins were raifed and cured, fetting 
forth that the faid raifins weri rai- 
fed and cured at the place mentioned 


therein, and fuch certificate backed 
or counterfigned by the governor or 
chief magiltrate of the colony, will 
be expefted at the time the premi- 
um is claimed. 

It was propofed in April, 1758, 
to give, for fovving, raifing, and 
curing the greateft quantity of faf- 
flower in any of our plantations 
(not lefs than 500 lb. wt.) before 
the 25th of December, 1759, 15 1. 
For the fecond greateft quantity 
10 lb. Certificates of fuch fowing. 
Sec. to be delivered on or before 
the third Wednefday in June, 1760. 
Alfo two premiums on the ^me 
conditions for fowing, raifing, and 
curing fafflower, before the third 
Wednefday in December, 1760; and 
certificates thereof to be delivered 
on or before the third Wednefday 
in June, 1761. The fociety here- 
by propofe to give two other pre- 
miums, one of 1 5 1. and the other 
of 10 1. on the above conditions, 
for fowing, raifing and curing, af- 
ter the third Wednefday in Decem- 
ber, 1760, and before the third 
Tuefday in December, 1761, the 
grcateil quantity of fafflower, and 
certificates thereof to be delivered 
on or before the third Tuefday in 
June, 1762. 

For every pound weight of co- 
coons produced in the province of 
Georgia, in the year 1759, of a 
hard, weighty and good fubftance, 
wherein one worm only has fpun, 
3d. For every pound of cocoons, 
produced in the fame year, of a 
weaker, lighter, fpotted, or bruifed 
quality, though only one worm has 
fpun in the lame, 2d. For every 
pound of cocoons, produced in the 
fame year, wherein two worms have 
interwoven tbcrafelves, i d. 


1759' ^°^ ^^^ ^ 

N. B. Thefe premiums will be 
paid under the direftion of Mr. 
Ocelcnghe, faperintendant of the 
filk culture in Georgia, on bring- 
ing the balls or cocoons to the 
public filature at Savannah, ac- 
cording to notice already fent to 

For every pound weight of mer- 
chantable raw filk raifed and pro- 
duced in the colonies of Connecti- 
cut, Penfylvania, and North Ca- 
rolina, in the year 1760, 2 s. 6d. 
The faid premiums to be paid, in 
Connefticut by Dr. Jared Eliot, 
and the rev, Mr. Clap ; in Pen- 
fylvania, by Benjamin Frani;lin, 
L. L. D. and John Hughes, Hfq; 
and in North Carolina, by George 
Polbck, Cullen Pollock, and John 
Rutherford, Efqrs ; upon proof be- 
ing made to their fatisfaction by 
every perfon claiming fuch pre- 
miums, that the filk by which it 
is claimed has been aflually and 
Bona fide, reeled from cocoons of 
fuch claimant's own raifmg and 

Alfo a further premium of i s. 
for every pound weight of raw 
filk imported into England from 
the faid colonies of Connefticut, 
Penfylvania, and North Carolina, 
will be paid by the fociety's fecre- 
tary, to the importer, upon pro- 
ducing a certificate under the hands 
and leals of the above-mentioned 
gentlemen in the faid colonies re- 
fpeftively, that proof had been 
made to them, that fuch filk for 
which the premium is claimed, ex- 
preffing the quantity, was of the 
-actual growth of one of the faid 
colonies refpedtivsly ; and alfo a 
certificate from the proper officer 
of the cuftoms of the port or place 
where fuch filk was imported, of 
its having been entered in fuch 

EAR 1759: ,^. 

port ox place from the faid colo- 

To that planter in any of our 
faid colonies who fhall firft pro- 
duce (within feven years from the 
5thday of April, 1758,) from his 
own plantation, five tons of white 
or red wine, made of grapes, the 
produce of the colonies only, and 
fuch as, in the opinion of competent 
judges appointed by the fociety in 
London, Ihall be deemed defervino- 
the reward, not lefs than one ton 
thereof to be imported at London, 
ICO 1, A certificate under the hands 
of two or more j uftices of the peace, 
refiding in the country, or of the 
minifter and churchwardens of the 
pariih where fuch wine was made, 
fetting forth, that the wine was 
grown and made at the place men- 
tioned therein, and that the remain- 
der ot the wine is equally good with 
that imported ; and fuch certifi- 
cate, backed or counterfigned by 
the governor or chief magillrate of 
the colony, will be expeded by the 
fociety at the time the premium is 


A gold medal will be given for 
the bell treatife on the arts of 
peace, containing an hirtorical ac- 
count of the progrcfiive improve- 
ments of agriculture, manufactures, 
and commerce in that part of 
Great Britain called England, with 
the efteds of thofe improvements 
on the morals and manners of the 
people, and pointing out the moil 
pradicable means for their future 
advancement. AH treatifes are to 
be fent to the fociety on or before 
the fecond Wednefday in Decem- 
ber, 1 76 1. Each writer is defired 
to mark his treatife with fome len- 
ience or verfe, or to fend a paper 
fealed up, containing the name and 
M 3 ad- 


addrefs, and infcribe on the out- 
fide with the fame fentence or verfe 
as the trcatife is marked with, 
which paper, in cafe this treatife is 
intiilcd to the medal, will be open- 
ed, orclfe dellroyed unopened, or 
delivered back, if it be lo ddired, 
and the medal will be delivered to 
the author, or any perfon pro- 
ducing a letter figned by him, and 
diainguifhed by his token, im. 
powering fuch perfon to receive the 

A fum not exceeding 2co 1. is 
allotted annually by the fociety, to 
be bellowed in luch proportion, on 
fuch condition, and at fuch times 
as the fociety (hail judge proper, for 
new dlfcoveries, or improvements in 
hufoandry, mechanics, arts, manu- 
fadures, or other matters which 
ihall be found really to deferve en- 
couragement on account of their 
public utility, and for which no 
premium has been ofFered. Thefe 
rewards to be determined and di- 
ftributed only between the fecond 
Wednefday in November, and the 
iali Wednelday in Msy. 

N. B. No premium will in any 
cafe be given, unkfi the perform- 
ance be deemed by the fociety to 
have fufficient merit to deferve 
their encouragement. It is re- 
quired in all cafes where it can be 
done, that the matters for which 
premiums are oflcred be delivered 
in without names, or any intima- 
tion to whom they belong ; that 
each particular thing be marked 
in what manner each claimant 
thinks fit, he or fhe fending with it 
a paper fealed up, having without 
fide a correfponding mark, and 
uithln fide the claimant's name 
and addrefs. No papers fhall be 
opened but fuch as gain premiums, 
all the red fnall be returned un- 
opened, with the matters to which 


they belong, if enquired after by 
their marks within half a year; 
after which time, if not demanded, 
they fhall be publickly burnt, un- 
opened, at fome meeting of the for 

Whereas there are focieties for 
the encouragement of arts, manu- 
fadlures and commerce in that part 
of Great Britain, called Scotland, 
and alfo in Ireland ; therefore all 
the premiums cf this fociety are 
defigned for that part of Great Bri- 
tain called England, the dominion 
of Wales, and town of Berwick 
upon Tweed, unlefs exprefly men- 
tioned to the contrary ; and the 
claims {hall be determined as foon 
as pofuble after the delivery of the 
fpecimens. Proper affidavits, or 
fuch certificates as the fociety {hall 
require, are to be produced on every 

By order of the fociety, 

Geo. Box, fecreta-f-y. 

Note, any information or advice 
that may forward the defigns of this 
fociety for the public good, will be 
received thankfully, and duly con- 
fidered, if communicated by letter, 
direckd to Mr. Box, the I'ecrctary, 
at the fociety's office, oppofue 
Beaufort-buildings in the Strand, 

Some account of the M.Tgdalen cha- 
rity and inftitution for the relief 
and affiftance of penitent profVi- 
totes, taken from the preface of a 
fermon lately preached before the 
governors ; by the rev. Mr. Wil- 
liam Dodd, lecturer of Weit- 
Ham, EfTex, and St. Olavc, 
Hart ftreet. 

WHEN the firft propofals for 
this inllitution appeared, 
many fpecious objedions were 


1759* -^^^ ^^'^ ^ 

made againft It, which have been 
obviated by experience upon car- 
rying it into execution, as the old 
fophift's argument, to prove there 
could be no motion, was at once 
overturned by his opponent's walk- 
ing acrofs the room. 

It was faid firii, that no objecls 
would offer themfelves, or that, if 
they did, they would be fuch only 
as coald live by proftitution no 
longer, whoie reformation vvouid 
be impoffible, as they would feek 
refuge not from vice but from hun- 
ger, urged not by per.i:cnce but in- 
ability to iin. 

That this objeclion, however 
fpecious, was ill grounded, now 
appears beyond contradiction from 
the numbers that crouded to the 
houfe, which was appointed for 
their reception, the moment the 
doors were open, the greater p^rt 
of whom were under^ the age of 
20, and many of them not more 
than 14, and from the behaviour 
of thofe who have been received, 
which in general has been fuch as 
fnewed the utm.oll horror of the 
flate they had quitted, the moft 
glad and grateful fenfe of the re- 
fuge they had found, and the moll 
fcrupulous obfervation of all the 
rules prefcribed for their behaviour 
in it. 

This objeftion probably rofe 
from a fuppofition, that thofe who 
became proftitutes were betrayed to 
fuch a courfe by a love of pleafure, 
and retained in it by a love of idle- 
nefs ; but this charity has furnifhed 
inconteftible proof, that the fup- 
pofition itfelf is erroneous : the 
greater part of thofe who have fled 
to the ftielter it affords having 
been feduced by the moft artful 
and infidious contrivances of 
wretches who prefide over marts of 

EAR 1759. 


proftitution, and whofe emilTaries 
are like their father the devil, con- 
tinually going about fecking whom 
they may devour : and when once 
feduced, kept by varioa? artifices 
in a ftate of fcrvile dependence, 
under pecuniary obligations, which 
they were enfnared to contrail al- 
moft without knowing it, without 
recommendation to procure em- 
ployment, and without friends who 
couid afford them prctcdion, as 
appears by many letters now in Mr. 
Dingley's hands ; and many par- 
ticulars which he is ready to 

2. It was objeJled, that the in- 
flitution would at length totally 
prevent a vice, which every wii'e 
government has thought fit to to- 
lerate for the prevention of greater 
evils. This objection, which by 
the way prefuppofes that every 
proftitute is penitent, and would 
ceafe to be fo the moment i: was 
in her power, is at once obviated 
by confidering the vail difpropor- 
tion between the number that this 
charity can relieve, and the number 
that upon the fuppofition which the 
objefcion implies, would be candi- 
dates for it. 

3. It was, on the contrary, ob- 
jected by others, that this inltitu- 
tion would encourage proftitutio.n, 
by rendering its conTequences not 
fo defperately ruinous ; bur, to 
fuppofe that a woman would com- 
mence proftitute, becaufe there is 
a polTibility of her being received 
into an hofpital after the lofs of 
her health, peace, and reputation, 
is juft as abfurd as to fuppofe that 
a mafon would be carelefs how he 
mounted a ladder, and indifrerenc 
whether he fhould or fhould rot 
fall down and break his limbs, be- 
caufe, if he is r.Ot killed on the 

M 4.. fpQC. 


1 68 

fpot, there is an hofpital in which, 
he may poffibly be cuicd. 

4. It has been objedled, that no 
provlfion can be made forthcfe wo- 
men, when they fhal! quit the hor- 
pital which will deliver them from 
the fatal neceflity of returning to 
the lame courfe of life they had 
quitted lor bread. In anUver to 
this objeftion, it is fufiicient to uy, 
that many have alreadv heen provid- 
ed for by the reconciliation of their 
friend?, who have again taken them 
under their proti-dtion ; and many 
piore will be t?.uoht ufeful employ- 
ments, by which they will be able 
to procure a comfortable and ho- 
jieii lubfillence. From the jnduftry 
of thofe alicady received, there is 
?he greatcft re .fon to hope that em- 
ployments will not cnly be chear- 
fully learned, but afiiduoufly fol- 
lowed ; for it appears, from a 
prinf^ed account, that from the com- 
piencemcnt of the charity, Auguft 
30, 1758, to April 21, 3739, they 
have earned 168 1- '9 s. ii d. and 
there is alfo reafon to hope from 
this gain, in the infancy qf the ir>- 
llitution» that vvhen the whole is 
perffcily regulated, the women will 
nearly maintain thcmfeives by their 
pwn laboijr. 

The fernion pre?,ched before the 
governors by Mr. DoJd is a manly, 
rational, and pathetic addrels, as 
well to the underftanding as the 
pafiions of mankipd, in favour of 
thofe mol]: pitiable of all human 
beings; and it is hoped, that as the 
poiribiiity of affording them relief, 
and preferving at lealt tbcir bodies 
from perdition, is put beyond the 
pofllbility of doubt, by inconteftible 
. farts, that their claim \vill be ad- 
fjiitted in common with thole who 
are lefs wretched, efpecially, as by 
tliis inlVitut'on, not the body only, 
but ths foul may be prclervcd, and 


while we are breaking off our fma 
by ftiewing mercy to the poor, they 
may themfelves be enabled to cut 
off iniquity by righteoufnefs. 


From the Public Ad'vtrtijer, March 
30, 1759. 

'O err, is a blemifli entailed 
upon mortality, and indifcre- 
tions leldom or never efcape from 
cenfure; the more heavy, as the 
charafler is more remarkable i and 
doubled, nay trebled by the world, 
if the progrefs of that charafter is 
marked by fuccefs ; then malice 
fuoots againft It all her Uings, the 
1 lakes ol envy are let loofe; to the 
humane and generous heart then 
mu:l the injured appeal, and cer- 
tain rCiief will be found in impar- 
tial honour, Mifs Fifner is forced 
to i'ue to that jurifdidlion to protect 
her from the bafenefs of little fcrib- 
blers and fcurvy malevolence ; fhe 
has been aoufed in public papers, 
expofed in print-fhops, and to 
wind up the whole, fome wretch- 
es, mean, ignorant, and venal, 
would impofe upon the public, by 
daring to pretend to publifh her 
memoirs. She hopes to prevent 
the fuccefs of their endeavours, by 
thus publicly dec aring that nothing 
of that fort has the flighteft founda- 
tion in truth. C.Fisher. 
From the Daily Advertifer, Apr. 13. 
A middle-aged maiden lady, with 
an independent fortune, has been 
determined by the cruel treatment 
of thofe who from their conneflions 
ought to have been her friends, to 
think of entering- into the honour- 
able flate of matrimony. She is in- 
diiferent as to fortune, fo fhe meets 
with a gentleman of good morals 


1759' ^°^ ^^^ ^ ^ 

and family ; indeed fhe would ra- 
tjier vvifh to marry a perfon without 
any fortune, that the gentleman 
may have the higher obligations to 
her, and of confeqaence treat her 
with that teadernefs and regard, 
reafonably to be expeded from per- 
ibns under fuch circumflances. Her 
reafon for taking this method, is, 
that it has been induibioufly given 
out, by people intereiled, (in order, 
fhe fuppofes, to prevent propofals) 
that (he had determined never to 
quarry. Letters, with propofals, 
will be received at the bar of the 
Smyrna coffee houfe, direfted for 
X. Ij. a defcription of the gentle- 
man's perfon, age and profeflion, 
is requeiled to be inferted ; and how 
to direft, ii the propofals are ap- 
proved of. The lady's conduct will 
bear the ^rifteil fcrutiny. No let- 
ters received, unlefs poft paid, to 
prevent impertinence. 

From the fame, April 17. 
Whereas I had long defpaireJ of 
meeting wirh a temptation to enter 
into the holy ftate of matrimony, 
till taking up the paper of Friday 
lart, I read the agreeable advertife- 
mexit of a lady whole fentiments 
jump fo entirely with mine, I am 
convinced we are cut out for each 
other, and therefore take this me- 
thod of defcribing myfelf : I am a 
gentleman of an unexceptionable 
good family ; lofTes and crofles have 
reduced my fortune to my ward- 
robe, a diamond ring, a gold watch, 
and an amber-headed cane ; but as 
you have generoufly faid, you don't 
even wifh a fcrtune, I imagine this 
will be no hindrance: My perfon is 
far fromdifagreeable.mylkinfmooth 
and fhining, my forehead high and 
poliihed; my eyes (harp, tho' fmall, 
my nofe long and aquiline, my 
inDuth wide, and what teeth I have 
perfedl/ found ; all this, with the 

A R 1759.' 169 

addition of a flaxen full bottom, 
fuitable to the age of between forty 
and fifty, with a good heart and 
fweet difpofition, and not one un- 
ruly particle, compofe the man who 
will be willing, upon the fligbteil 
intimation, to pay his devoirs to the 
lady. If fhe will diredl her letter 
for S, U. to be left at St. James's 
cofFee-houfe, the gentlenr-an will 
wait on her wherever fhe pleafes to 
appoint him. 

Whereas I, William Margetts, 
the younger, was, at the lad affizcs 
for the county of Cambridge, con- 
vifted upon an indidment for an 
attempt to raife the price of corn in 
Ely market, upon the 24th day of 
September, 1757) by offering the 
fum of fix fhillings a bufhel for 
wheat, for which no more than five 
fliillings and nine pence was de- 
manded : and whereas, on the ear- 
nefl foliicitation and requeft of my- 
felf and friends, the profecutor has 
been prevailed upon to forbear any- 
further profecution againlt me on 
my fubmitting to make the follovv'- 
ing fatisfaflion, viz. upon my pay- 
ing the fum of 50 I. to the poor in- 
habitants of the town of Ely ; to be 
dillributed by the minillers and 
churchwardens of the feveral pa- 
rifhes in the faid town of EIv ; and 
the further fum of 50 1. to the poor 
inhabitants of the town of Cam- 
bridge, to be diliributed by the 
minifter and churchwardens of the 
feveral parifhes in the faid town ; 
and the fall colls of the profecution ; 
and upon my reading this acknow- 
ledgment of my offence pubijckly, 
and with a loud voice, in the pre- 
fence of a magillrate, conftable, or 
other peace officer of the faid town 
of Ely, at the market place there, 
between the hours of twelve and one 
o'clock, on a public market day, 



and likewife fubfcribing and pub- 
lifhing the fame in three of the 
evening papers printed at London, 
and in the Cambridge journal, on 
four different days, and I have ac- 
cordingly paid the faid two fums of 
fifty pounds and coRs. And do 
hereby confefs myfelf to have been 
guilty of the faid offence, and tef- 
tify my finccre and hearty forrow in 
having committed a crime, which, 
in its confequences, tended fo much 
to increafe thediftrefs of the poor in 
the late calamitous fcarcity : And 
I do hereby molt humbly acknow- 
ledge the lenity of the profecutor, 
and beg pardon of the public in 
general, and of the town of Ely in 

This paper was read by me at the 
public market-place at Ely, in the 
pretence of Thomas Aungier gen- 
tleman, chief conllable, on the zd 
day of June, 1759, being a public 
market day there, and is now, as a 
further proof of the juft fenfe I have 
of the heinoufnefs of my crime, fub- 
fcribed and publilhed by me, 

Wm. Margetts. 

Witnefs, James Day ; 
Under Sheriff of Cambridgelhire. 

EGISTER 1759. 

I'he following extraordinary adver- 
tifement appeared in the Public 

" To be fold, a fine grey mare, 
full fifteen hands high, gone after 
the hounds many times, rifmg fix 
years and no more, moves as well 
as mofl creatures upon earth, as 
good a road mare as any in ten 
counties and ten to that, trots at 
a confounded pace, is from the 
country, and her owner will fell 
her for nine guineas ; if fome folks 
had her fhe would fetch near three 
times the money. I have no ac- 
quaintance, and money I want ; 
and a fervice in a fhop to carry 
parcels, or to be in a gentleman's 
fervice. My father gave me the 
mare to get rid of me, and to try 
my fortune in London, and am jull 
come from Shropfhire, and I can 
be recommended, as I fuppofe no 
body takes fervants without, and 
can have a voucher for my mare. 
Enquire for me at the Talbot- 
inn, near the New-church in the 


iyS9' For the Y E A R 1759. 171 

SUPPLIES granted by Parliament for the fervice 
of the Year 1759. 

November 3c, 1758. ^. ^^ ^^ 

^AT 6o,coo men be employed for the fea 
fervice for the year 1759, including 14,845 


2. That a fum not exceeding 4I. per man per month 
be allowed for maintaining the faid 6o,ooo men for 
13 months, including the ordnance for fea fervice — 3120000 o < 
December 7. — 

J, That a number of land forces, including thofs 
in Germany, and on an expedition under Major- 
General Hopfon, and 4010 invalids, amounting to 
52,543 effective men, commifTion and non-com- 
miffioned oScers included, be employed for the fer- 
vice of the year 1759. 

2. That for the defraying the charge of the 52,543 
efFeclive men for guards and garrifons, and other his 
majefty's land forces in Great Britain, Guernfey, 
and Jerfey, for the year 1759, there be granted to 

his majeliy a fum not exceeding . —. — i2r6i-'0 ir 2 

3. For the pay of the general and ftafF-oficers, 
and officers of the hofpitals for his majefly's land 

forces, for the }ear 1759 ■ . CZiSx i S 

4. For maintaining his majefty's forces and gar- 
rifons in the plantations, and Gibraltar, and for 
provifions for the garrifons in Nova Scotia, New- 
foundland, Gibraltar, Providence, Cape Breton and 

Senegal, for the year 1759 *- 7|2n''I c • 

5. For defrayirtg the charge of four regiments, and 
one battalion of foot on the Irifh elUblifhment, ferv- 

ing in North America and Africa, for the year 1759 408 70 i ? n 

2092025 16 2 

December 12. 

1 . For the charge of the office of ordnance for land 

fervice, for the year 1759 ■■ ■ — ■ ■ ■ 220789 11 9 

2. For defraying the extraordinary expence of fer- 
vices performed by the office of ordnance for land fer- 
vice, and not provided for by parliament, in 17^8 3239S7 (3 3 

3. For the ordinary of the navy, including the half 

pay to fea officers for 1759 .. ^ 238491 9 8 

4. Tov/ards ihe fupporc of Greenv/ich-hofpital icooo o o 

79326s 14 8 


December 1 8. £. s, d. 

1 . For defraying the charges of 3 8,000 men of the 
troops of Hanover, Wolfenbuttle, Saxe-Gotha, and 
Count of Buckeburg, together with that of general 
and ftafF-officers, aflually employed againft the com- 
znoR enemy, in concert with the King of Pruflia, from 
December 25, i 758, to December 24, 1759, both in- 
clufive, to be ifiued in advance every two months, 
in like manner as the pay of the Heflian forces now in 
the fervice of Great Britain, the faid body of troops 
to be muilered by an Englifh commiffary, and the 
effedive ftatc thereof to be afcertained by the figna- 

ture of the commander in chief of the faid forces — 398697 17 z\ 

2. For defraying the charge of aizohorfe, and 
9900 foot, together with the general and ftafF-offi- 
cers, the ofHccrs of the hofpital, and officers and 
others belonging to the train of artillery, the troops 
of the Landgrave of HefTeCafl'el, in the pay of Great 
Britain, for ninety days, from December 2:;, 1758, 
to March 2^, 1759. both inclufive, together with 

the Cubfidy for the faid time, purfuant to treaty— — . 59^4^ * ^ \ 

3. That for defraying the charges of the forage, 
bread, bread- waggons, train of artillery, and of pro- 
vifions, wood, llraw, &c. and other extraordinary ex- 
pences and contingencies of his majefty's combined 
army, under the command of Prince Ferdinand, 
there be granted to his majefty upon account, as a 

prefent fupply —— — — . . 500000 o o 

958343 18 u i 

December 19. 
Towards paying off and difcharging the debt of 

the navy ■ — — loooooo o o 

January 22, 1759. 

1 . For defraying the charge for allowances to the 
feveral officers and private gentlemen of the two 
troops of horfe-guards, and regiment of horfe re- 
doced, and to the fuperannuated gentlemen of the 

four troops of horfe-guards, for 1759 ■ 2958 19 7 

2. Upon account of the reduced officers of the 

land forces and marines, for 1759 ■ 34367 15 10 

3. For the paying of penfionsto the widows of fuch 
reduced officers of the land forces and marines, as 
died upon the eilabliihment of half pay, in Great 
Britain, and who were married to them before De- 
cember 25, 1716, fori 759 2128 o O 

3945+ 15 5 

1759' ^^^ ^^^ YEAR ly^g^, ly^ 

January zg. £. s, d. 

T. For enabling his majefty to make good his en- 
gagements with the King of Pruflia, purfuant to a 
convention between his majefty and the King of 
Pruflia, concluded December 7, 1758 1 , 670COO o c 

2. For defraying the charge of what remains to be 
paid for 2120 horfe, and 9900 foot, together with 
the general and ftafF officers, the officers of the hof- 
pital, and officers and others belonging to the train 
of artillery, the troops of the Landgrave of Hefie 
CafTel, in the pay of Great Britain, for 365 days, 
from December 25, 1758, to December 24 1759, 
both days inclufive, together with the fubfidy for 

the faid time, purfuant to treaty ■ . ■ 182251 2 ii | 

3. For defraying the charge of an additional corps 
of 920 horfe, and 6072 foot, together with the gene- 
ral and ftafF officers, the officers of the hofpital, and 
officers and others belonging to the train of artillery, 
the troops of the Landgrave of HefTe Cafle), in the pay 
of GreatBritain, for 365 days, from January i, 1759, 

to December 31 following, purfuant to treaty - 975^^ '7 *° ''' 

4. For enabling his majefty to make good his ea- 
gagements with the Landgrave of Hefle CafTel, purfu- 
ant to a feparate article belongine to a treaty between 
them, concluded January 17, 1759, the faid fum to 
be paid as his moft ferene Highnefs fhall think moft 
convenient, in order to facilitate the means by which 
he may again fix his refidence in his own dominions, 
and give frefh courage to his faithful fubjeds, by his 

prefence, which is fo much wifhed for . .. . 60C00 o o 

5. For enabling his majefty to difchsrge the like 
fum raifed, in purfuance of an aft of iaft felfion, and 
charged upon the firft aids or fupplies, to be granted 

in this feflion of parliament Scoooo o o 

6. Towards the buildings, rebuildino-s, and repairs 

of his majefty 's iliips, for 1759 — — — _. 200C00 o o 

2009834 o 9,4 
January 31. 
For out-penfioners of Chelfea hofpital for the year 

'759' upon account -' 26000 o o 

February 5. . 

To be applied towards the improving, widening, 
and enlarging the paifage over and through Lor.don- 


February 8. 
Tow3'ds enabling the ^ovcrmr.; ^n^. guirJians of 
the Founding hofpital, 10 receive all iucn ci:;:dren, 





under a certain age, to be by them limited, a» (hall 
be brought to the faid hofpital ; and alfo towards 
enabling them to maintain and educate fuch children 
as are now iiri^.er their care, and continue to carry 
into execution the good purpofes J'or which they were 
incorporated : and that the fame be iilued and paid 
for the ufe of the faid hofpital without fee or reward, 

or any deduftion whatfoever, upon account 

February 22. 
For the charge of tranfport fervice for the year 
17158, including the expence of vidualling his ma- 

jelly's land forces, within the faid year . 

February 26. 

1 . For fupporting and maintaining the fettlement 
of his majelty's colony of Nova Scotia, for the year 
1759, upon account - 1 

2. For defraying the charges incurred, by fupport- 
ing and maintaining the fettlement of his majefty's 
colony of Nova Scotia, in the year 1757, and not 
provided for by parliament 

3. For defraying the charges of the civil eftablifh 


s. d. 

20000 O O 

667-771 19 7 

9902 5 o 

uTT »»278 »8 5 

ment of his m.ajefty's colony of Georgia, and other 
incidental expences attending the fame, from June- 
2\y 1758, to June 24, 1759, Upon account c 

March 19. 
. I. To replace to the finking fund the like fum, 
paid out of the fame, to make good the deficiency 
on July 5, 1758, of the additional ftamp duty on li- 
cences for retailing of wine, duty on coals export- 
ed, and furplus of the duty on licences for retailing 
fpirituous liquors, made a fund by an aft of 30 
George II. for paying annuities at the bank of Eng- 
land, after the rate of 3I. per cent, on three millions, 
and alfo the life annuities payable at the Exchequer, 
and other charges thereupon 1 ■ 

2. To replace to the finking fund the like fum, paid 
out of the f:»mc, to make good the deficiency on July 
5, 1758, of the duties on glafs and fpirituous liquors, 
to anfwer annuities on fingle lives, payable at the 
Exchequer, granted by an adl of 19 George II. • 

.3. To be employed in maintaining and fupport- 
ing the Briiifli forts and fettlemcnts upon the coalls 
of Africa ■- . .. .. - -' — ■ ■ 

4. To be paid to Roger Long, D. D. Lowndes's 
aftronomical and geometrical profeiTor in the univer- 


4057 10 o 
25238 «3 T 


6 II 

88S1 II 10 

lOOOO o o 

1759' For the YEAR 1759.' "175 

fity of Cambridge, without account, to enable him 
to difcharge, in purfuance of the will of Thomas 
Lowndes, Efq; ( the inventor of a method for melio- 
rating the brine fait of this kingdom) a mortgage 
upon an eftate devifed for the endowment of the faid 
prefeflbrfhip, by the faid Thomas Lowndes ; and to 
reimburfe to the faid Roger Long, the intereft mo- 
nies he hath paid, and that are growing due, and 
the expences he hath incurred in refpeft to the faid 
mortgage, and that the fame be paid without fee or 

12-0 o o 

445 52 II 10 
March 29. -^_— — — — 

1. That towards the defraying the charge of pay, 
and cloathing for the militia, from December 3f, 
1758, to March 25, 1 760,- and for repaying to his 
majefty the fum of 1352I, 10 s. advanced by him for 
the fervice of the militia, purfuant to an addrefs of 
this houfe of November 29 laft, there be granted 
upon account — . 9°^^^ ° ° 

f . That towards enabling the governors and guar- 
dians of the Foundling hofpital, to receive all fuch 
children under a certain age, to be by them limited, 
as fhall be brought to the faid hofpital, before Janu- 
ary I, 1760 ; and alfo towards enabling them to 
maintain and educate fuch children as are now under 
their care ; and to continue to carry into execution the 
good purpofes for which they v/ere incorporated ; 
and that the fam.e be ifTued and paid for the ufe of the 
faid hofpit?!, without fee or reward, or any deduc- 
tion whatfoever -, there be granted the farther fum of jcooo o o 

1 20000 

April 2. ■ 

For defraying the extraordinary expences of his 
xnajefty's land forces, and other fervices incurred in 
the year 1758, and not provided for by parliament 466785 10 5 | 
April 10. 

8. For enabling the commiffioners appointed, by 
virtue of an aft made in the laft feffion of parliament, 
intituled, "An Aft for veiling certain mefmsges, 
lands, tenements, and hereditaments, for the better 
fecuring his majefty's docks, &:c." to make compen- 
fation to the proprietors of fuch lands and heredita- 
ments at, and near Chatham, as have been purchafed 
for the purpofes mentioned in the faid aft, and for 

damage done to the lands adjacent 708 3 9 

2. for 


L ^' /. 

2. For enabling the faid commlflioners to make 
compenfation to the proprietors of fuch lands and he- 
reditamenti at, and near Portfmouih, as have been 

purcbafed for the purpofes mentioned in the faid a^ 6937 13 7 4 

3. For enabling the faid commiffioners to make 
compenration to the proprietors of fuch lands and he- 
reditaments at, and near Plymouth, as have been 

purchafed for the purpofes mentioned in the faid aft 25 '59 '7 » 

4. J owards carrying on the works for fortifying 
andVecuring the harbour of Milford Joooo o o 

42805 14 \ \ 

April i:. 
Upon account for paying and difcharging the debts, 
with the nccelTary expences attending the payment 
of the fame, claimed and fuitained upon the land, 
and eftates which became forfeited to the crown, by 
the attainder of John Drummond, brother to James 
Drummond, intitled Duke of Perth, or fo much of 
the fame debts as fhall be remaining unfati^fied, ac- 
cording to the feveral decree3 in that behalf refpec- 
tively made, by the lords of feffion in Scotland, and 
purfuant to an aft of the 25th of his prefent majefty, 
intituled, " An ad for annexing certain forfeited 
eftates in Scotland to the crown unalienably, ^^c. — j2H22—-1 

April 30. " 

1 . Upon account, to be paid to the Eaft India com- 
pany, towards enabling them to defray the expence 
of a military force in their feitlements, to be main,- 
tained by them in lieu of the battalion of his majelly's 
forces, commanded by Col. Adlercron, withdrawn 
from thence, and now returned to Ireland ^ 

2. Upon account, to enable his majefty to give a 
proper compenfation to the refpeftive provinces in 
North America, for the expences incurred by them, 
in the levying, cloathing, and pay of the troops 
raifed by the fame, according as the adive vigour 
and ftrenuous efforts of the refpeaive provinces (hall 
be thought by his majefty to merit — — » 

20090 o o 

20C000 o o 

220000 o o 

May 20. 
I. To make good the like fum i/fued by his 
majefty to John Mill, Efq; to be by him paid 
over to the vidtuallers and innholders of the county 
ynd town of Southampton, and other viftuallers and 
innholders in the like circumltances, in confideration 


For the YEAR 1759.. I'j'] 

of the great cxpence they -ere pui to by the Helllan jT. s d. 

troops having been <«• i- i'.g lilieted at their houfes, 

piirluant to an addrcfs 01 t^i- houfe — — 2500 o O 

2. To mi.,xe good tho iike funi ifiued by his ma- 
jefty lo 'he judge? of iigidnd, Scotland, and Wales, 
in au^;i;enra"ion of their lalaries, j^urfuant to an ad- 

drefs of inis n ufe . — — — . 11450 o o 

3. To make good the like fum vvhich has been if- 
fued, puriuant to the addrefs of this houfc, to the 
widovv and adminillrarrix of Nicholas Harainge, Etq; 
deceafed, in rC(...iy;r.ent and full ia;isfadtion for the 
balance or furplus oi his account for pruicing the 

journals of the houfe of commons — — — — 778 16 6 

14728 16 6 

May 15. 

1. That the feveral annual fums following, be 
granted to his n^ajcrty, to be applied in augmentation 
of the falariej of (ucn of the judge«, for tne time be- 
in*;, in thu fuperior courts of juiiice, in England, as 
are herein alter mentioned, that is to fay, jcol. to 
each of the puifne j'jdges in the court of King's- 
Bench ; — qccl. to each of the judges of the court of 
Ccn-mcn-Pleas, at Weftrriniler; loocl. to the chief 
baron in the court of Exchequer at Weftminfieri and 
500 1. tc tach of the other barons cf the coif, in the 
faid court, in every year ■ 6000 

2. The like grant for the judges in the courts of 
fefiion and exchequer in Scotland ; that is to fay, 
3C0 1. to the prefident of the faid court of feflion ; 
300 1. to the chief baron of the faiu court of the ex- 
chequer; and ac^l. to each of the other judges of 

the faid cou;ts, in every year 4200 

3. The like g.aut to the juftices of Cheller, and 
of the great ftilions for the counties in Wales ; that 
is to uy, 200 1. to the chief juftices of Chefter, 150I. 
to the fecond juftices of Chelter ; and 150I. to each 
of the julliccs of the great feihons for the counties in 
Wales, in every year ■■ ■ . ■■ ... — 1250 

May 21. 

I. To make good the intereft of ihe feveral prin- 
cipal fums to be paid in purfuance of an act of the 
3 I ft of his prefent majelly, for the purchafe oi feve- 
ral lands and hereditaments, for the better fecuring 
his majefty's docks, fi.ipj, and ftores at Portfmouth, 
Chatham and Tlymoutn, from the reipedive 

Vol. II. N the 

11450 o o 

178 A N N U A L R F. G I S TE R 

the faid lands and hereditaments were fini made ufe £. s. d. 

of for the purpc. f^ aforefaid, or inurell became pay- 
able, to Augull z^, Jf^O 1 1716 I 7'- 

::. For dtfiaying tlie charges, iiicurred in puifuance 
of an ail of the ^ift of his prefcnt inajnly, frr p'.ir- 
ch:ifing lands, for the l-eaer lecuring nis majelt/s 
dorks, Ihips, and Horcs, at Ponfniouth, Chatnam, 

and Plymouth 

2443 3 I 

M A r 7.4. 41 , y 4 8i 

Upon accompt, to enable his majefty to dtfray r.ny _____». 

extraordinary expencff 0} the war, incurred, or to be 
incurrec, i^i the lervice cf 17^9 ; and to take all luch 
meafures as may be neccffary to a.lappoint or defeiit 
any enterprizes or defigns of his enemies, and as the 
exigencies of affairs may require loo-oco o o 

Total of the grants n;ade by the committee of Apply 12761310 ly 5^ 

Thefc were all the grants made by the cTm-iitt'^re of 
fupplv in the courfe of lalt fefilon ; and as lO/n as t!ie 
two hift refo'utions of this committee weie agreed to 
by the houfe, on November 30, it was rtioivcd, that 
the ho'jfe would the next n^.orning rcfolve itietf into 
a committee of the \vhf4e he u'e. to confider of w.iys 
and fi:erins for rrifiny the fuppiy granted 10 his nia- 
jel'.y ; wl.ich cornmi.tee was, by f "eral 'ddjonr?iments, 
continued to the i;^th of IVl^y, and we reio'utirns it 
came to in that tiniC were agreed to b) the r.oufc on 
the days as follow, viz. 

D E c E M n E R ?, 1758. 

1. A refolution in 'he ufual form fur railing a land 
tax >)f 4s. in the pound for one year, Irom March 25, 

1759 ;; ; ~ 2037854 iS II 

2. A rcfolutic n in the ufual foni; for continuing the 

malt tax from June 2 <, 1751-/, to June 24,, 1760 750000 o o 

January 31, 1759. 
I. That 'he ) 1. ptj cent, annuities, amounting to 
3,100,000!. granted anno 1-57, be, with the coiient 
of the fevcral pioprietors, added to, and made a part 
of tV.e joint ftoek of 3 1. per cent, transrerrable 
antiuliies of tht- bank of England, coniohdated by 
the ads ?!;, 28, and 29, or his preient majelly's 
reign, and the charges and cxpencps in r-Mpcd thereof 
be charged uion, and paid out of the finking fund, 
until reuemption thereof ly parliament, in liie iame 
a;>d like man uer as the annuiiiLS confolidaieu atorc- 

For the YEAR 1759. 179 

faid are paid and payable; and, that luch perfons 
who iTiall not, on or before April 5, lyi^g, ilgnify 
their diflent, in books to be opened at the bank for 
that purpofe, Ib.all be deemed and taken to aiTent 

2. That all the monies that have arifen fince January 
5, 1759, or that fliall or may hereafter arife, of the 
produce of the ieveral additional (lamp duties on 
pamphlets, and printed papers, the adjitional duty oq 
coals exported, the furplus of the new duty on licences 
f'T retailing wine; and the iurplus of the duties en 
licences for retailing fpirituous liquors, which were 
made a fund for payment of 3I, per cent, per ann. at 
the bank on 3,00,1,000 1 borrowed by virtue of an 
aft of 30 George II. i-owards the fupply of the year 
17^7, alio the annuities on fingle lives, payable at the 
receipt of the exc :;equer in relpe6l cf tht lame, fhall 
be carried to, snd n.ade a part of the fund commonly 
called the finking fund. 

3. That the Ieveral annuities on fingle lives grant- 
ed anno 17^7, payable at the exchequer, in refped to 
the arbrcfaid 3,ooo,ooj1. be f-:jm January 5, \'IS9'> 
charged upon, and made pay -blc out of the produce 
of the faid linking fund. 

February 3. 
That towards raifing the 'upply granted to his ma- 
jefty, the fum o: 6, 600, coo 1. be railed by transfer- 
rable annuities after the rate of -^l. per cent, per ann. 
and that an addi ional capital of fifteen pounds be 
added to every one hundred pounds advanced ; v^hich 
additional capital fhall crnfill ot iol. given in a lot- 
tery ticket to each fubfcriber, and of 5I. in like trans- 
ferrabie annuities at U- percent. The blanks and 
prizes of the lottery to be attended with like annuities, 
after the rate of 3I. percent, per ann. to commence 
from the fifth day of January, 1760; and that the fum 
of 6,600,000 1. together wi:h the faid additional capi- 
tal of 5I. percent, amounting to ^3c,oocl. making in 
the whole 6,930,0001. d(» bear an interell after the rate 
of 3I. percent, per ann. which intereft (hall commence 
from the fi^th day of July, 1759. The faid feveral an- 
nuities (hall be transferrable at the bank of England, 
and charged upisn a fund to be eilablilhcJ in this fe(rion 
of parliament for paymenc thereof, and for vvhich the 
finking fund (hall be a collateral fecurity, and fiall be 
redeemable by parliament in tiie whole, or in part, 
by fums not lefs than 500,000!. at one time, fix 
N 2 months 


£. s. d. 
months notice havinfr been firft ^iven of fuch payment 
or paymmts rerjiedtuciy. T.'inc itie ioitery f/iall on- 
fifl of tickets cf the value of ten ^j^unds each, in a pro- 
portion not exi.eeding eight blank; to a pr.ze ; the 
blanks to be of the value .f fix pounds each. 

That every fubfcriber {h.:!!, on ut be'nre tlie i uh 
day of February inftant, make a de;^"i't of 15 I. per 
cent, en fuch fum as he Ihall chc'>{e to h'bfcribe to- 
wards raifing the fitid fum of 6,6-^o,no)J with the 
cal'ocrs of the bar.k ot Eng'and, as a fecurity for his 
makin^r tie future payment, on or before ihe limes 
herein t.'r.r liinited, thut is to i^y; 

ic!. \.&T cent on or b'-f'^re the 30th of larch next. 

loi. per cenr. on or befo--- the 27th 'A ApriJ next. 

lol. per cent, on o; before the 3 ■ ft of May next. 

jol. per cent, on o.- before t:;e z8tti of Jure next. 

^:,\. per ct>it. on or b'lore the z^ti; of j:ilv next. 

lol. per (.ere on or b;fore the 3ft of nio-ili next. 

icl. per cent, on < r befuie the 28th of Sept next. 

icl. per cent, on or before the 26th of Oc\. next. 

Which feveral fuTS fo rtct-ived, fhall by the faid 
cafhiers, be piia in'o the receipt of liis maje'ly's 
exchequer, to be applied, from tur.e to time, to fuch 
ferviccs a<; 'ii^'l then have been vi ted by thii. houfe 
in this i. illcn tf parliament, and no )ther\vife. 
-That any ■Aib<c-iber p-'-yirig in the vhok, or any part 
of his fubfcf^'ion, previous to the days appointed 
for the ropedlive payment"-, fhall be allowed a dif- 
co'jnt "ifier the rati- of ^l. per cent, per ami. from the 
day? of fuch refpedlive payments to the refpect:ve 
times on wnich iuch payments are dire^ied to be 

made — ■ 66000CO o 9 

March 10. 

T. T'^at a fubfidy of poundage of one fhilling in 
the pound, be hud upon tob xco, foreign linen, fu- 
gar and oiher grocery, Eail-India goods, fortign 
brandy, and fpirics, snd paper imported into this 
kin;:(!i^rn, accoiding to 'he alur or rate ; -fpedively 
fettled upon ea<-h commodity, bv the (ever^l books 
of rates, or any ^cl or arts of parliamert relaving 
thereun.o, OA-ei and .-.boe the preicnc uuciej changed 
thecc op m. 

z Tiiat an additional inland duty be charged 
up i. a!) c;lFe;;, to be fold in Grer.t-B;itain by • '■ it- 
fale or retail, and upon all choco are ly he <p.^ide or 
foH in tJreat l^riidin, to be pa'd by th ref}Cv'i\e tel- 
lers iS iJcS c ifl^-e, and by the refpeftive makers und 
feik :< v''t luch chccoktc. 

! 3. That 

For the YEAR 1759. ^^' 

3. That the faid additional duty upon all coffee, 
be after the rate oi is. per pound wt. a'oirdupois, and 
in that propoitum for a greater or lefier quantity', over 
and above the preicn inland duty, and over and above 
all culionis and datic;, payable upon the importation 

4. That the faid addit.onal d:'ty upon all chocolate, 
be after the rf-.te of^d per pound vvt. avoirdupois, and 
in that proportion for a g; eater or lefTer quantity, 
over and above the prefent inland duty payable 

A P R. I L 3. 
That fuch part of the fum of ioc,cool. granted 
in the Lfl feflion, upon accciRpt, towards defraying 
the charge of p:^y and cloathing for the militia for 
1758, and for defr ying lucli cxpences as were actually 
incurred upon the account of tiiS militia, in the year 
1757, as fiiall rennain in the exchequer, after faiis- 
faction of the faid charges and expences, be ifiued 
and applied towards raifing the fupply granted in this 

April 12. 

1. That from and after July 5, 1759, all perfons 
may trade in, fell, or vend any goods or wares, in 
which the quantity of gold, in any feparate and dillinft 
piece of goods or wares, lliall not exceed two penny 
weights, or the quantity cf filver in any one feparate 
and diflini\ piece of goods or ware>, fnall not e>Lceed 
five penny weight?, without being liable to take out a 
licence for that pur|,>ore. 

2. That from and after the fifth of July, 1759, every 
peifon who fhall trade in, fell, or vend gold or filver 
plate, or any goods or wares, in which any geld or 
111 ver (hall be manufadtured, and the quantity of geld 
in any one fuch piece of place or goods, ct wares, 
Ihall be of the weight of two ounces or upwards, or 
the quantity of filver, in any one fuch piece of plate 
c-r goods, or wares, fliall be of the weight cf thirtv 
ounces or upwards, fhall pay 5 1. for each annual 
licence, inftead of the 40 s. now payable. 

3. That from and after the 5th of July, 17!:9, all 
pavvubrokeis trading in, vending or felling, gold or 
fiiver plate, and al; refiners of gold and iilver, f^;all 
be obliged to take oat annual licences, for each of 
vvhic ; they fhall pay a daty cf jl. iniiead ef the ^ci. 
now payable. 

4. I'hat the fums to be paid for the faid licence?, 
Ihall be applicable to the fame ufes and purpofes, as 

N 3 the 


the rums charged on licences by an acl of laft feflion 
were applicable. i i r 

r That a claufe in an aft of the qth and lOth ot 
WiUiani III. intitled, " An act to fettle the trade to 
Africa," for allowmj^, daring a Hmitfd time, a draw- 
back of the duties upon the exportation of copper 
bars imported, and with a provifo c^niinucd by feve- 
ral aftsto June 2a, 1758, and from thence to the 
end of the next feffion, is expiring, and fit to be con- 

tinued. ^ , 1 r /-> t 

6 That fo much of an atl of the Sth of George I. 
for the encGuraoement of the filk maniif.utures o' this 
kingdom, &c. as relates to the er,cou.•a^^'ement of our 
filk manufaaures, and to the taking otl the du- 
ties on merchandize exported, is near expiring, and 

fit to be continued. „ , , . j ru- 

7. That fo much of an ad of the fecond of his pre- 
fentm.ajeAy, for the better prefervation of his m;.je- 
iiV's woods in America, icc. as relates to the pre- 
iraums upon malls, yards, and bowrpnts, tar pitch 
and turpentine, is near expiring, and fit to be con- 
tinued. . - 

8. That an aa of the 5th of his prefent mnjeliy, 
for encouraging the growth of coffee in our planta- 
tions in America, is near expiring, and lit to be 
continued. . „ 

n That an ?n of the 10th of his prefent majefty, 
for the more efFeaual fecuring the duties on foreign 
made fail cloth imponed this kingdom, £cc. is 
near expiring, and fit to be continued. 
A p R I L 30. 

1 That the fum remaining in the receipt of the 
exchequer, dirpofable by parbamert, of the prod^jce 
of the finking fund, for the quarter ended April 5, 
lycS, be iflued and applied towards making good 

the fupoly {^ranted in this leffion _ ■ I0OO7&17 o;- 

2 That^he fum now remaining in the exchequer, 
bci.i'r the overplus of the gra.ts for the fervice of_i75j?. 
be iffued and applied towards making good the iupj ly 

"ranted in thici feffion 7330» 3^^ 

2533G4 o 11^ 

May 17. 

1 That the duties now oayable upon raw (hort filk 
cr capiton, and filk nubs, or hulks of filk, fiiali. from 
and after July 5,1759' "^^^ ^"'^ determine, and be no 
longer paid. ^ „ 

2 That in lieu thereof, the fame duties flia!!, 


For the fEAR 1759* 185 

£. s. d. 

from and after July 5, 1759, be paid upon the impor- 
tation of raw fhort filk or cap. ton, and fillc .lubs, or 
hulks of fi!k, as are now payable upon raw long filk 
imported, and be applied to the fame ufes and pur- 

5. ThatAefum repaid into the receipt of tlie ex- 
chequer, and now remaining there, being the fum 
which was granted, December 15, 1755, to enabie 
his majeily to nsake good his engagements wi.h the 
tmprcfs orRuiIia, be iiTued and applied towards mak- 
ing good the fupply gr..ntcd in thi5 feffion — locooo O 

4. 1 hat towards railing the annual lums of money 
granted to his majefty to he applied in augmentation 
of the falaries of the puiine juujes in the court of 
King's Bench, the judges in the court of Common 
Pleas, the barons of the coif in the court of the 
Exchequer at VVeftminfter, and of the jiiftices of 
Chefter, and the great fcllions for the counties of 
Wales, an additional ftamp duty of irx pence be 
charged upon every piece of veilum or parchment, or 
fneet or ^ieco of paper, on which fhall be engrof- 
fed or written any afSdavit to be made ufe of in 
any court of law or equity at Weilminller, or in the 
cour;s of the great fel^ions in Wales, or county pala- 
tine of Cheiler, except ahidavits t>.kcn purfuant to 
feveral afts made in the thirtieth and thirty-fecond 
year of the reign of King Charles II. for bL:rying in 
woollen, and except fuch aSda/its, as fhall be ta;:ea 
before the officers of the cuiloras, or any juftice or 
juilices of the peace, or before any commiiTioners ap- 
pointed, cr to be appointed by an acl of parliament, 
lor the affeiTng or levying an.y aids or duties granted^ 
or to be granted to his rnajefly, his heirs and fucceiT-rs, 
and which afndavits fhall be taken by the faid officers 
of the cufloms, juivices or commifijoners, by virtue of 
their authority, as jullices of the peace, or commif- 
fioners, rerpec\i\ely. 

5. That towards raifing the fjid annual futns, an 
additional ftamp duty of fix pence be charged upon 
every piece of vellum or parchment, or flieet or 
piece cf paper, on which fhall be cngrofled or written 
any copy of fuch affidavit, as is herein before charged, 
that fhall be filed or read in any of the aforefaid 

6. '! hat an additional fiamp duty of fix-pence be 
charged upon every piece of vellum or paichmenr, 
or fneet or piece of paper, on which Ihall be en- 

N 4 grofled 


grofled or written any common bail to bs fileH in any 
court of law at Weliujin*ler, nr in any of t'.e afoie- 
faid courts, and any appearance that Ihali be niude 
upon fuch bail. 

7. That an auditional Panip duty of Gx-ptncehf charg- 
ed upon every piece of ^-ellu!.! cr parcliinen;, or Iheet 
or piece of p.jper, ^ii a .lich ihall ije enj^r^-fled or vrit- 
ten any rule or order inade or given m ar,y conn of 
law or equity at VVeitrnin'tei . 

8. That an anduioodl Hamp d^j^y cf lix-jcire be 
charged upon evejy piece of veilurr. or paichrne ht, or 
fteec or piece ot paper, on u-liich (I'aU be engruffed 
or wrinen any crpy ai fuch ruie or order. 

9. That an sd.iitiojia; li^aftip duty or fix-pence be 
cliarged upon every piece of vnsUtin or parchment, or 
ilieet or piece of paper, on vchich ihall be enorofTcd 
any original wrir, (exxept fuch or'?gin:il on wnich a 
writ of capias ilTaes) lubposna, bill of Middlcfex, 
latitat, writ of capias, quo minus, writ of ciedimus 
potellatem to tal..e anfwers, examine witnefies, or ap- 
point guardian?, or any other wr^t whatfoever, or any 
other proceis or mandate, that fliall iifue out of, or pafs 
the feals of any the courts of Weltminller, courts 
of the great fefiions in Wales, courts in the counties 
palatine, or any oiher couit whatfoever holding pleas 
where the debt or damage dnrh amount to forty lliil- 
lings, or above, or the thing in demand is of that 
value ; writs of covenant for levying fine?, writs of 
entry for fuifering common recoveries, and writs of 
habeas corpus excepted. 

10. That an addi'.ional ftamp duty of one penny be 
charged upon every piece of vellum or parchment, or 
fneet or piece of paper, on which fncil be envrofled 
cr written any dcpoficion taken in the court of"" han- 
cery, or othei court of equity at WeAminlter, (except 
the paper draughts ofdepofujons tnken by viitueof any 
commiilion before they are engroffed) or upon which 
fhali be engroffed or written any copy of any bill, an- 
fwer, plea, demurrer, replication, rejoinder, interro- 
gatories, depofirions, or other proceedings whatfoever 
in fi..^h courts of equity. 

11. That an additional flamp duty of one penny 
be charged upon every piece of vellum or parch- 
ment, or (heet or piece of paper, on which fhall be 
engroffed or written any declaration, plea, replica- 
tion, rejoinder, demurrer, or other pleading what- 

For the YEAR 1759. 185 

foever, in any court cf law at Wellmmfler, or ii? any 
cf the courts of the prircipality of Wales, or in any 
of the courts in the counties palatine of Chefler, Lao- 
cal^.er, or Durham. 

!2. That an.addiuonal ftamp duty of one penny 
be charged upon every piece cf vellum or parcViment, 
or fhiecu or piece of paper, on which {h .11 be en- 
groiTed or written any copy of fuch declarations, 
plea<;, replications, rejoinders, demurrers, or other 
pleadings. ; 

jg. 'i hat the annual fums of money granted to 
his majefty, to be appli'd in augmentation of the fa- 
laries of the judges in the courts of fefiion and exche- 
quer, in Scotland, be charged upon, and made pay- 
able out of the duties and revenues, in that part of 
Great Britain called Scotland, Vv-hich, by an aft 
made in the icth year of the rciq;n of Queen Anne, 
were charged, or made chargeable, with the pay- 
ment of tlic fees, falaries, and other charges allowed, 
Or to be allowed, by her majefty, her heirs or fi:c- 
ceflbrs, for keeping up the courts cf feilion and jullii.i- 
ary, and exchequer court in 

M A Y 2 2. 

That toward*! raifing the fupply granted to bis 
majelty, there be ill'^ed and applied out cf fucb mo- 
nies as (hall or may arile, of the iurplofies, exi.cfies, 
or overplus monies, compofing the finking fund, t.'ie 

fum of • 22jCCOO o o 

May 26. — 

That there be raifed by loans or exchequer bills, 
to be charged on the firft aids to be granted in the 
next feffion, the fum of - i ipooooo o o 

Total of the liquidated provifions made by the 
comtnlttee of ways and means . .. ■ . 12991235 c o 






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<b o g 

For the YEAR 1759. 



IN Oftober lafl all differences 
were made up with the fe\eral 
tribes of Indians inhabiting beyond 
the mountains as far as the lakes; 
and a firm peace was concluded 
with them upon the ancient foot- 
ing. The treaty for this purpofe 
took up from the 8th to the i^ch 
of October to fettle ; and tho' the 
minutes of each day's proceedings 
are not equally interefting, yet 
they will ferve to convey an idea 
of their manner of tranfading coun- 
cil affairs 

At tliis treaty the governors of 
Penfylvania and New Jerfey attend- 
ed ; accompanied by Mr. George 
Croghan, deputy agent under Sir 
William Johnfon for the Indian af- 
fairs ; four members of the Penfyl- 
vania council ; fix commiiTioners, 
members of the afTembly ; two 
agents for the province of New Jer- 
fey ; a great number of gentlemen 
of property in the provinces ; and 
near foity of the principal citizens 
of Philadelphia, chiefly Quakers. 
Thefe were met at EaUon, about 
ninety miles from Philadelphia, by 
the Mohawks, Oneidoes, Ononda- 
goes, Cayugas, Senecas, Tufcaro- 
ras, Nanticokes, and Conoys, Tu- 
teloes, Chugnurs, Delavvares, and 
Unamies, Munfeys, or Minifinks, 

Mohickons, and Wappingers ; the 
chiefs of all thefe nations, with taeir 
women and children, made the 
whole number 507. 

On the -th of Odlober, the go- 
vernor, with his council, coming to 
Eafton in the afternoon, was wait;d 
uponimmediaiely by Teedyiifciuig, 
accompanied by Mofes Tittau.y ; 
Daniel; Teepuicung ; and llaac 
Stille, (Delaware chiefs and intcrr- 
preters, with whom peace hai betn 
concluded the year before) who af- 
ter the ufual complin-ients faid, 

Brother, you defire me to hollovsr 
loud, and give notice to all the In- 
dians round about. 1 have railed 
my voice, and all the Indians have 
heard me as far as theTuightwets*, 
and have regarded my voice, and. 
are now come to this place, i bid 
you welcome, and entreat you to 
join with me in calling up our eyes 
to heaven, and praying the bleiTiDg 
of the fupreme being on our endea- 
vours. According to our ufual 
cuftom, I with this firing wipe the 
duft and fweat off your face, and 
clear your eyes, and pick the briars 
out of your legs ; and defire you will 
pick the briars out of the legs of the 
Indians that are come here, and 
anoint one of them with your heal- 
ing oil, and 1 will anoint the other. 
Ap ng. 

* The Twightwees are the nations between the O io anJ ihe lakes, the moft 
remote of all ihe others, ai.d the moft heaity in the Frenrh inicieli [ hcigh 
they were r.ot prefent at this treaty of 1758, yet a iliicj ter, itber, n!! ious 
man named Frederic Poft, accompaniea b) Piiquetomen, D:-niel, rt.nd Tnoiuas 
Hi'kman, Delaware Indian?, had been lent among them the precedijig \ear, 
and hud elFe£lua!!y paved the way for a peace ; but the prelimip Mie« not b ing 
fully fetded, they declined meeting till they were waited upon again. 




The governor thanked hiiji for 
hi? vifit ?nd advice, and appoint- 
ed the next day to begin the confe- 


Sunday. Oa. 8. The governor of 
Pen<"y!vania, with his whoie com- 
p-rny, mc: in ecu icil the chiefs of 
the nations, and opened the confe- 
reotc-s with a ihort fpecch. 

rre;hren, it gives me pleafure to 
fee fo m«ry of you of fo ir.any dif- 
ferent nations at this council iire. 
1 bid you heartily weicoine. Bre- 
thren, with this llring I wipe the 
f\*.eat and duft out of your eyes, 
that yoa may fee our faces, and look 
c'^earlui. Wirh this firing 1 take 
sll birternefs from your heart. With 
tliis firing I take the blood from 
jour council-feat?, that your clothes 
ip:iy not be ftaintd, nor your minds 
diilurbed. Ihree firings. 

After a (liort paufe, Ta;-a(hata, 
(i^be Seneca chief) rofe up, ar;d re- 
ptuting, as ufua!, every thing the 
governor faid, letmned thanks, and 
v-'_nt through the fame ceremonies 
to iii? governors and all in autho- 
rity, t'e aelivered his belts ol in- 
v^utlon, wl ich the nations had re- 
ceived to coriw to the conferences ; 
and dc'jied to fee tiiC belts feiit by 
them IP return ; which the gover- 
EO: faid fl.ould be given them : and 
after ..ll ctren onies had pafled, the 
council broke u;: for this day. 

Conrad Weiki, Efq; .uended 
as provincial 5nte:;-rcter. 

Capt. Mountour, inteipitnei in 
the Six Nations an J Delaware 

Steven Calvin, l Delaware Imli- 

MofesTutamy, J language'. , 

^1ond..y, Octo.-er 9. Governor 
Bei nard arrived, and defired a meet- 
ing with h- Indians to bid tntm 
welcome- ; but w« , told, ihat they 
were in council among themfelves. 

Tuesday, U*.^. 10. The Indian 
chiefs reniained in council all day, 
and defired the governors not to be 

Wednefday, Oft. M. This morn- 
ing the iiidian chiefs communica- 
ted the bufinefs they had been upon 
to the governor. At four in the 
afternoon, the conferences opened ; 
Tagafiiata intending to fpeak firll, 
had laid fome firings upon the 
table ; when Teedyufcung got up, 
and holding a firing, faid, he had 
foniething 10 deliver*. But Go- 
vernor Bernard fignifying his de- 
fire to bid the Indians welcon e, put 
an end to the coniefi, and he was 

Gov. Bernard.] Brethren, I bid 
you welcome, wifh the good 
work of peace may piofper in your 
hands. Having feut a mefiage 
fome months ago to the Minifinks, 
I leceivc'i an anfwer fronc our bre- 
thren the ."-Viieias and Cayo[;;as, 
in which they take upon them to 
fpe<.k for tr J M]r,'ruiks. To you, 
therefore, bretnrf.n, I now addrefs 
rnyielf, and mu'lt remind you, that 
if you are QJQoled to be our 
'^r'^ndsfor the future, yo'j fhojld 
rcwu n us the captives that have 

* The fiibjei^ of thrir conferences was the treaty rrnde bv Teedyufcung the 
yeir b.forp, who p' etcr.ded he P<51eJ as :.ii,!>r.fiai.lor for the Six Nations-, as well 
as S:;cheni for Fou; Nations of iiis wwn. The SixNiitioiis wanted to have can- 
celled tliat pe.nce as not prop'^rly made ; but as a general peace was now to be 
made, the thing was wi<ved, as ahorjether immaterial. 


For the YEAR 

been taken out of our province, 
and are now within your power. 
It is not ulual for our king's go- 
vernors to go out of their pro- 
vinces, to attend treaties of this 
kind ; but I have waved forms to 
ftiew my good difpofitions to re- 
ftore peace, and fettle all manner 
of differences for the mutual benefit 
of all parties. 

Then Teedyufcung rofe up and 
faid, Brethren, you defire me to 
call all the nations who live back. 
Such as have heard my halloo are 
here prefent. If you have any 
thing to fay to them, or they to 
you, fit and talk together. I have 
nothing to do but to fee and hear. 
I have made known to the gover- 
nor of Penfylvania why I Ihuck 
him, and have made up all differ- 
ences for our future peace. 

Tagalhata, chief of the Senecas.] 
Brethren, It has pleafed the moll 
high to bring us together with 
chearfalnefs ; but as it is now late, 
I defire to be heard to-morrow.* 

Thurfday, Oft. 12. Tagafliata.] 
"We approve of v.hat the governor 
of Jerfey faid yefterday concerning 
the Minifinks ; they dcfired us to 
bring about the good work of 
peace, have affured us they will 
deliver up the prifoners, and doubt 
hot but all differences will be made 
tip between them and the province 
of New Jerfey. 

Brethren, I now fpeak at the 
requeft of Teedyufcung, and our 

1759- • 193 

Brethren, our nephews, the Mi- 
nifink Indians, have declared the 
fame, and the warriors of the four 
different tribes of ihe fame ::ation, 
have entreated us to ufe our endea- 
vours to make their peace, declar- 
ing their forrow for v/hat they have 
done at giving this belt. 

A helt. 
Brethren, we the Mohawks, Se- 
necas, and Onondagces, deliver 
this itring likewife, to remove the 
hatchet out of your heads, that has 
been flruck into it by the Ohio In- 
dians, in order to lay a fcundatioa 
for peace. 

Eight JI rings of n.va7iipum. 
Tokaaio, chief of the dyugas.] 
I fpeak in behalf of the younger 
nations, part of and confederated 
with the Six Nations, namely, the 
Cayugas, Oneidoes, Tufcarores, 
Tuteloes, Nanticokes, and Conoys. 
A road has been opened for us to 
this council fire ; but by fome mis- 
fortune, blood has la'-ely been fpilt 
upon that road. By thefe ft ings 
we wafh that blood away, and take 
the hatchet out of your heads. 

Three firings. 
Brethren, I now fpeak only tor 
my own nation. I will hide no- 
thing from you ; the French, like 
a thief in the night, have ftolea 
fome of our young m.n, and cor- 
rupted them to do mifchief. Our. 
chiefs held them, fait, but the 
French artfully utiloofed them ; we 
take the hatchet out of your hcids 
with which they have flruck ycu. 

nephews the Delawares, living at and are forry for what they have 
Wyomink, and on the waters of done. 

Sufquehannah ; they have affured 
OS they will never think of war 
againil their brethren the Englifh 
any more. 

A helt. 
Vol. ir. 

A belt cf I o rouus, 

Friday, 0£l. 13, Gov. Denny,] 

Brethren, chiv f , .nl war io.-s, I 

iivited you cown to the council 

fire, kindled at tais place by me 

O and 



and your' nepliew Teedyufcung. I 
am now abouc to communicate to 
you riiatters of great confequence, 
iind to anfvver al! that has been faid 
by you to me lince our meeting to- 

falfc-hearted French King. Atlaft 
all blood was wiped away ; and 
Tecdyul'cung then declared to us, 
that he afu^d in behall of ten na- 
tions, and promifed to reRore to us I therefore, by this llring all our feliow-fubjeds that had b^^en 

open your ears that you may hear carried away prifoners. I dcfire 

clearly. therefore to know the true reafon, 

A ftrir.g. why our fiefh and blood who are in 

[Kere he repeated all that had captivity are withheld from us, and 

been faid by the chiefs, producing whut is become of thofe belts we 

their belts and Rrings ; and then gave him to confirm the peace, and 

proceeded.] that promife, for till that promife 

Brethren, you may remember, is complied with we can never lleep 

that the day before yeilerday, your in quiet, or rell fatisfied in the 

nephew Teedyufcung told me by friendfnip of thofe who detain our 

this llring, that he had made me children and relations from us. 

acquainted with the caufe why he 
llruck xsi, that he "had given the 
halloo : that he wotdd lit by, &c. 

Now as there are many of you 
here who were not prefent at our 
former meetings, 1 think it proper 
for your information to give a fliort 
account of what palled between 
vour nephews the Delawares, and 

About three years ago, your 
brethren the Engiilb, living on the 
borders, w^ere llruck of a fudden ; 
many killed ; and others carried 
away captive. V\'e knew not by 
vvhom, but fent nieffeng-^rs up the 
Sufquehannah as far as the Six Na- 
tions, to enquire from whence the 
blow came, and for what reafon. 
On the return of t.hefe mefiengers, 
we were informed, that tlie Dela- 
wares and Shawanefe were »he ag- 
greilbrs. Some time after this dif- 
covery, a cefiation of hoililities was 
brought about ; Teedyufcung came 
down to our council fire, toli> us the 
caufe of the war was the proprieta- 
ries taking from him by fn.ud, the 
ground on which we now ftand : 

A belt. 

Gov. Bernard.] What the gover- 
nor has nov/ declared, fo far as it 
relates to my province, I confirm 
by this Belt. 

Here Frederic Poll's negotia- 
tion with the Ohio Indians was 
introduced by Pifquitomcn who 
attended him ; and it appearing 
that three ftrings of wampum had 
been returned by them, he was 
afked to whom they were fent ? replied, One to the 
governor at Penfylvania ; one to 
Teedyufcung ; and the third to 
Ifaac Pemberton ; at which Ni- 
chas, the Mohawk chief, rcfe up 
and fpoke with g.^eat vehemence 
for fome time ; frequently point, 
ing to Teedyufcung, and Mr. 
"Vveifer was defired to interpret 
what he faid ; but as it was 
merely perfonal, Mr. Welfer 
referred it to a private confe- 

Saturday, Oft. 14. The Indians 
declined meeting. 

•Sunday, Oft. 15. At a private 
conference, Nichas rofe up and 

and that the inducement, to begin fiiid, Brothers, you all know, that 
it, was from the perfuafion of the our nephew Teedyufcung gives 


For the YEAR 

out tliat the great man, and 
chii-f of ten narions ; now I on be- 
half of the Mohawks fay we do not 
know he is luch a great man. Jf 
he is fuch a great man, we dehre 
to know who made him fo. Per- 
haps you have, and if this be the 

1759- 195 

by hia belt you denied him to be 
{0, and defired to know of me who 
made him fo. I will anfwer you 
truly. Soon aft-r the Dclawares 
had ftruck us, we invited them t« 
meet us at a council fire- kindled at 
this place. At the time appointed. 

cafe, ttll us fo. It may be the Teedyufcung came and told us he 
French have made him fo. We reprefented ten naaons, his own as 
want to enquire and know whence chief, and the United Nations as a 
his greatrels arofe. melleiiger ; we believed what he 
1 jgaiiiata.] V.'e do not know fuid, and therefore made him a 
who made him this great man over counfellor and agent for us to pub- 
ten nations, kfh to the nations what we did at 
Affarandonguas, chief of the On- our council fires, and how fincerely 
ondagoes.] ISio fuch thing was we u'ere difpofed to peace. But I 
ever faid in our towns, as that afiure you, 1 never made Teeduf- 
Teedyufciing was fuch a great cung the great man ; and 1 mufl do 
man. him the jultice to fay, that he 
Thomas King, for the Oneidas, never alTumed any authority over, 
Cayugas, Tuicaroras, Nanticoke';, but on many occasions fpoke of the 
and Conoys.] We, for our parts, Si\' Nations as his uncles and fupe- 
entirely difown his having any fu- riors. I never fliall attempt to irn- 
periority over us. pole a chief on any Indian nation ; 
Tokaaio, chief of the Coyugas, but on all occafions, will pay due 
addrcfTing him.felf to the En_,lilh.] regard to thofe who are chofen by 
Brethren, you may remember you their countrymen. 
faid, yo"; could not be eaiy without Brethren, by this belt and firing 
your prii'oners. We fpeak from you promifed to make diligent 
the bottom of our hearts, you Ihall fearch in your towns for our fltlh 
have them all. You rold us a tea- and blood, who are prifoners, and 
der father, hufband, wif.;, brother, rc-iurn them to us. We have al- 
or filler, could ncc ileep found when v^ay3 found you honefl and p'in6lual 
they reflecled their relations were m the performance of your promi- 
prifoners ; we know it is fo with fes ; your words therefore give us 
us, and we will therefore make comfort. 

your hearts 'eafy, and give you A belt an^ Jiriyig, 

this belt that we will perform our j£ov. Bernard.] 1 know not who 

words. A belf. made Teedyufcung io great a man, 

Nichas confirmed his promife with nor do I know that he is any great- 

A firing of n roiMs. er than a chief of the Delaware In- 

Monday, Oft. 16. Yefterday's dians fettled at Wyomink. 

private conference was read, and Brethren, you fay you will return 

interpreted to Teedyufcung and the our paifoners ; we hope you will 

Delawares. be mindful to engage your nephew^s 

Gov. Denny.] Brethren, you fay to do {o too ; for which I give yru 

we know that Teedyufcung gives this Belu 

out that he is the great man j and 

O z Afcer 



After the governors had done 
fpeaking, the Indian chiefs were 
aikf-d, if they had any thing 
more to fay, on which Tagafliata 
arofe, and addrefling himlelf to 
the DL'lawares, and Minifinks, 
faid : 

Nephews, the governors who fit 
there have put you in mind of 
what was agreed upon lail year. 
You both proiTiifcd to return the 
prif>ners. Vv^e, your uncles, put 
you in mind of this promife, and 
defire you will perform it. You 
have promiied ir, and you 7nii.Ji 
perform it. As foon as you come 
home, caufe this to be done ; you 
know it is an article of the peace 
for which you have received a 

Robert White the Nanticoke 
chief, fpoke in Englifh.] When 
our coufins the Delawares firft took 
up the hatchet, we invited them to 
our town of 0:ianingo, and perfuad- 
ing them to peace, gave them a belt 
of a fathom long, and twenty-five 
rows in breadth ; but not hearing 
from our coufins of a long time, we 
fent them two other belts, one of 
Jixteen, the other of twelve rows, 
defiririg them once more to lay 
down the hatchet ; but ftill we 
heard nothing from them. Indeed, 
fome time afterwards we underilocd 
the Delawares fiiould fay,- the In- 
dians at Otfapingo had grey eyes, 
and were like Englifhmen, and 
ihould be ferved in the fame man- 
ner. As our coufins have been 
ioth to give an anfwer to thefe belts, 
we defire they would let us know in 
a publick conference what they 
have done with them. 

A firing, 
.Tuefday, Oil. 17. The Indians 
in council all day. 

Wednefday, Od. 18. Nichas, 

the Mohawk chief, acquainted the 
governors, that as councellors, they 
had finiflied ; having nothing more 
to purpofe at this meeting. The 
warriors were to fpeak now, and 
Tho. King was appointed to de- 
liver their words. 

Thomas King, [addrefling him- 
felf to the governors and all in au- 
thority.] Brethren, you have been 
delirous to know the true caule of 
the war, and of the bitternefsof our 
hearts. Look well about you, and 
you will find you gave the firft 
ofi^ence. In time of profound 
peace, fome of the Shawanefe paf- 
fing through S. Carolina to go to 
war with their enemies, as their 
yearly cuftom is, were perfuaded 
in a friendly manner into your 
houfes, deceitfully and unjuftinably 
dragged to prifon, where one, who 
was a head man, loll his life, and 
the others were feverely ufed. This 
firft raifed ill-will in the minds of 
the Shawanefe ; the French aggra^ 
vated the offence ; put the hatchet 
into their hands to revnge the 
blood of their brother ; they be- 
fought the Delav/ares to join them 
to make the blow fall the heavier ; 
and by degrees the young men 
among us were ftirred up to ven- 

Brethren, this was the cafe of the 
Shawanefe, Another of the like 
nature happened about three years 
ago to the Senecas, when eight of 
their warriors were returning from 
war, with {t\tv\. prifoners and fcalps 
with them through Virginia j thele, 
at a place called Green Briar, met 
a party of foldiers, not lefs than 
150, who kindly invited them to a 
certain ftore, and faid, they would 
fupply them with provifions; two 
days they travelled with them in a 
friendly manner; but when they 



For the YEAR 

came to thehoufe on the third, they 
began to difarm them ; the head 
man cried out, Here is death, de- 
fend yourfelves ; two of them were 
killed on the fpot, and one, a boy, 
was taken prifoner. As this was 
upon the warriors road in time of 
profound peace, judge ye of the 
degree of provocation. Brethren, 
you have juiily demanded your pri- 
foners ; it is right fo to do ; and, 
if this unhappy boy is alive, as we 
have reafon to think he is, we de- 
lire you may return him. If he is 
dead, we are content. His name 
is SquifTatago, 

S/x firings of njoampum. 

Brethren, the caule why the In- 
dians at Ohio left you was owino- 
to yourfelves ; when we heard of 
the French coming there, we de- 
lired the governors of Virginia and 
Penfylvania to fupply us with im- 
plements and neceffaries for war, 
and we would defend our lands ; 
but thefe governors difregarded our 
meflage ; die French came to us ; 
traded with our people ; ufed them 
kindly ; and gained their affections. 
The governor of Virginia fettled 
on our lands for his own benefit ; 
but when we wanted his aififtance 
he forfook us. 

A belt. 

Brother, [addrefTing himfelf to 
the governor of Jerfey] our coufins 
the Minifinks tell us, they were 
wronged of a great deal of land, 
and pufhed back by the Enp-Iilh 
fettling fo fait upon fhem, fo as not 
to know whether they have any 
lands or no. You deal hardly with 
us ; you claim all the wild crea- 
tures, and will not let us come on 
your lands io much as to hunt after 
them ; you will not let us peel a 
fingie tree. Surely, this is hard. 
You take of us what lands you 

pleafe, and the cattle you raife on 
them are your own ; but thofe that 
are wild are Hill ours, and Ihould 
be common to both ; for our ne- 
phews v/hen they f !d the land, did 
not propofe to deprive themfelves 
of hunting the wild deer, or ufin^r a 
flick of wood. We defire vou the 
governor, to take this matter into 
your care, and fee juflice done to 
the Minifinks. 

Tivo firings of -zvainpum. 

Addrefiing himfelf to the gover- 
nor of Penfylvania, he faid, Bro- 
ther, we mull: put you in m.ind, 
that four years ago, yoa bought at 
Albany a large tra<ft of land, for a 
par: of which that was fettled, the 
proprietaries agents then paid loco 
pieces of eight. We acknowledge; 
the receipt of that money, and the 
validity of fo much of the purchafe; 
but for the other part that was not 
paid for, that we reclaim. Our war- 
riors, our hunters, when they heard 
of this vafi: fale, difapproved our 
condud: in council ; in the deed our 
hunting grounds are included, and 
without them, we muft perifn. 

Three firings. 
[The Six Nation chiefs being afked 
if they had any thing farther to fav, 
anfwered, they had done.] 

Teedyufcung.] About three years 
ago, nine of my countrymen were 
killed near Gc-fiian in time of 
peace, for no other reafon than 
becaufe they were hunting upon 
that land; one of their brerhren 
affures me, that he then went with 
tears in his eyes to George Free- 
land, and preiented him v^ith three 
belts to have the matter cleared 
up ; but has never received an an - 
fwer to this day. I give you this 
ftring to enquire what is become of 
thefe belts. 

Three firings of -jjhile <zvampum. 
O 3 Brerhren, 



Brethren, I have alreaijy ac- what has bten iaid at the public 

quainted you with my grievances, conncl. 

I told you that the proprietaries I'riday, 061. 20. Gov. Denny 

had wronged me, and I referred deliicd to know if Teedyufcung, 

my caufe to the great king ; now I ii he piopoi^ed to I'peak, as the 

defire to know it King George has abrupt departure of the bix Nation 

yet decided that matter between you chiefs liad interrupted his difcourfe 

and me. I do not mention my the day before, 

uncle's lands ; only what we the Teedyufcung.] Uncles, accord- 

Delawares own as far as {he heads ing to anticnt cuftom, we uled to 

of the Delaware. ipcak one to another at home : but 

A belt, now I m-uil fpeak to you in the 

Teedyufcung then took up an- prefence of the Englifh governors, 
other belt, intending to fptak to You may remen b-ej that you lave 
his uncles the United Nations ; but placed us at VSyomink and Sha- 
whilll he was fpeaking, as above, mokin, places v,h^re Indians have 
the chiefs had one after another lived betcre. Now I hear fince, 
left the council, feemingly much that you have fold that land to our 
difpleafed ; he therefore held his brethren the Lnglifh ; let this mat- 
peace, ter be now cleared up. 1 fit like 

Thurfday, Oct. 19. At a private a bird on a Tsough. 1 look about, 

council Gov. Bernard, alter rccit- and do not know where 1 may be 

ing the requeit of the Uniied Na- driven to. Let me therefore com.e 

tions to take the cafe of the Mini- down upon the ground, and make 

links under his care, faid, as that my own by a deed, and I fliall 

the p'ioplc of New Jerfsy de^lareci, have a houic for ever ; for ii )0U, 

they had bought all the Minifinks 
lands, and the Minifinks faid chey 
had a great deal unfold, he could 
not tell which was in the right; 
but would fuppofe the Minifinks ; 
he therefore delircd the mediation of 
the. United Nations, and left it to 
them to propofe a reafonable fum by 
way of fatisfadion, of which he de- 
fued they would confider and give 
an anfwer. The United Nations 
faid it was a kind propolal, and 
recommended it to the ccnfiderati- 
on of the Mini/inks. 

Teedyufcung waited on Gov. 

my uncles, or I die, our brethren 
the Englifh will fay they have 
bought It from you, and fo wrong 
my pofterity out ot it. 

A helt. 
Gov. Denny then requefied the 
attention of all the Indians, ad- 
drefling himfeif to the chiefs and 
warriors of the United Nations, and 
their nephews, he repeated di- 
flindly all their complaints in the 
order they were delivered. Pie 
thanked them for declaring the 
true caufe of the bitternefs of their 
hearts ; and faid he would join 

Dennv at his houfe, and acquainted with them in endeavouring to pre- 

h'm, that his nation did not claim vent the like evils for the future ; 

lands high up the Delaware river ; he promiied to make enquiry con- 

thcne, ne faid, belonged to his cerning the Seneca boy, and, if 

uncles ; of which he defired the alive, to return him ; he affured 

governor to take notice, that no them, that the proprietaries chear- 

mifunderlianding nnght arife from fully agree to rekafe all that part 

7 of 

For the YEAR. i*7/:o." 

I o\ 


arofe, and laid in fome heat, They 
did not rightiy iindtrrftand what the 

governor meant by fettling matters 
about Lines among themfeives. He 
left things in the dark ; if he meant 
the lands on the other fide of the 
mountains, he kne.v the proprieta- 

of the purchafe reclaimed, and de- 
fircd ihey might fettle the bounda- 
ries to their own fatisfaftion ; he 
atknowiedged their juiiice'in pro- 
mifin?^ to return the prifoners. And 
then aodreiTing himfelf to the chit-fs 
of the United Nations, he faid. Pro- 
vidence has brought you and your J'ies had therr dseds for them, which 
nephews together at this meeting, ought to be produced and fhewed to 
face to face with us, that every them. Their deeds had their marks, 
thing may be fettled, fo as no doubt and when they fhculd fee them, they 
may remain to create any uneafinefs would know their :n?»rks. 
- in our hearts hereafter. You know. Governor Bernard rofe, and faid 

brethren, there is an old agreement lis had fomething to fay to them ; 
betvveen the proprietaries and you, they replied, they chofe to be fpokea 
that ycu will not feii any of the to by one governor at a time ; and 
lands lying within this province, to called for the deed, wJiich beino- 
any but them, and tliey never take produced, Nichas faid. This deed we 
polTclaon cf lands till they have well rtmember, we fold the land ; 
bought them of Indians; you know t-he la:id was ours, and we will ju- 
alfo, that the United Nat;ons have IHfy it. The confcreyjce then broke up. 
fold lands to the proprietaries, v/hlch Teedyufcung having, on the 19th, 
your nephews the Delawares now requeued the governor, that two 
claim as their right. This is the be.tswhich he then prefented to him, 
cafe with regard to fome part cf the might be fent as their joint belts to 
Unds which Teedyufcung, in your the Ohio Indians; the United Na- 
hearing, faid," the proprietaries had tions had this day a meeting with, 
defrauded him of. The proprieta- Teedyufcung, and two of the go- 
ries are defirous of doing llridt juf- vcrnor's council, about the anfwer 
tice to all the Indians, but it cannot that was to be fent back to thofe In- 
be fuppcfed they can know in which dians ; which being fettled and ap- 
of you the right is veiled. This is proved, the Indian chiefs were afk- 
a matter that muft be fettled among ed, if the Ohio Indians might not 
yourfelves, and till it is done, there be defired to take up the hatchet 
will probably remain fome jealoufy and join General Forbes againll the 
and difcontent amongft you, that French ; their anfwer was. By no 
may interrupt both your and our means. Their wounds were not 
future quiet. A Jiring. yet healed, nor peace confirmed ; 

Fie concluded with telling them, their warriors were not yet called 
that (tores of all forts of goods had home ; they might kill their own 
been opened at Shamokin ; where fl^fh and blood ; let it fu.Mice, to ad- 
they might be fupplied on the moll vife them to fit Hill ; and that ad- 
realonable terms, and have the bell vice, they faid, will be hearkened to. 
price for iheir peltry ; and that an- They then defjred, that two white 
other was intended to be opened for inhabitants might accompany Pif- 
them at Fcrt Allen. A firing, quito^nen and Thomas Hickman, 

After the governor had done the two meifcrgers, to the Ohio In- 
fpeaking, Tagafnata and Nichas dians, and promifed themlelves to 

O 4 fend 



fend the like number. Teeo'yufcung 
faid, he would fend one. 

Saturday, Od, 21. At a private 
conference, Governor Bernard pro- 
poied to Icitle the claims of the Mi- 
nifinks : and hiving afked the ad- 
vice of the United Nations, Thomas 
King faid, that they the Six Nations 
had no claim to thofe lands, and 
fliould therefore leave the price to 
themfelves. The Minlfmks defired 
to know what the governor v. as wil- 
lins: to give ; and he havino; named 
the furn of 800 Spanifh dollars, as 
an extraordinary price, the United 
Nations, by Thomas King, faid, 
that it was an honourable offer ; but 
in regard that many perfons were to 
fhare in the purchafe money, they 
recommended it to his excellency to 
add 200 dollars more, the report of 
which would be carried to all the 
nations, and would be very agree- 
able to them. The governor, after 
paying a polite compliment to the 
chiefs as mediators, chearful!y com- 
plied : and then Tagafhata rofe up, 
and faid, 

Nephews, now you niufi: remem- 
ber the friendfnip between you and 
your brethren the Engliili, andtranf- 
mit it to your children ; and mnke 
them acquainted with the tranfafti- 
pns of this day ; it fhould feem that 
your grandfathers forgot the trea- 
ties they ufcd to make with their 
brethren, and buried them with 
them in the grave. Give over all 
further thoughts of your lands ; 
and take care, that your young 
men do no more violence to their 
brethren the Englifli. 

The Egi'hohowen (the Minifink 
chief) audrefi'ed liimfci'f to the go- 
vernor, and faid. We are now fa- 
tisfied, and we Hill retain a friend- 
fljip for the Englifii ; and we dehre 
tha; if we Ihoald come ii^to your 

province to fee our old friends, and 
Ihould have occafion for the bark of 
a tree to cover a cabin, or a little 
refrefliment, that we fhould not be 
denied, but be treated as brethren; 
and that your people may not look 
on the wild beafts of the forell, or 
fifh of the waters, as their fole pro- 
perty, but that we may be admitted 
to an equal ufe of them. 

The governor anfvvered, that as 
foon as he got home, he fhould no- 
tify the peace through all the pro- 
vinces by proclamation ; but defir- 
ed the Indians might not go into 
thofe parts where they had lo lately 
committed hoflilities, till the paf- 
fions of the people were cooled ; for 
that he could not anfwer for his peo- 
ple's behaviour, while their fuifer- 
ings were frefh upon their minds. 

This day, at a meeting of the 
United Nations with the Delawares, 
their nephews, about fettling the 
deed in difpute, the members of the 
Penfylvanian council were invited 
to be prefent ; when Teedyufcung 
rofe up, and faid. We have feen the 
deed for the lands beyond the Kit- 
tochtinny hills, and acknowledge its 
validity ; our chief, Nutimus, re- 
members it, and received forty- four 
dollars for his fliare of the purchale 
money ; but this is not the land 
that I have diiputed with my bre- 
thren the Englifh ; that land lies 
between Tohiccon creek, and the 
Kittochtinny hills. A firing. 

Tokaaioand theSixNation chiefs 
flood up and faid, Coufin; I thank 
you for your opennefs and honefly 
in freely acknowledging the truth. I 
wifh the governors of Penfylvania, 
Virginia, Carolina, and jerfey, were 
fj honeft and pre!.ife. They have 
called us down to a council fiie, to 
bricrhten the chain of triendlhip : 
but our time is tajsen up ifi a iruit- 
^ lefs 

For the Y 

lefs difpute about lands, tjcithout 
(oming to the main point. The 
Englilh firft Legan to do mifchief ; 
we toid ihem ib. 'I'hey only thanked 
us for ourfranknefs ; but chey heal- 
ed no wounds. In fliort, when they 
fpeak to us, they do it with a Ibort- 
er belt and flnng, than that which 
we fpeak ro them with, though they 
can make waaipum, and we cannot. 
They ought not thus to treat with 
Indians in council affairs. Several 
of our ftrong belts are loft in their 
hands. I fear they fpeak only from 
their mouth, and not from their heart, 

Sunday, 0£l. 22. The Six Nation 
chiefs held a private council, and 
named two of their people to fend 
to the Ohio. Frederic Poft arrived 
with the news from General Forbes, 
th it a large body of French and In- 
dians having attacked his advanced 
poft at Loyal Hanning, were repulf- 
ed with great lofs, which lofs he 
communicated to the Indians. 

Monday, 061. 23. Gov, Den- 
ny.] Brethren, by this belt, we heal 
your wounds ; we remove your 
grief; we take the hatchet out of 
your heads ; we make a deep hole 
in the earth, and bury the hatchet 
fo low, that nobody Ihall be able to 
dig it up again. A belt. 

Brethren, now we have healed 
your wounds ; we by this belt re- 
pew all our treaties ; we brighten 

E A R 1759. 201 

the chain of friend ihip ; we return 
to our firft afl'cdlion ; we conhrni 
our ancient union ; we put frelh 
earth to the roots of the tree of 
peace, that it may bear up againft 
every ftorm that can blow, and live 
and flourifh to the er.d of time, 
whilft the fun fhines, and the rivers 
run. And we defire you to publifh 
this to ail the nations, your frienis 
and allies. A large peace belt. 

Brethren, we now open a road to 
the old council fire at Philadelphia, 
and be afTured, we fhall always be 
glad to fee you there. A belt. 

Brethren, this treaty will convince 
all our enemies, that we are now 
united in the firmeft band of amity, 
and while we join our fcrength to- 
gether, it will not be in their power 
to hurt either you or us. A belt. 

Brethren, as a token of our love, we 
and defire your acceptance of them ; 
fenfible of the approaching feafon, 
and of the many difficulties you live 
under from the prefent war, we give 
it with an hearty good will. 

Brother Teedyufcung, you put 
me in m.ind of your having referred 
your difpute to the great King, and 
you defired to know if he has de- 
cided it ; you may depend upon it, 
that as fooa as his anfwer can be 
obtained, it fnall be communicated 
to you. A belt. 

* Three groce narrow ftarred gartering; 56 ditto, various for'-s ; 33 looking- 
glafTes ; 12 pieces red ftroud; 15 I'itto, bine; i ditto, black; i red ; i blue; z 
ditto, 6 quarter blue dnjfnl ; 2 ditto, 7-8th ; 1 ditto napped ; i ditto, ftamped 
ferge ; i ditto, red half-th:cks; 1 brown half-thicks ; 2 ditto, white; i ditto, blue 
br'.a.i cloth ; 5 heed costs, S plain : 50 pair of flioes ; 37 pair of womens worfted 
ftocking5 ; ]2 ditto,; 2 pieces and a Bandanoe handkeichif-f*- ; i ditto, 
Lungee romals ; i ditto, cotron romals ; 4 ditto, none-fo-pretties; 8 ib. coloured 
tlueaci; 46 wovlied cips; 2 dozen of knives; i dozen of tobacco-baxes; 5 pieces 
pf iineii h.ndkei chiefs; 4 ditto, figured gartering; 46 plain hats; 24 taylors 
f.ieers: 6 dun locks ; i bunch of black leads; 3 and a iialf giois of fleeve but- 
tons ; 48 ivory combs; i groce of thiiiibles ; 100 bhnkets; 160 watch coats j 
1146 f.jirts, plain; and 1S7 ditto ruiHtd. 




Then Governor Bernard, requefl:- 
jng the attention of the Indiins, ac- 
quainted them, that in confcqucnce 
cl t'leir advice, he had come to a 
full agreement with the Minifinks, 
for 3II the lands in difpute on the 
part of this province, to which he 
defired they w,)uld pay a particular 
regard, tliat the remembrance of it 
might never be forgotten. A belt. 

Then addrcfllng himfelf to Tee- 
dyufcung, he f^ud, the nine men 
killed at Golham, of which he had 
juitly complained, were not in his 
province ; the three belts he would 
make enqoiry about of the gover- 
nor of New York, and would fend 
him an anf-ver. He added, that the 
fact had been blamed by all good 
and wife men. A ftiing. 

Governor Denny, being obliged 
to return to Philadelphia, took his 
leave, alluring them of his afFeciion, 
and wlflics fcr their happinels. 

Teedyufcung defired to be heard 
en behalf .of the W^ippinger I:;- 
^ians, living near Efopus, and pro- 
-duced a fhort belt of white wicmpum 
with a double heart, which was gi- 
ven them by the government of New 
York in i;45> reprefenting their 
union, which, he faid, was to laft as 
long as the fun fiioulJcontinae in the 
iirmament; hethercforcrecommend- 
ed them to the protetftion of Gover- 
nor Bernard ; and as their chief was 
old, he requelted a horfe to carry 
him home, which was granted. 

The Six Nation chiefs confulted 
together, and, in a little time, Ni- 
c'.ias, in behalf of the rell, returned 
anfwers to the governors fpeeches, 
repeating diilinctly what each of 
them had faid, and exprefiing the 
high eft fatisfaftion. 

Tuefday, Odt. 24. The peoprie- 
taries agents fettled the limits of the 
lands to be rclcafcd \vi;h the Indidii 

chiefs ; and the deed cf confirma- 
tion, as well as that of releale, 
were refpectively executed. 

Wednefday, Od. 25. The In- 
dians were employed all day in di- 
viding the prefents. 

Thurfday, Odl. 26. The fecre- 
tary of the conferences having ob- 
ferved to th^ Six Nation chiefs, 
that the governors were chargt-d by 
Tokaaio with not coming to the pointy 
by which it was underilood, that 
fome things had been omitted in 
their anfwers ; Thomas King faid, 
tiiey were afterwards fupplied ; but 
for the fuller fatisfaction of all pre- 
fent, he recommended a farther ex- 
planation : agreeable to which, the 
mensbers of the Penfylvania crun- 
cil made the foliowinj?- addition to 
the governor's Ipeech. 

Brethren, as we h^ve nrw fettled 
all differences, and confirmed the 
anticnt leagues of amity, and 
brightened the chain of friendfhip, 
we now clean the blood off your 
council feats, that when you hold 
councils at home, you may iit as you 
formerly ufed to do in your feats 
with the fame peace and tranquility. 
A Jiriiig of 1000 gra:i:s of 'vjainpuin. 

Brethren, with this firing of 
wampum we condole with you for 
the lofs of your wife men, and for 
the warriors that have been killed 
thefe troublefome times, and like- 
w-if'e for your women and children ; 
and we cover the graves decently, 
agreeable to the cullom of your 
forefathers. A Ji'-ing as before. 

Brethren, We dilperfe the dark 
clouds, that hang over your heads, 
during thefe troubles, that we may 
fee the fun clear, and look on each 
other with the chearfulncfs our fore- 
fathers did. The fame. 

The Five Narion chiefs having 
laid all ihe b»Us and firings on t) e 


For the YEAR 1759; 


table that were delivered at this'.and enabled to make provifions for our 

the lalt conference, Tokaio defired faniilies. You have given us gua 

ali pjcfent to hearken to what Tho- locks, but no guns ; it is irnpofiible 

mas King was going to fay ; on for Indians to fubfill without guns^ 

which Tho. King aroie, and taking powder, and lead, of which we have 

up the belt given by Teedyufcung, received none. 

when he requefced the grant of the Ke then took up the proprietaries 

"VVyomink lands, he addreiTed the releaie, and returned thanks for it. 

Delawares, Teedyufcung not being When it referred to Onas, The 

prcfent, in this manner. United Nations, he faid, had no 

Coufins, by this belt Teedyuf- doubt but Onas would grant their 

cung defired us to make you owners requeft ; this acl has confirmed our 

of the lands at Wyomink, Shamo- good opinion of him, 
kin, and other places on the Sufque- Having now finiihed what the na- 

hannah river. In anfwer lo which, tions had commiilioned him to fay, 

we who are here at prefent, fay, that he caft his eyes round the room, and 

we have no power to convey lands feeing Mr. Vernon, the clerk of 

to any one ; but we will t;;ke yuur the ftores, he defired, that now 

requeil to the great council fire, for council bufinefs was over, the lock 

their fentiments, as we never con- might be taken ofl" the rum, that it 

vey or fell any lands, before it be m.ight run freely, and the hearts of 

agreed in the great council of the all be made glad at parting. 
United Nations. In the mean time Some wine and punch was then 

you may uie thofe lands in common ordered in, and the conference con- 

with other Indians, in confirmation eluded with great joy and mutual 

of which we give you this. 


Then taking up each belt and 

ftring, he proceeded to repeat what 

had been faid upon each, approved 


EVERAL princes of the em- 
i^J pire having acceded to the late 

of all that had pafi'cd, and made famous arret or refolution of the 

particular mention of tlie large evangelical body at the diet of Ratif- 

peace belt, which, he faid, fl;iou!d bon, on the 6th of December, 1758, 

be made known to the nations, an imperial decree of commifiioa 

Then addrelling himfelf to governor was carried to the didature againlt 

Bernard, he thanked him for his that refolution, w'herein it is faid, 

kind afiillance at this treaty, which, among other things, " That the 

he faid, the United Nations would imperial court could not deliberate 

remember with pleafure. Af- farther about getting its declarati- 

ter a paufe, he defired to be excufed ons executed, concerning the affair 
in mentioning one thing, which he of the ban, without infringing the 
believed the governors had forgot, twentieth article of the election ca- 
You have, faid he, forgot to bring pitulation : That the invalidity of 
with you ammunition, of which we the evangelic body's refolution is 
always ufed to receive a fuJiicient manifed: That the £le6lors of Bran- 
quantity, not only to ferve us our denburgh and Brunfwick, the Dukes 
journey, but to fupport us in our ot Saxe-Gotha and Brunfwick- Wol- 
huiuing feafon, that we might be fenbuttle, and the Landgrave of 




Heffe-Caflel, are the very perfons Travjlation of a nenv Treaty between 

that difhub the empire ; and as this 
is an affair in which themfelves are 
concerned, it is evident ihat they are 
not qualified to concur in a refolu- 
tion ot that nature: That, moreover, 

Great Britain and PruJJta, ftgned 
at London, December 7, 1758. 


Orafmuch as the burthenfome 
war in which the King of Pruf- 

ihe number of the other ftates that fia is engaged, lays him under a ne- 

have acceded thereto, is very fmall. ceflity of making frefii efforts to de- 

Therefore, the emperor cannot but fend himfelf againft the multitude of 

confidcr the refolution in queftion, enemies who attack his dominions, 

as an a^, whereby the general he is obliged to take new.meafures 

peace of the empire is dillurbed, with the King of Great Britain, for 

both by the parties that have incur- their reciprocal defence and fnfety : 

red the ban, and by the ftates that And as his Britannic Mnjeily hath 

have joined them, in order to fup- at the fame time fignificdhis earneft 

port and favour them in their U\- defire to ftrengthen the friendfliip 

voloiis pretenfions. That his im- fubfilling between the two courts, 

perial majefty dares to flatter him- and, in confequence thereof, tocon- 

ielf that the other eledors, princes, dude a formal convention, for 

'and ftates of the empire, will vote granting his Pruffian majefty fpeedy 

the faid refolution to be null and and powerful afliftance : Their faid 

of no force, and never fuffer a fmall majefties have nominated and au- 

Dumber of ftates, and adherents to, thorifed their minifters to concert 

and abettors of the diUurbers of the and fettle the following articles, 

empire's tranquillity, to prejudice i. All former treaties between 

the rights and prerogatives of the the two crowns, particularly that 

Germanic body ; to abufe the name figned at Weftminfter, January 16, 

of the afibciatcd eftates of the con- 1756, and the convention of April 

feffions of Auglbarg, in order to 11, 1758, are confirmed by the 

cram down by force zfadum entire- prefent convention, in their whole 

ly repuG;nant to the conftitution of tenor, as if they were herein inferc- 

the empire ; to deprive their co- ed word for word, 

eftates of the right of voting freely, 2. The King of Great Britain 

and thereby endeavour to fubvert fhall caufe to be paid at London, to 

totally the fyftem of the Germanic fuch perfon or perfons as ihall be 

body." authorifed by the King of Pruffia 

This c0mmiiT0ri.1l decree was pre- for that end, the fum of four mili- 

ceded by a refcript from the Em- ons of rixdollars, making 670,000!. 

peror, to the imperial Proteftantci- fterling, at one payment, immedi- 

ties, requiring them to rctraft their ately on the exchange of the ratifi- 

acceflion to the rtToiution of the cations, if the King of Pruffia fhall 

evangelic body : but they will not io require. 

recede from it, tliough this accef 2. His Pruffian majefty fhall em- 

fion, in ftrictneis of formality, is ploy the faid fum in fupporting and 

qai'.e inconfillei.t with their for- augmenting his forces, v.'hich ihall 

nier acceifion td the ref^lutions ait in fuch a manner as fiiall be of 

of 'he diet againit the King of the greateft fervice to the common 

PfuiTia. caufe, ar.d contribute inolb to the 


For the YEAR 1759. 

mutual defence and fafety of their 
faid ir.ajeiHes. 

4. The King of Great Britain, 
both as King and Elector, and the 
King of Pruffia, reciprocally bind 
themfelves not to conclude with the 
powers that have taken part in the 
prefent war, any treaty of peace, 
truce, or other fuch like convention, 
but by common advice and confent, 
each expr^fly including therein the 

5. The ratifications of the pre- 
fent convention fhall be exchanged 
within fix weeks, or fooner it pof- 

Memorial deli-vered by Major Gen, 
Torke to the deputies of the States- 
General y Dec. 22, 1758. 

High and Mighty Lords, 

J Had the honour to acquaint yea 
at the conferences I obtained of 
your High MightinefTes on the th 
inftant, that the king my mailer 
had authorized and inltructed me 
to enter into a negotiaiion with 
fuch perfons as your High Migh- 
tinefles (hould think proper to no- 
minate for that end ; but that, .as 
the affair required a minute difcuf- 
fion, it would be impofiible to ter- 
minate it without fome farther ex- 
planations. It is with the higheft 
pleafure that I this day open our 
conferences on this important fub- 
jefl; ; and I flatter mvfelf that if 
your High Mightinefles are as de- 
iirous of a reconciliation as his 
majelly is, it will foon be happily 

By the two refolutions of Sept. 
12, and Sept. 25, which were de- 
livered to me the day follov.'ing, 
your High Might! nefies thought 
proper to make fome difficulty of re- 


ceiving the declaration which I had 
the honour to prefent to you, in the 
King's name, againft the trade car- 
ried on by your ful.jects to the 
French colonies in America, for the 
account of thofe very colonies. If 
his majefty, on being informed 
thereof, commanded me to declare 
that he could not depart from his 
precedingdeclaration, it was becaufe 
he thought this claim had no foun- 
dation in the treaties fu'jfilcing be- 
tween them andtherepublic. Befidcs, 
fhould the perfons cor.ceri;ed in this 
trade even be able to wreil the fenfe 
of treaties fo as to deceive their 
friends, and make the obfcructing 
of it by England pafs for a griev- 
ance ; Itiii his majefty is periuaded 
that their High Mightineffes will 
fee with pleafure, that hh majelly 
fets afide the difciiiuon of that treaty, 
which is connected with fo many 
others, and fets himfelf wholly to 
do the fubjefts of his ancient allies 
all the fervice, and to grant them 
every favour that fjiall not notably 
prejudice the welfare and fafety of 
his people. It:is ijn this light that 
his inajefiy confjoerfi the trade, di- 
rectly or indireftly, to the-Frenck 
colonies in An;erica. 

His rcajv-ity is at war with the 
mo(l Chriltian King :-]ie cannot hope 
to get oat of it v.ith Safety, lorobtaia 
a Ipeedy and lafting peace, which is 
his majelly's fole aim, if the Princes 
who .have declared themfelves neu- 
ter, inilead of contenting- thero.- 
fclves with trading' as ufual,' -with- 
out any rifk, affusie a rig4i*' of car- 
rying on that trade.of the King's 
enemieswhich- is not allowed them 
in time of peace. The injuliice of 
this proceeding is too apparent to 
require more to be faid on it^ one 
may venture to appeal to your 
High MightinefTes own conduct ia 




the like cafe : A trade of this na- 
ture was never fufFered by you ; and 
it hath been oppofed by the Salus 
Populi in all countries, in like cir- 

His majelty fees with pleafure the 
trade of his neighbours flourilh, and 
would behold its increafe with fatis- 
fadion, if its profperity were not 
repugnant to this primary law. But 
he likewife perfuades himkif, that 
never, for tlie fake of fome tranfient 
profit to individuals, will his anci- 
ent allies be the hrlt to injure Eng- 
land in this eflential part. Confi- 
dering the thing in this light, I 
cannot doubt but that your High 
MightinelTes will give the King the 
pleafure to hear that they, for their 
fubjedts, have hcnellly abandoned it, 
and that this ftumbling block is for 
ever removed. In fettling this 
point, his majefty commands me to 
include in it the charge, commonly 
called Overfcheepen, which is made 
of a French velfel into a Dutch 
vefTel, when the former dares not 
continue her courfe, and endeavours 
to fave herfelf by carrying neutral 
colours, in order to avoid feizure 
at fea by the King's fl)ips. Your 
High Mightineifes, while you ac- 
knbwledge the jullice of my firft 
demand, cannot refufe the fecond ; 
fince that would be to declare, that 
you treat with good faith, whilft, 
at the fame time, a more dangerous 
door will be left for fraud. Such a 
condud. is unworthy of the equity of 
your High Migl^tineffes, efpecially 
in the prefentcafe, when the quefti- 
on is the prevention of any lubjeft 
of future difpute, and the rellora- 
tion of harmony and good neigh- 
bourhood between the two powers. 

The lalt point of my inftrudion>, 
%vhich relates to the amicable 4e- 
jnands njade by hi$ ip^efty to your 

High Mightinefles, requires a more 
minute confideration. 1 cannot en- 
ter upon that fubjetl yet ; but re- 
ferve it till afterwards. I ir.uft ne- 
verthelefs obferve to you, that the 
King has feen, not without pain, 
yet without giving them any mo- 
kftation, a great number of Dutch 
fnips pafs by his harbours fince the 
commencement of the war, laden 
with all foits of materials for build- 
ing and repairing the enemy's fleets. 
His Majelly a(ks, that certain ar- 
ticles of naval Itores may be com- 
prehended in the clafb of contra- 
band : but he will fo fettle it with 
your High Mightinefles, as that 
the inofi'cnfive trade of your fubjcfts 
to the north of Europe (if I may 
ufe that term) fhall not be involved 
in this article. Your High Mighti- 
neffes, who are- yourfclves a mari- 
time power, and know how to con- 
tend for, and defend your preroga- 
tives as fuch, muft always allow, 
that, in the prefent war againft 
France, it is both theKing's intereft, 
and his duty, not only to hinder the 
maritime of his enemy from becom- 
ing too formidable, but alfo to em- 
ploy all means to weaken it. Can 
it be difputed that naval ftores are 
not in this view, as prejudicial as 
balls and gunpowder ? 

Let France be without (hips, and 
her warlike flores will never make 
England uneafv. The importance 
of this article is fo evident, that the 
King ventures to refer it to the 
judgment of your High Mighti- 
nefies. Thefe, my Lords, are my 
inftrudions with regard to the fatis- 
fadlion which the King would think 
himfelf entitled to require from 
the friendfhip and juftice of the re- 
public, if he had no other foun- 
dation for his claim. But I have 
already informed you, that it is his 

For the Y E I 

majcfly's fmcere defire to unite his 
own faietv with the convenience of 
your High Mightineires ; which 
makes it unneceffary for me to en- 
large on this head. 

In this reprefentation of the 
points on which I have orders to 
infill with your High Mightiu^fle:-, 
I have endea-'Oured to follovv the 
method which you yourfelves hare 
begun to put in praccice ; that is to 
fa^, firll to ftate the claim, , and 
afterwards, propofe the expedients. 

I corns now to the articles of 
your refolutions of the 25 th of Sep- 
tember laft. 

I. As to the demand contained in 
the firil: article, I muil obferve to 
your High Mightinefies, that this 
very treaty, which you fo ftrongly 
infift on, prefcribes the manner of 
proceeding in cafe of feizure or de- 
tention ; and that you cannot claim 
the exercile of an extrajudicial power 
by his majefty, whofe hands are tied 
with regard to his own fubjetts, by 
the laws; and with regard to foreign- 
ers, by treaties. If there have been 
any irregular fentences, either the 
judge mull have been milled by ap- 
pearances at the hearing of the ca'.:fe, 
or delays were made, of which there 
wasjuli reafon to coinplaia. The 
fupreme court, eitablilhedfor' joiig- 
ing in the laft refort, hath alw'ays 
been ready to revife and corredl abu- 
fes, if at any time any could be dif- 
covered in the fententes of the infe- 
rior courts. But your High Mlghd- 
nefles will give nie leave to obferve, 
that it is very extracrJinary, that 
not one appeal hath yet been thrown 
in, notrtitnftanding the aiTurances 
given to your High MightinefTes by 
many perfons. This is a fad at 
which every body in England is 
altoniihtd : and, doubtlefs, had the 
appellants defirsd to be heard, 

r^ R 1759. 207 

the number of complaints would 
have been gready dinMnilhed. 

Mean while, to aGil and relieve 
the fubjefts of your High iVIighti- 
ne/Tes as mach as poffible, and to 
avoid confounding the innocent 
with the guilty, his majelly hath 
j aft now ordered an exad lilt to be 
delivered to him of all the Dutcfe 
vcilels detained in his harbours, ia 
order to call thofe to an account 
who may have brought them in on 
frivolous pretences ; to oblige them 
to reieafe them, and to hafien the 
finiihing cf the trials in general. If 
tiiere remains any thing more to be 
cone for the further facility and fe- 
curity of the navigation cf the re- 
public, it will readily be agreed to 
by his majelly. The nation is de- 
firous to fecond the King's good 
intentions on this head. I flatter 
myierf that thefe alTurances will be 
fufiicient to diilipate thofe ill- 
grounded fears which poffefs cer- * 
tain perfons in thefe provinces. A 
mutua! confiaence, and the de/ire to 
avoid any fubje£l of animofity, are 
highly requifire in treating of mat- 
ters of iuch importance, and of fuch 
a com.plicated nature. 

11. As to the fecond article of the 
faid refolutions, I almoil dare ven- 
ture to alFure your High Mighti- 
nefTes, that if you cordially intereft 
yourfelves in his majrfty's lituation 
in the prefent war, and difcover a 
readir.efs to grant the points which 
he thinks he hath a right to require 
of you, you will receive all poiTibje 
fatisfaAion and fecurity. It is his 
majeflry's intention that the fubiefts 
of your High MightinefTes fh'ould 
enjoy ail the privileges and immu- 
nities refulting from the treaty of 
1674, fo far as the tenor of it is 
no: derogated from by the prelent 

HI. As 



III. As to the third article, as 
foon as your High Mightinefles 
ihall have agreed vs'ith his majelty 
on tiie points which I have men- 
tioned in his naaie, it fliall be eafily 

iV. The fourth article contains 
complaints for which perhaps there 
is too much foundation by the vio- 
lences committed by Englilh priva- 
teers, or veffels pretending to be 
fuch. His majetty is fincerely 
grieved that fuch diforders (hould 
have been committed, to the dif- 
grace of his fubjeds. The whole 
nation joins with the king in en- 
deavouring to fupprefs thofe rob- 
beries. J take the liberty to com- 
municate to you the orders illued 
by the admiralty of Great Britain 
againlt fuch behaviour : and, for 
the honour of the merchants of Lon- 
don, I n-.ull add the advenifement 
publiihed by them,, offering a re- 
ward for difcoverir.g the oftenders. 
His .niajelly inireais, your High 
Mightineffes to ailift him on this 
occafion, by exhorting ycur iubjecls 
to bring to julticc the authors of 
thofe offences ; in which they may 
depend on the utmcll proteftion and 
encouragement. As to the reft, the 
king is aftonilhed, that, after fo 
many applications made here for 
obtaining proofs of the fafts alledg- 
ed, not one, notwithftandlng there- 
ward offered, has gone over to Eng- 
land to give evidence. 

I take the liberty to refer to the 
contents of my firll: article for an 
anfwer to the fifth refolution of your 
High Mightineffes ; only adding, 
that his majefty will with pleafure 
agree to any method that fhall be 
propofed to him for authenticating 
the genuinenefs of fhip papers, in 
which point too many abafes have 
been committed. 

j^ Memorial prefented to the General 
of the French ijlands, by the Go-ver- 
nors and Lieutenants du Rot of the 
feveral quarters in the ifMnd of 
Martinico, Jan. i, 1759. 

TH E orders given us by the 
general, the 25th of laft No- 
vember, for holding our feveral dif- 
trifts in readinefs to march; and the 
report fpread of an armament fitted 
out in England, which was fail to 
be deftined for thefe colonies, have 
determined us to lay before the ge- 
neral the condition of this ifland, 
and its different diflridls, the com- 
mand of which is intrufted to us, 
under his direftions. 

The precautions necefTary for fe- 
curing his majel^y's pofTeffions be- 
come more preffing, as we are 
threatened by the enemy : and we 
ihould think ourfelves deficient in 
our duty, if we omitted repre fen ting 
to our governor the means condu- 
cive to the fecurity and defence of 
the ifland. 

Our trade with the Dutch is be- 
come our fole dependence ; the gene- 
ral mult be convinced of it, fince he 
had authorifed it : he can expedt no 
fuccour from Europe, as we have 
been abandoned by it ever fmce the 
war broke out ; and the manner in 
which traders have been fuffered to 
come among us has been of litt'e fer- 
vice to the colony. The merchants, 
who have had permiffions granted 
them, have abufed and defeated the 
intention of the general. Poffeffed of 
this privilege, they have made them- 
felves the arbitrary difpofers of all 
provifions brought in, and of all our 
own commodities fent out, and 
of confequence, the former have 
been at as high a price as their 
avarice could raife it, and the lat- 

For the YEAR 1759. 



latter as low as felf-interefl: could 
fink it> While the general meant 
providing, by this means, fuppons 
for the country, and the inhabitants 
were the objedl of his good inten- 
tions, they, by a criminal abui'e of 
the permifitons granted, have not 
reaped the icaft benefit from them. 
The colony, for two months, has 
been delHtute of all kinds cf prcvi- 
vifions ; the view cf the general was 
to provide fome, in fending men of 
War to convoy vcuels from St. Eulla- 
tia, to this ifland ; bat the ufe the 
merchants of St. Pierre's have m.^de 
tof their permiliions, has deilroycd 
all our exj)edations of relief by that 
method. By this means, the ifland 
ftlU fuffers for want of provifions : 
ail our own commodities lie npon 
our hands ; and mailers are unable 
to fupport their ilaves, who a;c pe- 
riihing through hunger. The inte- 
refts of the kiiig and country are mu- 
tual and reciprocal ; the iofs of ne- 
groes his majeily's re- 
venue : and the great, not to h.y 
the entii-e lloj) put to the exportation 
of our commodities, is fuch a blow 
to our trade, that we feel it in the 
moll fenfible manner. Many of our 
inhabitants have not been able to 
repair the mifchief and damage done 
their buildings and plantations by 
the laft hurricane ; and their reduced 
fituation incapacitated them from 
furnifhing negroes, (o e.ifijy as ccul J 
have been wiilied, for the ufe of the 
public works. Every or.e is ani- 
mated with the wajmeft zeal and 
inclination; but ought we not to be 
apprelienfive of dreadful confe- 
quences from flaves, who are half- 
Itarved, and to whom all bondage is 
equal. Mifery debales mankind ; 
and when it has reduced them to a 
precarious fituation, we often iind 
them have recourfe to confuficn and 
Vol. U. 

defpair, as a remedy againft the ills 
which opprcfs them. 

From the accounts we daily re- 
ceive of Wi;at paifc3 in our dillri(!;"is, 
and the enquiries it is our duty to 
make into every condition, we can, 
without exaggeration, afiirm, that 
the bell provided of our inhabitants 
p.^rtake largely of the prefent cala- 
mity, and want many of the common 
nccffiaries of life, vvhilll others have 
not i^ much as a o;rain of fait ia 
tneir houfes. 

Another great misfortune, is, that 
the liihabitants are reduced to the 
necellity of killing their cattle, to 
keep their negro children and fick 
people alive: but this refource mull 
focn f.dl, and our mills Hand ilill 
for want of cattle to work them ; 
and bv this means, we fiiall confume 
bcf.'rehand the referve we might 
otherwife have in cafe of a f.ege. 

It is fu.Ticient to reprefent to the 
genera! thefc misfo.-tunes : the gnod- 
n-^'s of hi? heart for a people entru;l- 
cd to his care, will point out a re- 
medy, in fupprclluig the permiliions 
granted to particular merchants, and 
in permitting neutral vefibis to co.iia 
freely into all our ports, and trade 
with the inhabitants, without firll 
addreOing themfeives to our mer- 
chants. When every quarter bo- 
comes ilockcd Vv-ich provifions, and 
men can eat» we ihall fee their zeal, 
vvhich the famine had damped, re- 
vive again ; and when the inhabi- 
tants fee their properties fecured, by 
fmifhing tlie public v/orks, and tak- 
ing ail precauiions nccefiary for their 
defence, they will be eafy, and unite 
theinfelves in repulfing the enemy, 
v/ith the courage they have always 
hitherto teuiiied Care, however, 
ought to be taken for fecuring his 
majelty's duties, and there is a me- 
thod of doing it j for in every pore 



where tlicrc are no guns to com- 
iTiand fuch vcllcls iir.porung the 
provifions, the commandant of the 
quarter may oblige thecuuom-houfe 
officers to vifit thcin, and bring 
their fails on (here, till the king's 
duties are paid. 

In times of calamity, the king 
gives every aflifiance to his dilbelfcd 
fubjefts, and this colcny claims help 
and relief againll the famine, which 
is devouring it. 

The citacel of Fcrt Royal fcems 
the principal object on which the 
iafety and defence of the country 
depends. The Icfs of that mufc ne- 
ceflariiy be attended with the Icfs of 
the whole ifland. We m.ay indeed 
retire into the woods ; but how are 
v/e to fubfill: there ? When the ene- 
my are become mailers cf this place, 
how are we to expecl fuccours 
from without? The whole colony 
ought to make the mcft vigorous 
efforts to (lop the progrefs of an in- 
vading army, and every man will 
fet about it in earneR, if the fcrt was 
properly provided v.'ith every thing 
lor its fafety and defence; and if 
magazines for furniHiing the necef- 
faries of life, as well as of war, were 
eftablify.ed in the different quarters 
of the ifiand. Signed, 

Chailkn, Lou. Villiers, 

De FclU--cille, De Pcincey, 
De Ligncrj, RouiUe. 

The genuine legal fentence prcncunced by 
the high court of judicature of Por- 
tugal upon the Corfplrators cga'cnjl 
the life of his mof Faithful tnujejiy, 
ixith the jiiji motives for the Jame. 

The preliminary fa" i are as follo-ivs. 
T appears that the Duke of 
Aveiro had conceived an impla- 
cable refentment againft the King, 

for preventing a marriage which he 
had precipitately adjuftcd between 
his fr.n and the fifier of the Duke of 
Cadavai, endeavouring, at the fame 
time, by vexatious artifices, to pre- 
vent the duke, who is a minor, from 
marrying, in order to fecure to his 
fcimily, the pofTeffions and honours 
cf that houfe; and for defeating fe- 
veral projeifts to preferve a pernici- 
ous influence which he acquired in 
the latter years of the late reign. 

That he endeavoured to ingra- 
tiate himfelf v/ith all perfons, who 
were diila'cisfied with the govern- 
ment, of v/hat party or condition 
foevcr, and therefore, as foon as the 
jefuits were difmiiTed from court, he 
forgot an inveterate enmity which 
till then had been implacable againll 
them, invited them to his houfe, 
and made them frequently long and 
fecret vifits, at their houies, where 
the death of the King was concert- 
ed, the jefuits declaring, that who- 
ever ihould kill his majefiy would 
not by that a6\ become guilty even 
of venial fin. 

Tiiat the Duke of Aveiro, and 
the jefuits, drew the Marchionefs of 
Tavora into the confederacy, not- 
withltanding the mutual jealoufy* 
between the two lioufes; and the 
marchionefs drew in the reft of her 

That the Marquis cf Tavora hav- 
ing entrufted Jofeph Romeiro, an 
old fervant, who had attended him 
to and from the Indies, with the 
confpiracy, committed to him the 
care of waiting, with horfes ready 
faddled, where the confpLrators were 
to mount. 

That the Duke of Aveiro feveral 
times rode and walked with Alvares 
Ferreira, his late wardrobe keeper, 
and Jofeph Policarp, Ferreira's bro- 
ther-in-law, to acquaint them with 



For the Y 

the carriage in which the King ufu- 
ally rode ; that he ordered them to 
buy two horfcs, not known, and 
fome unknown arms. 

That after the fact, the duke re- 
proached Alvares, telling him the 
fliot v/hich he difcharged did no 
feri'ice ; but when he was about to 
reply, he added, " Hufh ! for the 
•' devil himfelf can knovy nothing 
" of the matter, if thou dofl: not tell 
*' him." He then ordered him not 
to fell the unknown horfe he had 
bought diredly, leil it ihould caufe 

The legal fentence of the court is as 
follows : 
Agreed by the perfons of the 
council and the fenate o^ our Lord 
the King, &c. After examining 
the proceedings, which according 
to the form of law and his majeily's 
decrees were fuccinclly carried on 
againft the criminals, Jofeph Maf- 
carenhas, heretofijre Buke of Avei- 
ro ; Lady Eleanor of Tavcra, here- 
tofore Marchionefs of that title ; 
Francis-Aflizes of Tavora, hereto- 
fore Marquis of the faid title ; 
Lewis-Bernard of Tavora,- hereto- 
fore Marquis of the fame title ; Don 
Jerome of Ataide, heretofore Count 
of Atouguia ; Jofeph-Maria of Ta- 
vora, heretofore adjutant of the mi- 
litary orders of the Marquis his fa- 
ther ; Blaize- Jofeph Romeiro, cor- 
poral in the company commanded 
by the criminal, Lewis-Bernard of 

EAR 1759; 211 

Tavora ; Antony-Alvares Fefreira ; 
Jofeph Policarp de Azevedo ; Ema- 
nuel Alvares Ferreira, keeper of the 
wardrobe to the criminal, Jofeph 
Maicarenhas ; and John Michael, 
attending page to the faid criminal 
Jofeph Mafcarenhas ; together with 
the reft of the dspofit'ons, and pa- 
pers annexed ; allegations, articles, 
and defences made by the faid cri- 
minals, &c. &c. &c. 

L And whereas it appears fjlly 
proved by the confefiions of the ma- 
jor part of the faid criminals, and by 
many witneiTes, that the Duke of 
Aveiro * had conceived an im- 
placable v^-rath againft our Lord the 
King, f':r defeating the fchemes 
with vv'hich he had endeavoured to 
preferve all that pernicious influ- 
ence, which, by means of the au- 
thority of hisimcle F. Gafpar <la In- 
carna^aojhehad had during the latter 
years of the f-regoing reign ; and 
for annulling the ioij^orant com- 
rnendams, wiiich had been held, as 
grants for life, by the adminiftrators 
of thehoufe cf Aveiro ; and for hav- 
ing put a ftop to the marriage, 
which he had haftily adjuaed be- 
tween his fon the Marquis of Gouvea, 
and Lady Margaret deLcrenna, im- 
mediate fifter to the Duke of Cada- 
val, with the defign cf making that 
m.arriage the means of blending with 
his own houfe the illiltrioushouieof 
Cadaval, the actual lord of which 
was a minor, liable to the frr all-pox 
(fatal to his family) and uniiiarried.- 
P 2 Jt 

* Don Jofeph Mafcarenhas and Lencaftre (or L-incafter) Djke of Avefro, 
Marquis of Torres Nova?, and of Gcuvc', and Eail of Sinta C az, hereditary 
lord lleward of the King's houfhold, wiiich is tlie highell «.fiica in the p Ic-ce, 
and prefident of tlie palace-court, or lait tribunal ot r.pp'-al m the Ic'i-CTdom, 
which is the fccond ftate officer in the realm 5 was related hnrileir to the Tavo- 
ras, and married to a fifter of the elder marquis of that title. He was in the 
5 I ft year of his age ; of the loweft micidle hze, well made in his peifon, of an 
agreeable countenance, and lively difpofiuon. 



It further appears, that the faid 
Criminal being excited by his ma- 
lignant fpirit, had diilinguifhedhitn- 
felf by his endeavours to gain over 
all thofe whom he knew to be un- 
juftly difcontcnted with his majef- 
ty's moft happy government ; alie- 
nating them ftill more from the roy- 
al i'ervice, by infamoufly fhunning 
it himfelf ; and running into the in- 
/amoUs extreme of faying, ** that 
for him, it was one and the fame 
thing, to be ordered to go to €Ourt, 
as to have his legs cut off:" and giv- 
ing into the folly of flattering him* 
felf, and approving his being told 
by others, that there was now no 
other eminence for him to reach 
than the throne> by becoming King 

It further appears, that not- 
withftanding the implacable aver- 
lion which fubfifted between the 
iaid Duke of Aveiro and the jefuits, 
as foon as ever they were difmifled 
from receiving the cOnffcflions of 
their majeilies and ro>'al highneffes, 
and ui.iverfally forbidden all accefs 
to court, he artfully patched up a 
i6-union and intimacy with them, 
paying them frequently, long, and 
iecret vifits in all their houfes j and 
receiving them in like manner at 
his own houfe. 

It farther appears, that the exe- 
crable effects of that reconciliation 
were, that all the aforeJaid perfcns 
linked themfelvcs together, in a con- 
fpiracy, for contriving the death of 

e King, the faid jefuits promifing 


indemnity to the faid criminal, iM 
the execution of that infernal parri- 
cide ; and giving it as their opi* 
nion, that whoever fhould be the 
parricide of our faid lord, woirld 
ndt to much as fin, even lightly. 

II. It further appears, that thd 
criminal, and the laid jefuits, pro* 
cceded to the drawing the Mar- 
chionefs of Tavora • into the famtf 
deteftablc confederacy, in which 
by their united artifices, they fuc- 
ceeded, notwithftanding that there 
hid conftantly exifted a declared 
jealoufy between the faid mar* 
chioneis and the criminal, con- 
cerning which ihould gain the af- 
cendant in ambition and haughti- 
nefs ; notwithltanding the mou IH- 
ifiulating envy, with which the faid 
marchionefs was tortured, at fee- 
ing the hcfufe of the faid criminal 
exalred above hef own in honours 
and wealth ; and notwithrtanding 
the faid criminal had rendered 
that hatred ftill more flinging, by 
the rfiany and great efforts he had 
made, while the marquis, her huf- 
band, was abfent in India, to 
deprive him of the copyholds of 
Margaride, and of the free ftates of 
his honfe. 

It further appears, that the m^ir- 
chionefs fet hcrfelf up for one of the 
three ringleaders of this barbarous 
and horrid confpiracy ; and incon- 
junftion with the faid jefuits fet 
about perfuading all their acquaint- 
ance that Gabriel Malagrida, a 
member of the fociety of Jefus, was 

a man 

• Marchionefs of Tavora in her own right, and wife to the marquis, was in 
the 59th year of her age ; fiie was of the lower middle lize, and thin j extremery 
genteel ; and in her youth had been very beauiiful. In the duti s of life fht 
appeared highly amiable, being an extieme good mother, and demonftrated 
herJelf as a good wife, by accompanv ing her hulband to Iiulia, at the age of 50, 
when he was appointed viceroy of the Portuguele dominions in that countr)* ; of 
which undertaking, before hers, there had been but a fmgle example. Her de- 

fiortment in gener il was courteous and attaHe, and fljc was allowed 10 be a 
ady of a good underftanding. 


For the YEAR 1759; 


a man of great felf-denial, and a 
faint ; the faid marchionefs per- 
forming fpiritual exercifes under his 
guidance and direftion, and {hewing 
that fhe entirely followed his dic- 
tates and couniels, in order to ex- 
cite averfion and hatred to his ma- 
jefty's royal perfon and moll happy 
government; agreeing that it would 
be very ufeful, that our faid lord 
fhould ceafe to live ; and fupporting 
the facrilegious infult of the night 
of the 3d of September of laft year, 
by afTociating herfelf immediately 
with the perfidious and facrilegious 
perpetrators of that execrable infult, 
and contributing fixteen moidores, 
in part of the reward, which was 
given to the infamous monfters, who 
in the aforefaid night fired the facri- 
legious (hot, which produced thofe 
enormous mifchiefs, which we all 

It further appears, that the faid 
inarchionefs, having arrogated to 
herfelf the defpotic direftions of all 
the adions of the marquis her huf- 
band; ofherfons; of her daughters; 
of her fon-in-law ; of her brothers- 
in-law ; and of other perfons ; in- 
famoufly proftituted the authority, 
^hich fu^ a/fumed over them, to the 

perverfion of them all. Ufing, for 
the inftrument of this infernal work, 
not only the opinion fhe aifedled to 
have of the pretended fanftity of 
the afore-named Gabriel Malagrida; 
but alfo the letters, which he fre- 
quently wrote to her, to perfuade 
all her relations to join with him in. 
fpiritual exercifes. 

III. It further appears, that, ia 
confequence of thefe diabolical pre- 
vious lleps, the firll of the followers, 
who miferably plunged himfelf into 
the faid conspiracy, was the Mar- 
quis Francis- AfTizes of Tavora *, 
the hulband; who perfonally aflift- 
ed in one of the ambufhes, which 
were infamouily laid in that moft 
unfortunate night of the 3d of Sep- 
tember ; in order that our Lord the 
King, efcaping from any of them, 
might fall into the others, and con- 
tributed twelve moidores towards 
that infamous reward, which fell to 
the fhare of the two aiTaflins already 

IV. It further appears, that the 
fecond of the followers, whom the 
faid marchionefs drew into the fame 
infamous confpiracy, was the Mar- 
quis Lewis-Bernard of Tavora f , 
her fon, who, two days before the 


• Francifco de Afllz and Tavora (this family being above taking the title of 
P'jn) Marquis of Tavora, and Earl of St. John and of Alvor, general of horfe, 
^c. This nobleman was himfelf the eldeft branch of the Alvor family, the third 
noble boufe of the Tavoras ; and by marrying his kinfwoman, the heirefs of the 
faid marquifate, became, in her right, the Earl of St. John und Marquis of Ta- 
vora. The family of Tavora is the moft illuftrious of the kingdom, as well for 
the purity as antiquity of their defcent ; deriving their origin from the Kings 
of Leon, and having ever prel'erved their d'gnity, by difdaining to make any 
other than the moft noble alliances ; infomuch, that it has of late been the 
pra6lice of the branches of this family, to marry only with one another. They 
tliemfelvvS conquered from the Moors the lands they poflTefs, and on which 
there is a town, a river and an ancient caltic of their name ; and they even pre- 
tend to be lords of Tavora, by the Grace of God. The marquis was in the 
|6th year of his age, of the higheft middle ftature ; a genteel perfon, comely 
countenance, and grave deportment. 

f Luis Bernardo de Tavora, younger marquis of that title, was the eldeft 
fyfi Qf the ab^vementioncd couple, and in the 36th year of his age. He was mar- 

P I riei 



perpetration of the fncrilegious in- 
fult of the tiiird or September, with 
lludious precaution fent to the fia- 
bKs of the Duke of Aveiro, two 
hones ready bridled and faudlcd, and 
covercdvviththcirfaddic-cloths; and 
perfonally affitted at the ambu flics 
which in that moft unfortunate night 
were laid againft his majcfly ; as 
alfo at the family-nieeting, which 
was held at the houfe of the Duke 
of Aveiro ; at which feme of the 
perfons prefent reproa'-hed the af- 
iaffins, who fired the fac'rilegious 
lliot, for that thefe had not all their 
detellable efFcd ; while others flat- 
tered themfelves, that the faid de- 
teftable crime had been fully ac- 
complifhed, if the carriage of our 
Lord the King had but palled by 
the place where thefe barbarous 
boafters were way-laying him. 

V. It further appears that the 
third of the followers, whom the 
faid three feditious and deteftable 
ringleaders drew into this infa- 
mous conipiracy, was Don Jerome 

of Ataide f, Count of Atouguta, 
fon -in-law to the aforefaid Marquis 
Francis-Aifizes, and Lady Eleanor 
of Tavora ; it being proved, that 
he, with the countefs, his wife, 
almoft every night, affifted at the 
feditious and abominable cabals, 
which were held in the houfe of 
the marquis and marchionefs, his 
father and mother-in-law ; that he 
contributed eight moidores towards 
the moft worthlcfs reward of the 
afTafTins, who fired the facrilegious 
Ihot ; and that he was an aflbciate in 
the v/ay-layings, v/hich were polled 

againft his majefty. 

VI. It further appears, that the 
fourth follower, entangled in this 
confpiracy, was Jofeph Maria of 
Tavora*, adjutant of the military 
orders of the Marquis of Tavora 
his father ; for it is proved, that 
this youth v/as alfo perfonally pre- 
fent at the infidious and facrilegi- 
ous ambuflies fo often mentioned : 
that, in lilce manner, he was pre- 
fent at the other meetings j and 

rled wiih difpenfation from the Pope, to his father's youngeft'fifter, DonaThe- 
reza daTavora, and Lorena (or Lorain) who was twenty djys elder than himfelf. 
This is the lady who is laid to be in the nunnery of Santos, witliout our having 
teen informed whether Ihe was fent thither a pnloner by order of tlie. court. She 
is a middle- fized lady, comelv in her perfon, and extremely elegant in her de- 
portment. The marquis her hulband was a little man, and thin j well enough 
made, but not of a pleafing afpe61, though with a cnnfiderable refemblance of 
his mother. He was neither deficient in wit nor humour, but not amiable in his 
condii(51, nor extremely corre£l in hisincrals. Tliis couple have a daughter livint;, 
in the twelfth year of her age, Dona Joanna de Tavora, who is exceeding beau- 
tiful J but who is, by the l^ntence of her father, giandfiither and grandmother, 
deprived of the very name, of which flie (liould othei wife become chief. 

•j- Don Jcronyn-.o de Ataide, Earl of Atouguia, one of the oldcft, if not the 
moft ancient title of the kingdom. This nobleman was in the 38th year of his 
ige, related himfelf to the Tavora?, ard married to the eldeft fisughtcr of the 
elder marquis and marcliionefs of Tavora, fifter to tlie young marquis and Jofeph- 
Maria of that name. He was of a middle ftatnre, cluinly in his make, of a heavy 
afpeft, and ungraceful demeanour, and of flow pans, but in his general con« 
duft an inofFenfive man. ' 

* Jofeph-Maria de Tavora, fecond rnd youngeft fon of the elder marquis and 
marchionefs of Tavora, in the 2 5d year of his age ; of a middle fize, moft beau- 
tiful faccj genteel perfon, agreeable de|)ortment, and amiable difpofuion. 

'-■'-.■ that 


For the YEAR 1759." 

that he was the very perfon who (al- 
luding to the prodigy of his majef- 
ty's eicaping with his life) uttered 
thofe favage and fliocking words : 
" Alas ! the man ought not to have 

VII. It further appears, that the 
fifth follower in the before- men- 
tioned facrilegious infult, was 
Blaize-Jofeph Romeiro, an old fcr- 
vant of the Marquis and Marchio- 
nefs of Tavora, who had attended 
them to and from the Indies, and 
was now in the fsrvice of the mar- 
quis their fon ; was a corporal in 
his company, fleward of his houf- 
hold, and his grand favourite ; by 
whofe confelfion it was proved, that 
the faid marquis, Lewis-Bernard 
cf Tavora, not only trufted him 
with all that pafied, but alfo that 
the marquifles, father and fon, had 
given him the charge, under tie 
of fecrecy, to lead the three horfes, 
which in the night of the infult, 
they or.dered to be faddled, armed, 
and forwarded to the grounds, 
where the faid infult was commit- 
ted, and where he was prefent, 
when th?,: execrable crime was per- 

Vllf. IX. It further appears, 
that the fixth and feventh follow- 
ers, whom the head of this con- 
fpiracy, the Duke cf Aveiro, en- 
gaged in it, were the criminals, An- 
tony-Alvares Ferreira, formerly 
keeper of the wardrobe to the faid 
duke, and Jofeph Policarp de Aze- 
vedo, brother-in-law to the fame 
Antony Alvares. It being fully 
proved, that both the faid crimi- 
nals went feveral times on foot, and 
horfeback, in company of the faid 
duke, in order to become acquaint- 
ed with the carriage in which his 
majelly ufually rode ; that, for this 
purpofe, he ordered them to buy 


two horfes not known, which the 
criminal Antony-Alvares did; that 
he alfo ordered them to buy un- 
known arms, which t]\e aforefaid 
criminal, Antony-Alvares, did not 
buy ; he, together with his faid 
brother-in-law, making ufe of one 
blunderbufs of his own, of another 
which was borrowed, and of two 
pillols which he had borrowed 
from a foreigner, (under pretext of 
making tri^l of them.) That the 
premium, wiiich thefe two inoit fa- 
vage criminals received from the 
duke, was forty moidores ; fixteeri 
at one time, four ac another, and 
twenty at another : that immedi- 
ately after having difcharged the 
faid arms en the back of the car- 
riage, the faid x^ntony-Alvares, and 
his brother-in-law, retreated direft- 
ly to Liihon : and finally, that the 
criminal Antony-Alvares, going two 
days afterwards to the houfe of the 
duke, he reproaclied him greatly, 
faying : " That thofe iTiOt had beea 
of no fervice : and uttering (v.'ith. 
his linger on his mouth, and great 
fercnity) the following words, 
*' Hufii ! for the devil himfelf can 
know nothing cf the matter, if thou 
doll: not teli him ;" and charginc- 
him not to fell the horfes direct- 
ly, that he might not become fufr- 
pected. . . 

X. It further appears, that the 
eighth follower, whom the Duke 
de Aveiro drew into his confpira- 
cy, was Emanuel- Alvares Ferreira, 
who brought to the faid duke the 
cloaks and wigs with which he dif- 
guifed himfelf t!ie night cf the in- 
fult : who, till the tim.e of his beino- 
taken, concealed the knowledge he 
had of the whole tranfadion ; and 
who was the very perfon, that at 
the country-houfe of Azeitao, made 
the reliftance, by fnatching the 
P 4 iworci 



iword from the fide of the notary 
Lewis- Antony de Leiro, when he 
honourably and rcfolatcly tloppcd 
the Duke cf Aveiro, in the efcape 
he was attempting to make, 

Xr. It further appear^, that the 

the oppofitc fouthern extremity of 
the garden called de Cima, through 
which our Lord the King ufually 
returned home, when he ha J been 
abroad in a private manner, ;.s wa* 
the cafe the night of the moll hor- 

nintii follower was John Michael, rlble infult in queilion ; that if his 

attending page, and the grand con- majefty efcaped from the firll: way- 

fidcnt of the afv)refaid duke; this layings, he might not fail of being 

appearing, by the name o{ ]nhx}, deilroyed by t\\(; otliers which fuc- 

to have been, in the night of the ceeded them. 

third of StpteiT.her of the lall year, 
one of the aflbciates in the infult 
in quefiion : and his faid mailer 
afterwards declaring this very c.i- 
niinal, John Michael, to have 
been the very identic John, who 
was a/Tociated with him under the 

It further appears, that, by means 
of all the confederacies, aiibciations 

It further appears, that our faid 
lord having turned the corner of 
the faid northern extremity of the 
above-mentioned houfes belonging 
to the garden do Meyo, the ring- 
Iead<;r of the confpiracy, Jofcpti 
Mafcarcnhas, came forth imme- 
diately from the arch, which was 
in that place, and prefented againlt 
Collcdio da-Colta, the coachman 

and adillances, above rchearfed, ttie who drove his majefty, a blunder- 

aforcfaid three ringleaders of this bufs, which miSing, and warn- 

confpiracy, and thtir aifociates, ing the coachman with the fnap 

prepared and executed the moil and fparks from the flint, obliged 

horrid infult of the faid night uf him, without declaring to his ma- 

the third of Septeir.ber of laft year, jelly what he had fecn and heard, 

in manner following ; namely, to puih on the mules, fo as to avoi^ 

That after jofcph Mafcarenhas, the myrder which he aporehended. 

and Lady Eleanor of Tavora, had The mifcarriage of this liiii g was 

fettled a moil fordid gathering, to the frft of the apparent l iracle^, 

which the other aiTociates did alfo with which the Divine Ornnipo- 

coutrihute, towards making r.p the tence, in that moll fatal night, I'uc- 

coured all thefe realms, by the pre- 
fervation of the ineilimable life of 
his majefty ; it being impoffible he 
fiiould have efcaped, if, the coach- 
man falling dead with that infapious 

paultry fum of 192 miheis, which 
were the premium given to the 
two favige apd unnatural affalTms, 
Antony- A Ivares Ferreira, and jo- 
feph Policarp ; :;nd after, with ilie 

two infamous ^.r.d favage malefac- djfchargc, our faid lord had re- 

lors aforefaid, the aifociates in t];e m.ained a prey in the hands of thofc 

crime had compkated the number horrible moullers, who ftood arm- 

of eleven, they all polled them- ed, in fo many and fuch oeighbour- 

felves on horfeback, divided into ing anibuflies, againll his moll au- 

uiiferent parties, or ambufcads??, gail and precious life, 

within the little trail of ground It further appears, that on ac- 

■waich lies between the norihern count of the halty pace with which 

'extremity of the houfes belopging the ccachman endeavoured to favc 

tq the garget) called do Meyo, 'ar.d fcimfelf, the two moil fayage ma- 


For the YEAR 

iefaclors, Antony-Alvares, and Jo- 
feph Policarp, who were pofted in 
the ambufh, immediately follow- 
ing, could not take a fteady aim at 
the fpot againft which they (hould 
fire. Wherefore galloping after 
the faid carriage, they fired as fall as 
they pofliWy could upon the back 
.of the fame, the two facrilegious 
and execrable ftiot, which caufed 
in his majefty's mod auguft and 
mod facred perfon, thofemoft griev- 
ous and moft dangerous wounds 
and dilacerations ; which, from the 
right fhoulder along the arm and 
down to the elbow on the outfide, 
and alfo on the inner part of fhe 
fame, occafioned 3 confiderable lofs 
of fubftance, from the variety of 
the contufioni : fix of which went 
fo far as to offend the bread j a 
great number of flugs being ex- 
traded from them all. Whence on 
one hand is manifedly feen the cru- 
elty with which the ilugs were pre- 
ferred to bullets, in order by that 
means the more certainly to fecure 
the moft fatal purpofe of thatfavage 
and facrilegious infult : and, on 
the other, that this was the fe- 
cond of the miraculous works of 
the Divine Omnipotence in that 
mod unfortunate night, for the 
common benefit of thefe realms ; for 
it cannot be in the common order 
of events, nor can it be in any 
>vife afcribed to the cafualty of ac- 
cidental occurrences, that two charg- 
es of flugs, fired out of fuch pieces, 
fliould make their way through the 
narrow fpace of a carriage, with- 
out totally and abfolutely deftroy- 
ing the perfons who were in fuch 


It further appears, that this mi- 
raculous event was followed by a 
third, equal to it, or rather great- 
er. For our Lord God making 

1759. «i7 

ufe in that critical conjunfture of 
his majedy's heroic courage and 
unlhaken ferenity, to manifeft his 
prodigies to us ; his majedy not 
only bore thofe unexpeded and moft 
torturing mifchiefs, without utter-? 
ing a fingle word which indicated 
a complaint ; but took the won- 
derful refolution to order the car- 
riage to return back immediately 
from where he then was, to the 
houfe of the chief furgeon of th« 
kingdom ; where, not buffering his 
wounds to be uncovered till he had, 
^y the facrament of penance, firft 
returned thanks to the fupremeKing 
of kings for the prefervation of 
his life from fo great a danger, 
he fird confeffed at the feet of a 
minider of the gofpel, and then 
proceeded with the fame filence, fe- 
renity, and firmnefs, to fubmit to 
the painful operations neceffary to- 
wards a cure. By thefe means his 
majedy avoided the perils from the 
other favages, afTociates in the 
crime, which he could not have e- 
fcaped, had he continued the route 
he was accudomed to take in re- 
turning home to his palace. 

It further appears, that the afore- 
faid criminals affembled again the 
faid night, and indead of (hewing 
any fymptoms of remorfe, boaded 
of it one with another ; the criminal 
Jofeph Mafcarenhas, then Duke of 
Aveiro, beating on the dones the 
biunderbufs, which had miffed go- 
ing off, and faying in a paffion, 
thefe infernal words, <* Damnation 
feize thee ! when I want thee, 
thou art of no ufe to me." The 
criminal Francis-Affizes, expreffing 
feme doubt v/hether his majedy 
had perifhed ; the faid criminal 
Jofeph Mafcarenhas re-affuming the 
difcourfe faid, " No matter, if he 
i? nqt dead, he Ihall die." Anq^ 




ther of the affociatcs taking up 
thcfe words and replying, with the 
mod impious threat, " The point 
is, that if he do bat go abr>-^ad." 
And the other criminal Jofcph-Ma- 
ria of Tavora enquiring with great 
compofure after the aifociate John 
Michael, who was not as yet ar- 
xived. On the day immediately 
following, in a family meeting, in 
confequence of the fame inilexible 
obftinacy, favagc defpair, and de- 
plorable abandoning of all divine 
graces, they there perfilled, fome in 
reproaching theaffaffins Antony- Al- 
vares and Jofeph Policarp, for that 
they had not aimed their tires in fuch 
a manner, as to complete all the:r 
jnoft mifchievous intent ; others in 
boafting that they Ihould have ef- 
feftually completed the faid execra- 
ble intent, had our Lord the King 
paired by the ambuihes, where they 
themfelves were polled to way-lay 
him, inftead of turning bacii, as 
he did, by the defcent of Ajada to 

It further appears, that even if 
all the exuberant and conclufive 
proofs above rehearfed had _ really 
been wanting, the prcfumptions of 
the law, which condemns the ring- 
leaders and fuch others as his majef- 
ty Ihall be pleafed to permit, would 
amply fufhce : for whereas all pre- 
fumptions of the law are held 
for fo many every way uncontrol- 
able proofs, which difpenfe with 
the want of every other proof, and 
lay the perfon who has them againil 
jhim, under the incumbency of 
producing other contrary proofs of 
fuch llrength and efficacy, as may 
conclufivelv deitroy them : not one 
only, but many are the prcfump- 
tions in law, which the faid r:ng- 
kaders of this confpiracy, and 
principally the criminal Jofeph 

Mafcarenhas, heretofore Duke of 
Aveiro, and the perverted members 
of the fociety of Jefus, have againft 

It further appears, in confirma- 
tion of the above premifTes, that 
whereas the law prefumes that he 
who has been once bad, will be al- 
ways fuch in crimes of the fame 
fpecies with that he has already 
committed ; not one, but many 
have been the iniquities which 
thefe two ringleaders have medi- 
tated againil the auguft perfon and 
moft happy government of our Lord 
the King, by a feries of facts con- 
tinued from the very commence- 
ment of his majefty's moll happy 

it further appears, with regard 
to the faid jefuits, that finding 
themfelves, by his majefty's incom- 
parable penetration, deprived of 
that defpotifm in this court, with- 
out which they could by no means 
cover the ufarpations they had made 
in the Portugal dominions in Afri- 
ca, Afia, and America ; and much 
lefs palliate the open war, which 
they had kindled in the north 
and fou'.h of the Hates of Brazil; 
they devifed the moft deteftable in- 
trigues againft his majefty's high 
renown, and the public tranquil- 
lity, by various projects of an exe- 
crable nature, in order to excite 
feditions in the very heart of the 
court and kingdom, and to draw 
the fcourgeof war upon the fubjects 
thereof. From all which it fol- 
lows that the faid jefuits are thereby 
conftituted in the proper terms 
of the aforefaid rule and prefump- 
tion of the law ; and it would 
then fuffice, if all other proofs 
had failed, to convince our 
minds, that they were afterwards 
the perfons, who devifed the in- 

fult in qaellion 

prove, in a conclufive manner, that 
the criminals guiky thereof were 
other people. 

It further appears, in ftill fuller 
confirmation of all that has been 
faid, that at the jundure in which 
our Lord the King was difcon- 
certing all thofe wicked devices of 
the jefuits, by depofmg the royal 
penitentiaiies of that fraternity, 
and by forbidding to all the mem- 
bers thereof all accefs to the palace, 
it was feen on one hand, that in- 
ftead of being humble, fo far did 
they behave on the reverfe, that 
they openly and undifguifedly went 
on, increaling in arrogance and 
pride, publickly bragging, that the 
more the court threw them olF, fo 
much the more the nobility clung to 
them ; threatening the court with 
divine chaftifements, and fugge!!:- 
ing, till the very latter end of 
Augull, that his majefty's life 
would be fhort ; that the month of 
September would be the final period 
of it ; and Gabriel Ma'agrida 
writing to different perfons cf the 
court, the faid moft wretched prog- 
noftics, in tone of prophecies : on 
the ether hand, in contradiction 
of all this, it was feen, that when 
the criminals guilty of this horri- 
ble confpiracy were feized, the 
tone of the fraternity was faddenly 
changed ; and John Henriques, 
their provincir.1, writing to Rome, 
implores the fathers cf their order 
to lecom.mend them to God, for 
that all the community were in 
great afHidiion ; that the public 
involved them in the infult of Sep- 
tember 3d, and fentenced them to 
imprifonments, exiles, and a total 
expulhonfrom the court and king- 
dom ; that they were in the greateil 
^aits, in the utm,oil calamity; 

For the YEAR 1759.' ^^9 

till they fiiould full of dreads and frights, without 

any confolation, and v/ithout any 
hopes thereof. Sec. There refult- 
ing from thefe two contradidory 
extremes of writing, this plain de- 
monftration ; that, before the faid 
infult, they confided in the confpi- 
racy, which emboldened them to 
fpeak and write with fo much tem- 
poral haughtinefs, and with fo 
much fpiritual arrogance, and in a 
tone of fatal and facrilegious pro- 
phecy ; and that after thedifcovery, 
all that chimericatftrufture of pride 
and arrogance, necefTarily funk in- 
to that abjedl faintheartednefs, 
which is indifpenfibly annexed to 
the conviclion of guilt, and the 
want of means to cover and fupport 
the diiTimulation with which it was 

With regard to the other ring- 
leader, Don Jofeph Mafcarenhas, 
that he alfo would be found under 
the fame prefuraptions of the law, 
even had there been nothing more 
againlt him ; for it it notorious 
that from the time of the difeafe of 
our late Lord the King, Don John 
V. to the prefent, he was author 
of the innum.erable intrigues and 
cabals, with which he tilled the 
court of our Lord the King, in or- 
der to furprife his majeity, and 
obitrucl his refolutions, as well in 
the courts of judicature as in the 
cabinet, by means of the faction of 
his uncle F. Gafpar da Incarna- 
^ao, and of his own party, in luch 
manner as that neither truth might 
approach the prelence of our faid 
lord, nor any refolutions be taken, 
which were not obreptitious, fab- 
reptitious, and founded on falfe 
and captious informations. And 
as to the prefumption that he was 
the perfon who committed the ex- 
ecrable infult in queftion, it will 




fufRcc to refleft that both before 
and after it, he acled the very fame 
part, which was aded by thejefuits; 
his pride and arrogance before it 
were generally fcandalous, but after 
it had failed of producing the hor- 
rible cfFedl, all that pride and ar- 
rogance funk into confufion and 
dread, fhanning the court, and re- 
tiring to his country-feat at Azeitao, 
where he was feized, after attempt- 
ing to fave himfelf, firft by flight, 
and then by an ill-judged refin- 

With regard to Lady Eleanor of 
Tavora, heretofore marchionefs of 
that title, the third ringleader, it 
is notorious, that her diabolical 
fpirit of pride and infatiable am- 
bition, was fufficient to excite her 
to the greateil infuits. Inftigated 
by thofe blind and ardent paflions 
ihe had the boldnefs (along with 
her hu{band) to offer a remonftrance 
to oar Lord the King, for him to 
be made a duke, notwithllanding 
his infignificant fervices had been 
fully requited with the promotions 
he had obtained in India ; and that 
there were no precedents in the 
chanceries of the realm, of any 
perfon of his poll being promoted 
to that title ; yet both the faid 
criminals, without confideration or 
fhame, were inllantly perfecuting 
the fecretary of ftate for domeftic 
affairs for that promotion ; info- 
much, that in order to check thofe 
importunities, it became necelTary 
to make them comprehend in a po- 
lite and decent manner, that their 
pretention had no precedent to 
iupport it : this proved ih^ founda- 
tion of that paffion, with which 
the iaid marchionefs v/ent a;id re- 
conciled herfelf with the Dake of 
Aveiro, in order to obtain by his 
^voijr, with the roin of his majefty 

and the monarchy, that ducal title, 
which her vehement ambition had 
inflamed her with. However, all 
that pride, ambition and haughti- 
nefs, which fhe had exerted till the 
fatal epoch of the execrable infult 
of the third of September laft, did 
after the faid infult, fall fpiritlefs in- 
to manifell confufion and difmay. 

All which confidered, and the 
reft contained in the procefs, this 
tribunal, to the end that it may 
proportion the penalties deferved 
by thefe infamous and facrilegious 
criminals as much as poflible to 
their execrable and moft fcandalouj 
crimes : 

*' They condemn the criminal 
Jofeph Mafcarenhas (who is alrea- 
dy unnaturalized, diverted of the 
honours and privileges of a Portu- 
guefe, and of thofe of a vafTal and 
fervant ; degraded of the order of 
St. Jago, of which he was a com- 
mendatory ; and refigned up to this 
tribunal and to the lay juitice, 
which is therein adminiftredj to the 
punifliment, that he, as one of the 
three heads, or chief ringleaders of 
this infamous confpiracy, and of 
the abominable infult which refult' 
ed from it, be conveyed, with a 
halter about his neck, and procla- 
mation of his crimes, to the fquare 
upon the quay of the town of Be- 
lem ; and that there, upon a high 
fcaffold, which (hall be fufficiently 
elevated for his punifhment to be 
vifible to the whole people, whom 
the fcandal of his moft horrible 
crime has offended, after he has 
been broken alive, by the frafture 
of the eight bones of his legs and 
arms, he be expofed on a wheel, 
for the fatlsfadlion of the prefent 
and future vaffals of this realm ; 
and that, after this execution being 
done, the fame criminal be burnt 

alive, with the faid fcafFold on 
\Vhich he was executed, till all be 
Induced by fire into afhes and pow- 
der, which fhall be thrown into the 
fea, that there may be na more no- 
tice taken of him or his memo- 
ry : and though, as a criminal 
guilty of the abominable crimes of 
rebellion, fedition, high-treafon, 
and parricide, he be already con- 
demned by the tribunal of military 
orders, to the confifcatiori and for- 
feiture of all his real and perfonal 
eftate to the ufc of the crown, as 
has beeti praftifed in thefe cafes, 
wherein the crime of high-trcafon 
of the firft rate has been commit^ 
ted : neverthelefs, confidering this 
as having been a cafe fo unexpect- 
ed, fo unufual, and fo extravagant- 
ly horrible and unthought of by 
the laws, that not even they have 
provided for, nor can there be 
found therein a punifhment pro- 
portionable to its exorbitant foul- 
refs ; therefore from this motive 
our faid lord was entreated in the 
confultation of this court, and his 
majefty was pleafed, in conformity 
to its requeft, to grant it the ample 
jurifdidion to eftablifh all the pu- 
niihments, which fhould be fettled 
by a plurality of votes, over and 
above thofe, which by the laws, 
and the difpofitions of law are al- 
ready cilablifhed : and confidering 
that the punifhment, the moft con- 
formable to equity, is that of eraf- 
ing and obliterating, by every 
means, every memorial of the 
name and remembrance of fuch 
enormous criminals ; they alfo con- 
demn the fame criminal, not only 
in the penalties of the common 
law, that his arms and atchieve- 
ments, where - ever placed, be 
pulled down, and rent in pieces ; 
and chat the houfes, and materiul 

For the YEAR 1759.' 22t 

edifices of his abode be demo- 

li(hed, and erafed in fuch foft, that 
there may not a fign of them re- 
main, being reduced to a wild, 
and covered with fait ; but aifo, 
that all effeftive houfes or eftates b/ 
him enjoyed, in thofe parts there- 
of, which have been eftablifhed ia 
properties of the crown, or have 
iffued from thence, be connfcated, 
and from this time forward for- 
feited, with effedual reverfion, 
and reincorporation in the faid 
crown, from whence they derived, 

&c. The fame they order to 

be obferved, with refpeft to the 
copyholds of any kind whatever, 
with the provifo eftablifhed, con- 
cerning the fale thereof in benefit 
of the lords of the manors. With 
regard to the other entailed eftates, 
fettled with the patrimony of the 
entailers, they declare, that the 
ftatutes are to be obferved, in be- 
nefit of thofe, who ought to fuc- 
ceed to them." 

They condemn to the fame pains 
the criminal Francis-Aflizes ofTa- 
vora, and ordain, that no perfons 
whatever fhall ufe the furname of 
Tavora, on pain of confifcation and 

They condemn the two favage 
monfters Antonio-AIvares Ferreira 
and Jofeph Policarp, who fired the 
two facrilegious fhot, to be convey- 
ed with halters about their necks to 
the great fquare ; and that being 
there exalted on two pofts, fire be 
fet to them, which fhall confume 
them alive, till their bodies be 
reduced to afhes and powder, 
which fiiall be thrown into the 
fea, their dwelling-houfes erafed, 
and their names blotted out. But 
the criminal Jofeph Policarp having 
abfcondeH, a power is given to 
any body to fcize and kill him, 




and a reward of 10,000 crufados 
is oiFercd for bringing him dead or 
alive before the fenator of the pa- 
lace ; or 20,000 if taken in a 
foreign country. 

They condemn the criminals 
Lewis-Bernard of Tavora, Don 
Jerome of Ataide, Jofeph-Maria of 
Tavora, Blaize - Jofeph Romeiro, 
John Michael, and Emanuel-Al- 
vares, to be conveyed to the fame 
place of execution, with halters 
about their necks, to be firft 
Itrangled, and afterwards to have 
the eight bones of their legs and 
arms broken, and then their bodies 
to be reduced by fire into powder, 
and thrown into the fea, &:c. with 
confifcation and forfeiture of goods. 
Sec. to the ufe of the crown, de- 
molition, erazement, and faking 
of their dwelling-houfes, and pull- 
ing down and defacement of arms 
and atchievements. 

And the criminal, Lady Eleanor 
of Tavora, for certain jull confide- 
rations, they condemn only to be 
conveyed to the fame place of exe- 
cution, whh. a halter about her 
reck, and there to be beheaded, 
her body reduced to powder by 
fire, and thrown alfo into the fea, 
&c. with extindlion of memory, 
and all other connfcations. 

Ohfervations on the fentence pronounced 
upon the conjpirators againjl the 
life of the King of Fortugal. By 
Willi a7n Shirley, late of .LiJLon, 

MR. Shirley's principal obj.;c- 
tion againlt the pamphlet on 
which he animadverts is, that it 
does not exhibit the evidence by 

which the fafls alledgcd In It were 
proved ; that the letters faid to 
have been written by the jefuits, 
are not made public ; and that the 
criminals were proceeded againft 
with more fevcrity, than thofe who 
attempted to alfaflinate a former 
King of Portugal, tho' their crime 
was attended with many aggrava- 
tions, from which the crime of 
thefe is free. The four lords who 
were executed for a confpiracy 
againft John IV. in 1641, were 
conveyed to a great fquare in the 
city, called the Rocio, the preced- 
ing night, and lodged in feparate 
apartments of the fame houfe. On 
the next morning they were con- 
duced fi-om the firft floor of the 
houfe by a paffage which had been 
built on purpofe, up to a fcaffold, 
whereon there were placed four arm- 
ed chairs in which they were exe- 
cuted, with an cbfervance of rank 
in their fituations ; Don Agoftinho 
IVIanoel's being placed on the floor 
of the fcaffold J the Conde de Arma- 
mar's on an elevation of one ftep ; 
that of the Marquis of Villareal on 
one of two fteps ; and that of the 
Dukeof Caminha on one of three j 
v.'hile all the meaner confpirators 
were hanged on a higher gallows 
than ordinary, and afterwards quar- 
tered. Thus far were the proceedings 
againft thofe offenders without any 
levelling of diftinftion. The noble- 
men had no halters put about their 
necks, nor were condemned to any 
fuch ignominy. When they went 
feparately out, each had his thumbs 
tied together with a black ribbon, 
and was accompanied by judges, 
juftices, gentlemen, and his own 
I'crvants, with Portugal king at 
arms, in his habit, to make the 
publication of offences ; and they 
were afterwards buried in facred 

For the YEAR 1759: 

ground. Nay, with fuch humanity 
does a cotemporary court writer 
treat of their fufFering, that he men- 
tions, with deteftation, a barbarity 
of the rabble's towards the Marquis 
of Villareal in the following words : 
*' The executioner, who with his 
face covered performed the execu- 
tion, bound him by the arms and 
legs to the chair in which he was 
feated. In this horrid fituation, he 
fent to aflc of the people, who in 
great numbers were afTembled in the 
Rocio, their pardon for the ofreiice 
he had committed againft the king- 
dom. But that blind and outrageous 
monfter imagined the pardon he 
afked was, that he might live, and 
with high fury repeated three times. 
Die. An outrage that greatly af- 
fefted the fpirits of thofe who were 
lefs inconliderate." Such was the 
decorum of high judicial proceed- 
ings in thofe days ; fuch were the 
regards paid to rank in the v/orli 
of offenders ; and fuch the delicacy 
of reprcfentation of the matter by 
a court author ; in all points far 
differing from what we have lately 
feen and heard of from the fame 

Mr. Shirley, upon this occafion, 
relates a barbarous execution made 
by Peter the firft, furnamed the 
Cruel, in the year 1357. Peter had 
married in his father's life-time, and 
was become a widower with but one 
fon ; and having had an intrigue 
with Donna Agnes de Caftro, a lady 
of diflinftion, his pafTion for her 
became fo violent that he was mar- 
ried to her in fecret. His father, 
Alfonfo IV. who had no other fon 
living, nor any collateral heirs to 
his crown, kncvving of Peter's 
amour, but not of his marriage, was 
extremely defirous of efpoufing him 
to another ; but finding his Ion's 


attachment to a fuppofed mlfirefs 
unalterable, he at lad employed 
three of his courtiers to make away 
with her. This they did, unhap- 
pily for themfelves ; for Peter fooa 
after fucceeded to the throne, whea 
they, fearing his indignation, fied 
the kingdom. But his wrath was 
fo implacable, that he was deter- 
mined on revenge, and accordingly 
agreed with Peter the Cruel of 
Caftile, to give up fome offenders *o 
him, who had taken iheker in Por- 
tugal, for Pedro Coelbo and Alvaro 
Gonfalves, two of the afTaiuns : 
as for Deogo Lopez, the third, he 
fortunately got a fecurer fanfcuary. 
When he had thofe two men in his 
power, he ordered their hearts to 
be torn out alive, and their bodies 
to be burned, v/hich was accord- 
ingly executed in hisprefence. This, 
however, Mr. Shirley obferves, ap- 
pears to have been no condemna- 
tion of the law, but the arbitrary 
a6l of an inilamed tyrannical fpirit, 
as may be judged from the frantic 
extravagance of aJtcilion that ap- 
peared in every thing he did con- 
cerning that lady, whofe body he 
caufed to be taken from the grav^e, 
had it folemnly crowned, obliging 
the fcates of the kingdom to kifs her 
hand, in token of their acknow- 
ledging her for queen, and then 
buried her at the royal convent of 
Alcobaca, with every circumflance 
of regal pomp, declaring her to 
have been legally his wife ; and 
fome of the children he had by her 
he moreover caufed to be acknow- 
ledged for legitimate princes. 

There is in this pamphlet ano- 
ther remarkable relation, which we 
extradt with great pleafure, not only 
becaufe it produces a lively fenfe 
of the privilege of Eriiiifh fubjeds, 
but becaufe it is a flriking proof, 



AnKual register 

that the cruelty praftifed in other 
countries is inelfedual for the pur- 
pofes it is intended to anfwer. 

A confcientious judge having ob- 
ferved the efteft of the rack on 
fuppofed criminals, in making them 
ready to cOnfefs any thing, to the 
facrificing of their lives, in order 
to get releafed from the torture, 
felt in his own mind fome ftrong 
fenfations on the convidiicn of ac- 
cufed perfons by fuch methods; in- 
fomuch that, from fomething which 
had happened in a particular cafe, 
his concern was fo great as to de- 
termine him upon trying an expe- 

It is a capital crime in that coun- 
try to kill a horfe or mule, and he 
happened to have one of the former 
fpecies which he very much edeem- 
ed. In profecuting of his fcheme, 
he took care cne night to keep all 
his fervants employed, fo that no 
one but the groom could go into 
the liable. But, when all were af- 
terwards faft afleep in their beds, 
he ftole thither himfelf, and cut 
oiF the tail of his horfe, by which 
wound the creature bled to death. 
Great confufion, it may be fup- 
pofed, followed the difcovery of the 
mifchief on the fucceeding morn- 
ing, when the mafter, upon being 
informed of what had happened, 
appeared highly incenfed. Stridl 
enquiries being made about the 
perfon who could have committed 
the crime, the other fervants all 
found means eafily for the juftifving 
of their own innocence ; fo that the 
whole of the imputation of courfe 
relied on the groom, who was there- 
upon apprehended and committed 
to prifon. The poor fellow upon 
his arraignment, it may bt fiip- 
pofed, pleaded not guilty ; but the 
prefumptions being very llrong 

againft him, he was ordered to the 
rack, where the extremity of tor- 
ture foon wrung fromi him a Con- 
feffion of the crime, he chaofing to 
fubmit to death, rather than endure 
the mifcry he was undergoing. 
iJpon this confeflion he had fen- 
tence of hanging paffed upon him, 
when his mailer (who from having 
been profecator, could not of courfe 
be one of his jtidges) went to the 
tribunal, and there 6xpofed the 
fallibility of confeffions obtained by 
fuch means, by owning the fadt 
himfelf, and difclofmg the motives 
thit had inflaertced his making the 
experiment: fince which time the 
praftice has been difcontinued of 
applying the torture in any cafes 
that are determined in their public 

Travjlation of an intercepted letter 
from M, Lallyy to M. de Lcyrit. 

From the camp Before Madrafs, the 
I ^th of February, 1759. 

A Good blow might be Aruck 
here : there is a fhip in 
the road, of 20 guns, laden with 
all the riches of Madrafs, which it 
is faid will remain there till the 
20th. The expedition is juil ar- 
rived, but M. (jorlin is not a maa 
to attack her : for fhe has made 
him run away once before. The 
Briilol, on the other hand, did but 
jull make her appearance before St. 
Thomas ; and on the vague report 
of 1 3 fhips coming from Porto 
Novo, fhe took fright ; and after 
landing the provinons with which 
fhe was laden, fhe would not ftay 
long enough, even to take on board 


For the YEAR 1759: 

twelve of her own guns, which fhe 
had lent out for the fiege. 

If I was the jadge of the point 
of honour of the company's officers, 
I would break him like glafs, as well 
as fome others of them. 

The Fidelle, or the Harlem, or 
even the aforefaid Briltol, with her 
twelve guns reltored to her, would 
be fufficient to make themfelves 
mailers of the Englilh fhip, if they 
could manage fo as to get to wind- 
ward of her in the night. Maugen- 
dre and Tremillier are faid to be 
good men ; and were they employ- 
ed only to tranfport 200 wounded 
men, that we have here, their ler- 
vice would be of importance. 

We remain ftill in the fame po- 
fnion ; the breach made thefe 15 
days; all the time within 15 toifes 
of the wall of the place, and ne- 
ver holding up our heads to look 
at it. 

I reckon we ihall, at our arrival 
at Pondicherry, endeavour to learn 
fome other trade ; for this of war 
requires too much patience. 

Of 1500 Cipayes which attended 
our army, I reckon near 800 are 
employed upon the road to Pondi- 
cherry, laden with fugars, pepper, 
and other goods ; and as for the 
Coulis, they are all employed for 
the fame purpole, from the lirfl: day 
we came here. 

I sm taking my meafures from 
this day, to fet fire to the Black- 
town, and to blow up the powder 

You will never imagine, that 50 
French deferters, and 100 Swifs, 
are adlually llopping the pregrefs 
of 2000 men of the King's and 
company's troops, which are iHll 
here exilting, notwithilandmg the 

Vol. ir. 


exaggerated accounts that GvtTy 
one makes here, according to his 
own fancy, of the flaughter that 
has been made of them ; and you 
will be ftill more furprized, if I tell 
you that, were it not for the two 
combats and four battles we fuf- 
tained, and for the batteries which 
failed, or, fpeaking more properly, 
which were unfkilfully made, we 
fhould not have loft 50 men, from 
the commencement of the fiege ta 
this day. 

I have wrote to M. de Larche, 
that if he perfift in not coming here, 
let who will raife money upon the 
Paleagers for me, I will not do it ; 
and I renounce (as I informed you 
a month ago I would do) meddling, 
directly or indiredly, with any thing 
whatever, that may have relation 
to your adminiftration, whether ci- 
vil or military. For I had rather 
go, and command the CaiFres of 
Madagafcar, than remain in this 
Sodom ; which it is impollible but 
the fire of the Englifh muft deftroy, 
fooner or later, even though that 
from heaven fhould not. 

I have the honour to be, &c. Sec. 
Signed. _ LALLY." 

P. S. I think it necefTary to ap- 
prize you, that, as M. de Soupire 
has refufed to take upon him the 
command of this army, which I 
have offered to him, and which he 
is impo'.vered to accept, by having 
received from the court a duplicate 
of my commifTion, you muft of ne- 
ceffity, together with the council, 
take it upon you. For my part, I 
undertake only to bring it back, 
either to Arcotte, or Sadralte. Send 
therefore your orders, or come your- 
felves, to command it ; for I fhall 
quit it upon my arrival there. 





Ariides of capitulation hetiueen their 
Excellencies the hon. Major General 
Barringtony and John Moore, Ejq; 
commanders in chief of his Britan- 
nic Mc'jejly^s land and fea forces in 
thifc Jeai, and M. Nadau Dutreily 
go-jernor for his mofl chrijiian ma- 
jejl\, of Guadaloupe, Grande Terre, 
Defeada, and the Saintes. 

Article I. 

W" E, the governor, ftafF and 
other officers of the regular 
troops, Ihall march out of our polls, 
with one mortar, two field-pieces 
of brafs cannon, with ten rounds 
for each piece, arms, baggage, and 
the honours of war. — Granted, ex- 
cept the mortar ; and as to the can- 
non, we will allow only four rounds 
for each piece ; and on condition 
that the troops of his Britannic 
majefty (hall take pofiTeffion of the 
different polls at the three rivers, 
and the hoi'pital, to-morrow morn- 
ing the fecond of May, at eight 
o'clock; and that all magazines 
of provifions, ammunition, and 
implements of war, as well as all 
papers relating to the revenue, be 
delivered into the pofTeffion of a 
ccmmiflary to be named by us for 
that purpofe, 

II. That we Ihall be fent to Mar- 
tlnico, in a good vefTel, well pro- 
vided, and by the fnorteft paffage. 
— ^Granted. 

III. That the commiflary-gene- 
ral, officers of juiUcc, admiralty, 
and all fuch as have the King's 
commiffion, Ihrdl likewiie be fent 
to Martinico in a good veflel, and 
ivell provided, and by the fhorteft 
paffage. — Granted only for the 
CDxniniffary -general, and to thi of- 


ficers of the admiralty, and refufed 
to the other. 

IV. That the ftafF and other of- 
ficers Ihall have leave to take with 
them their wives and children to 
Martinico ; and fliall have a good 
velTel well provided to carry them 
by the (horteft paffage. — Granted, 

V. That the llaff and other of- 
ficers fhall have the fame number 
of fervants granted them as were 
allowed bv the raoft chriftian King, 
viz. To the governor 24 ; to the 
commiffary-general 24 ; to the lieu- 
tenant-governor 18 ; to the fort- 
major 15; to the captains 12 
each ; to the lieutenants eight 
each ; and to the enfigns fix each. 
— Granted. 

VI. That it fhall be allowed to 
all the officers who have efiates in 
this colony (except me the gover- 
nor, unleis the King permits me 
alfo) to appoint attornies to aft for 
them until the peace; and if the 
ifland is not then ceded, the above- 
mentioned officers fliall have leave 
to fell their eftates, and carry ofr 
the produce. — Granted. 

VII. That a good veffel fhall be 
allowed to the lady of M. Duclieu, 
lieutenant-governor-general of the 
iflands, and captain of one of the 
King's fhip's, to carry her to Mar- 
tinico, with her equipage, furni- 
ture, and plate, and iervants fuit- 
able to her rank ; and alfo to the 
governor's lady, and the wives and 
widows of the llaff officers of this 
ifland. — Granted : one veffel for all 
the ladies. 

VIII. That M. de Folleville, 
lieutenant-governor of Martinico, 
fhall have a good veffel to carry 
him and his volunteers thither, 
by the fhorteft paffage, with only 


For the' Y E 

fuch arms, baggage, and fervants, 
as they brought with them. — 

IX. That the Sieur Avril of Do- 
minico and his detachment, fliall 
be fent thither with their arms and 
baggage. — Granted. 

X. That the prifoners, foldiers, 
and failors, Ihall be mutually ex- 
changed. — Granted. 

XI. That all the negroes who 
were enlifted and continued till the 
laft day of the attack, in the com- 
panies of Bologne, Petit, Dumo- 
lier, and Ruby, agreeable to the 

■lift that will be given in of them, 
fhall have their freedom at the ex- 
pence of the colony, as by agree- 
ment. — Granted, upon condition 
that they are immediately fent out 
of the illand. 

XII. That the men belonging to 
the privateers, who defire to go to 
Maninico, ihall have a vefTel to car- 
ry them thither. — Granted. 

XIII. That there Ihall be a rea- 
fonable time allowed for removing 
the furniture, eifefts, and cloaths 
that are in the reduit, or other 
places, belonging to the perfons 
who are to be fent to Maninico ; 
and that his excellency General 
Barrington fhall grant his proteftion 
for the fafe conveyance of the above- 
mentioned effefts to the place of 
embarkation. — Granted. 

XIV. That there fhall be an hof- 
pital fhip provided for the wound- 
ed and fick that are in a condition 
to be removed ; and the reft fhall 
be taken care of, and fent with a 
flag of truce to Pv/Iartinico, as foon 
as they are recovered. — Granted. 
Thofe that remain here fhall be 
taken care of, at the expence of his 
moft chrilf ian majefty. 

XV. That the fubjedls formerly 
belonging to the Xing of Great 

AR 1759. 2^7 

Britain, who for crimes were forced 
to fly their count.'-y, and have car- 
ried arms in this ifland, fhall be 
pardoned, and allowed to remain 
in the ifland as inhabitants. — They 
muft go out of the ifland. 

XVI. That the fame honours 
and conditions fhall be granted to 
the King's troops in the Grande 
Terre, as are given to thofe in. 
Guadeloupe. I'hey fhall have nei- 
ther mortar nor cannon. 

XVII. That the troops at the 
head of the reduit, as well as thofe 
at the three rivers, fhall march to 
the poft of the camp oe la Garde, 
and remain there until the day of 
embarkation. — 

The tranfport fliips fhall be at 
the great bay to-morrovv morning, 
to receive thS trcops of the garri- 
fon, the privateers men, and thofe 
who are to pafs to Martinico. 

Joh/i Moore. J. Barrington. 

Nadau Dutreil. 

Articles of capitulation betijcecn their 
Excellencies the hon. Major Gene- 
ral Barrington, and John Moore ^ 
Ejq% comtnunders in chief of his 
Britannic majefly''s land and fea 

forces in thofe feas, and the inhabi- 
tants of the if and of Guadalcupe, 
reprefented by Mefrs. Debonrg, De 
Clain'-vitlierSy and Duqucriiy, by 
liirtue of full pov:ers to them given 

for that purpofe, and' authorijed by 
Monfcur Dutreil, Knight of the 
noble military order of St. Louis ^ 

gouernor of the if and. 

Article I. 

TH E inhabitants fhall march 
out of their pofts, v/ith all 
the honours of war, viz. with two 
field-pieces, their arms, colours fiy- 
0.2 ing. 



ing, drums beating, and lighted 
match. — Granted^ in confideration 
of the brave defence which the in- 
habitants have made, during an 
attack of three months, upon con- 
dition that they lay down their arms, 
fo icon as they have marched by 
our troops ; and that all the forts, 
polls, batteries, cannon, mortars, 
firelofks, and bayonets, with all of ammunition, and imple- 
ments of war, be delivered to a 
commiflhry to be named by us ; 
and that we (ball have a of 
fixing garrifons in all iuch places, 
as v\c- ihall think proper. 

II. The inhabitants oftheiflands 
of Martinico, Mangalante, and Do- 
in inico, who came to the afliftance 
of this iiland, fliall have leave to 
retire, with their arms and baggage, 
and a (hip (ball be provided to 
carry them and the fervants they 
brought with them, to their refpec- 
tive iilands, with proviiion for their 
paffage. — Granted, excepting thcfe 
from Marigalante, who fhall be 
fent to Martinico. 

III. The inhabitants (hall be al- 
lowed the free and public exercife 
of their religion ; the priefts and 
religious (ball be preferved in 
their parifhes, convents, and all 
other pofleflions ; and the fuperiors 
of the feveral orders (ball be per- 
mitted to (end for fuch as they 
think neceffary, from France, and 
the neighbouring ifiands; but all 
letters wrote upon this occafion fliall 
be tranfmitted by the governor ap- 
pointed by his Britannic majefty. 
— Granted, 

IV. They fiiall obferve a flridl 
neutrality, and not be forced to take 
up arms againft his moft Chriftian 
majefty, or againll any other power. 
— Granted, on condition that they 
take an oath within a month, or 


iooner, if po(rible, to maintain all 
the claufes of the capitulation, a« 
well as to remain exadlly faithful 
and neuter. 

V. They fhall be allowed their 
civil government, their laws, cuf- 
toms, and ordinances ; juftice fhall 
be adminiltered by the fame per- 
fons who arc now in ofHce ; and 
what relates to the interior police 
of the ifland (hall be fettled between 
his Britannic majelty's governor and 
the inhabitants. And in cafe this 
ifland fhall be ceded to the King 
of Great Britain, at the peace, the 
inhabitants (hall have their choice, 
either to keep their own political 
government, or to accept that which 
is eflabliflied at Antigua and St. 
Chriilopher's. — Granted; but when 
any vacancies happen in the feats 
of juftice, the fuperior council of the 
ifland is to name proper perfons to 
fill up thofe vacancies, who muft 
receive their commiffions from his 
Britannic majefty ; and all afls of 
juftice whatfoever, are to be in his 
name. But in regard to any change 
in the political government, we 
grant it, if agreeable to his majefty's 

VI. The inhabitants, as well at 
the religious orders, (hall be main- 
tained in the property and enjoy- 
ment of their pofre(rions, goods 
moveable and immoveable, noble 
and ignoble, of what nature fo- 
ever they be ; and (hall be preferved 
in their privileges, rights, honours, 
and exemptions : and the free ne- 
groes and mulattoes in their liberty. 
— Granted, 

VII. They fliall pay no other 
duties to his Britannic majefty, but 
fuch as they have hitherto paid to 
his moft chriftian majefty, without 
any charge or impofts ; the ex- 
p^nces attending the adminiftration 



For the YEAR 1759. 229 

of juftlce, the penuons to curates, be educated in France, and to fend 
and other cuftomary charges, fhall for them back; and to make re- 

be paid out of the revenue of his 
Britannic majefty, in the fame man- 
ner as under the government of his 
moft chrillian majefty. — Granted ; 
but if this ifland is ceded to his 

mittances to them whilil there- 

XIV. Theabfentinhabitants, and 
fuch as are in the fervice of his melt 
Chrillian majerty, fhall be maintain- 

Britannic majefty at the peace, it ed in the enjoyment and property of 

fhall be fubjeft to the fame duties their eflates, which fhall be managed 

and imports as the other Englifh for them by attornies. — Granted. 

Leeward iflands the mofl: favoured. XV. The wives of ofncers and 

VIII. All prifoners taken during others, who are out of the ifland, 

the attack of this ifland, fnall be fiiall have leave to retire with their 

mutually exchanged. — Granted. 

IX. The free mulattoes and ne- 
groes, who have been taken, fhall 
be confidered as prifoners of war, 
and not treated as flaves. — Granted. 

X. The fubjefls of Great Britain, 

elFeds, and a number of fervants, 
fui table to their rank. — Granted. 

XVI. The Englifh government 
fhall procure for the inhabitants an 
exportation for fuch commodities as 
the ifland produces, and are not 

whd have taken refuge in this ifland, permitted to be imported into Eng- 
whether criminals or debtors, fhall land. — Granted; as the ifland pro- 
have leave to retire. — ^Granted. duces nothing but what may be im- 

XI. No other but the inhabitants ported into England, 
aflually refiding in this iiland fhall XVII. The inhabitants Ihall not 

pofTefs any lands or houfes, by pur- be obliged to furnifh quarters for 

chafe, grant, or otherwife, before a the troops, nor flaves to work on the 

peace; but if at a peace this ifiand fortifications. — Granted ; but bar- 

ihould be ceded to the King of racks will be provided as foon as 

Great-Britain, then fuch of the in- pofCble, for the lodgment of the 

habitants as do not chufe to live 
under the Englifh government, fhall 
be permitted to fell their poflelTions, 
moveable and immoveable, to whom 
they will, and retire wherever they 

troops ; and fuch negroes, who 
fhall be employed, with the confenc 
of their makers, in public works, 
fhall be paid for their labour. 

XVIII. The widows, and other 

pleafe ; for which purpofe there inhabitants, who through illnefs, 
fhall be a reafonable time allowed, abfence, or any other impediment, 
— Granted ; but fuch of the inha- cannot immediately fign the capi- 
bitants as chufe to retire, fhall have tulation, fhall have alimited time al- 
leave to fell to none but fubjefts of lowed them to accede to it. — Grant- 
Great-Britain, ed; but all the inhabitants who chufe 
XII. In cafe there fhould be any to partake of the advantage of the 
exchange at the peace, their Bri- capitulation, fhall be obliged to fign 

tannic and moll ChriHian majellies 
are defired to give the preference to 
this ifland.— This will depend on 
his majefty's pleafure. 

XIII. The inhabitants fhall have 

it within a month from the date 
hereof, or to quit the ifland. 

XIX. The men belonging to the 
privateers, and others who have no 
property in the ifland, and are de- 

free liberty to fend their children to firous to leave it, fnall have vefTels 



to carry them to Martinico, or to 
Dominito, (at their option) • and 
fhall be furnilhed with provifions 
for the pallage. Neverthelefs thoie 
perfcns who have any debts wi:h 
the inhabitants of the ifland, fiiall 
be obliged to fettle their accounts 
with them beh^re they leave the 
ifland. —Granted. 

XX. The inhiibitants fhall have 
leave to give freedom to fuch ne- 
groes as rhey have promiied it to, 
for the defence of this ifland. — 
Granted, on confideration they are 
immediately fent oft" the ifland. 

XXI. The inhabitants and mer- 
chants of this ifland, included in the 
prefent capitulation, fliall enjoy all 
the privileges of trade, and upon the 
fame conditions as are granted to his 
Britannic majefty's fubjefts through- 
out the extent of his dominions. — 
Granted, but without affedling the 
privileges of particular companies 
eftablilhed in England, or the laws 
of the kingdom, which prohibit the 
carrying on the trade in any other 
than Englifli bottoms. 

XXII. The deputies of the Grand 
Terre, not having a fufficient power 
to fign the capitulation, though the 
colony adheres to the conditions of 
it, under, the auchcrity of M. Na- 
dau, may fign it when they have 
their full powers, and they will be 
comprehended in all the claufes. 
— Granted. 

Given at the head quarters in the 
Capellerre Guadatoupe, the ilt day 
of May, 17)9. 
y. Barring. 'ij.^. Moors. 
^cJitu Dutreil, D. c/e Chun-ojUiers. 

THE Dutch having complain-' 
ed of fiefli piracies commit- 
ted on their laips, and even pretend- 

ed that they had in their power one 
of the robbers, who they however 
releafed, although the Lords of the 
Adniiralry offer five hundred pounds 
reward for an evidence of the fact ; 
the Earl of Holdernefs wrote the 
following letter to M. Hop, the 
Dutch rtrfident at Lo;idon, on re- 
ceiving a complaint of this fort. 

" Sir, the letter which you have 
been pieafed to write to me, a few 
days lince, gave me the firfl advice 
of a piracy committed by an Englifli 
fhip. I immediately gave notice 
thereof to the Admiralty. By the 
following pf ft, I received from Mr. 
Yorke, a circumflantial account of 
that affair, and faw with great regret 
that they had releafed in Holland 
the Rnglifh feam.en whom they had 
in cuftody, inflead of fending him 
prifoner to England. I am perfuad- 
ed. Sir, that you do juftice to the 
fentiments of the King and of his 
miniftry, and that you muft be fen- 
fible how much they ardently wifh 
to punifii rigoroufly thofe who are 
found guilty of crimes, like unto 
that in queftion : but, at the fame 
time, YOU cannot be ignorant, that 
the funQanr;ental bafis of our liberty 
is, that no perfon can be tried in 
a criminal cafe without witneflbs. 
Therefore it appears aflonifhing, 
that fuch as have caufe to complain 
of having been ill-treated in this 
manner, fhould not proceed form- 
ally, and in a due courfe of juflice, 
againfi ihofe from whom they re- 
ceived the damage ; and the more 
fo, as the Admiralty has ofrbred, 
long fincc, a reward of 500I, ller- 
ling, to Vvliomfoever fii^ll give in- 
forniation of, ;.nd prove an cdt of 
piracy. You know, Sir, that no 
magiftrate can ifTue a warrant for 
the apprehending of any perfon ac- 
cufco, witliout taking depofitions ; 


For the Y 

and that, confequently, the Admi- 
ralty cannot enter an aftion upon a 
iimple reprefentation. 

This, Sir, is all I can fay at pre- 
fent, in anfwer to your letter. I 
cannot, neverthelefs, difpenfe with 
adding, that if it be true, that fuch 
kind of exceffes have been frequer.t, 
you cannot render a more acceptible 
fervice to the King, than by ena- 
bling him to fupprefs thefe robbe- 
ries, met-hodically, and according 
to the laws of the country. Sec. 

Trdvjiaticn of the fpecch made to the 
King by the Dutch deputies^ on de- 
li-vering their credentials. 

WE have the honour. Sire, to 
prefent to your majefty our 
letter of credence from their High 
Mightinefles the States- General of 
the United Provinces, oar lords and 
mailers. Your majeily will fee, by 
its contents, how ardently their Higti 
MightinefTes defire to cultivate the 
fincere friendfhip which hath io long 
fublilled between the two nations, 
and which is fo neceffary to their 
common welfare. May we be happy 
enough, purfuant to our mailers 
commands, to remove thofe diffi- 
culties which have for fome time 
pall diminifhed this friendfhip, and 
caufed fo much prejudice to the prin- 
cipal fubjefts of the republic, who, 
by the trade they carry on, are its 
greatell ftrength and chief fupport. 
We place our whole confidence in 
your majeily's equity, for which the 
j-epuhlic hath the highefl regard ; 
and in the good-will your majeily 
hath always exprefled towards a llate, 
which on all occafioas hath interell- 
ed itfelf in promoting your glory, 
and which is the guardian of the 
precious truft left by a princcfs fo 
dear to your majefly. 

EAR 1759. 231 

Full ot this confidence, we pre- 
fume to flatter ourielves, that your 
majelty wili be gracioufly pleafed to 
liften to our jull demands ; and we 
fhall endeavour, during the courfe 
of our miniilry, to merit your ap- 
probation, and to Itrengthen the 
bonds which ought to unite the two 
nations for ever. 

His Majtjfys anfvuer. 

Gentlemen, I have always had a 
regard for the republic, and I look 
upon their High MightinefTes as my 
bed friends. If difficulties have 
arilen touching trade, they ought 
to be confidered as the confequences 
of a burthenfome war we are ob- 
liged? to wage with France. You 
may aflure their High MightinefTes, 
that I fhall endeavour, on my part, 
to remove the obllacles in queflion ; 
and I am glad to find, gentlemen, 
that you are come here with the 
fame difpoiition. 

The folloiving declarations ivere pub- 
lifoed by Count Dohna, a PruJJian 
general, on his entering Poland 
ivith a body of P ruffian troops. 

On the i^th of fune. 

HI S Pruffian majefty, finding 
himfelf under a neceiTity to , 
cauie part of his armies to enter the 
territories of the republic of Poland, 
in order to proteft them againil the 
threatened invalion of the enemy, 
declares, that, 

It mull not be underflood that his 
majefty, by this flep taken, intends 
to make any breach into the regard 
he has always had for the illuflrious 
republic of Poland, or to lefTen the 
good underilanding which has hi- 
therto fubfifled between them, but, 
on the contrary, to llrengthen the 
fame, in expeclation that the il- 
0^4 lullrious 



trious republic will, on its part, acl 
with the like neighbourly and 
friendly good-will as is granted to 
the enejny, than which nothing 
more is defired. 

The nobility, gentry, and magi- 
ilracy, in their refpeftive dillridts, 
between the frontiers of Pruflia, (b 
far as beyond Pofen, are required 
to furnifh all kinds of provifions. 
corn, and forage, necCiTary to fup- 
port an army of 40,000 men, with 
the utmoft difpatch, with an afTiir- 
ance of being paid ready money 
for the fame. But if, contrary to 
expeftatioh, any deliciency fliould 
happen in funplying this demand, 
his majelty's troops will be obliged 
to forage, and ufe the fame rrleans 
as thofe taken by the enemy for 
their fubfiilence. 

In confidence therefore that the 
feveral jurifdiftions upon the Pruf- 
iian frontiers, within the territories 
pf Poland, will exert themfelves to 
comply with this demand as foon as 
pofilble, for the fubfiftence of the 
royal army of Pruffia, they are af- 
furcd that thereby all diforders will 
be prevented, and whatever is de- 
livered will be paid for in ready 

On the I Jth of June. 

It was with the greateft aftonifh- 
mentthattheKIng, my moflgracious 
Jord and maikr, heard that feveral 
cfhis own fubjeftshadfuffer'dthem- 
felves to be feduced from their al- 
legiance fo far, as to enter into the 
fervice of a potentate, with whom 
he is at war : his majelly, therefore, 
niakes known by thefe prefents, that 
fill of his fubjefts ferving in the cne- 
iny's armies, who (hall be taken, 
with arms in their hands, fhall, 
agreeably to all laws, be fentenced 
to be hanged, without mercy, as 
jailors to their king and country, 

Of which all whom if may conccra 
are dcfired to take notice, &c. 
On the zzd of June. 

We invite and deiire, that the 
nobility, archbifhop?, bifliop;, ab- 
beys, convents, feignories, magi- 
ilrares, and inhabitants of the re- 
public of Poland, on the road to 
Pofnajiia, and beyond it, wciuld re- 
pair in pcrfon, or by deputies, in 
the courfe of this week, or as foon 
after as poffible, to the PrufTian head 
quarters, there to treat with the 
commander in chief, or the com- 
milTary at war, for the delivery of 
forage and proviiicns for the fub- 
fuience of the army, to be paid for 
with ready money. 

We promife and affure ourfelves, 
that no perfon in Poland will at- 
tempt to feduce the Pruffian troops 
to defert ; that no affiftance will be 
given them in fuch perfidious prac- 
tices ; that they will neither be 
fheltered, concealed, or lodged ; 
which would be followed by very 
difagreeable confequences : we ex- 
peft, on the contrary, that perfons 
of all ranks and conditions will ftop 
any run-away or dcferter, and de- 
liver him up at the firfl advanced 
poll, or at the head- quarters : and 
all expences attending the fame 
fhall be paid, and a rcafonable gra- 
tification fuperadded. 

If any one hath an inclination 
to enter into the King of PruHia's 
fervice, with an intention to behave 
well and faithfully, he may apply 
to the head quarters, and be alTured 
of a capitulation for three or four 

li any prince or member of the 
republic of Poland, be difpofed to 
afifemble abody of men, and tojoir» 
in a troop, or in a company, the 
Pruffian army, to make a common 
caufe yvith it, he may depend on a 

For the YEAR i-r/^* 


gracious reception, and that d^e 
jegard will be (hewn to his merit, 

Carders of his ftrene highripfs Prince 
Ferdinand of BrunJ-xvick., relai~je 
to the behwviour of the troops under 
him at the famous battle near Min- 
den on the \Ji of Augjtji, 1 759. 

tX I S ferene highnefs orders his 
JL j;;reateft thanks to be given 
the uhole army, for their bravery 
and good behaviour yefterday, par- 
ticularly to the Englifii infantry, 
and the two battalions of ilanove- 
rian guards ; to all the cavalry of the 
left wing, and to General Wagen- 
heim's corps, particularly the regi- 
ment of Holftein, the Heflian ca- 
valry, the Hanoverian regiment du 
Corps and Hammerftin's; the fame 
toall.the brigades of heavy artillery. 
His ferene highnefs declares public- 
ly, that next to God he attributes 
the glory of the day to the intrepidi- 
ty and extraordinary gccd behaviour 
of thcfe troops, which he affures 
them he fhall retain the Itrongeft 
fenfe of as long as he lives ; and if 
ever, upon any occafion, he fhall be 
able to ferve thefe brave troops, or 
any of them in particular, i: will 
give him the utmoft pleafure. His 
ferene highnefs orders his particular 
thanks to be likewife given to Ge- 
neral Sporcken, the Duke of Hol- 
ftein, Lieutenant Generals ImhcfF 
and Urf. His ferene highnefs is 
extremely obliged to the Count de 
Euckebuig, for his extraordinary care 
and trouble in the management of 
the artillery, which was ferved with 
great effeft ; likewife to the com- 
n^anding officers of the feveral bri- 
gades of artillery, viz. Col. Browne, 
X-ieutenant Colonel Hutte, ?Jajor 

Hafle, and the three Englilh cap- 
tains, Phillips, Drummond, and 
Foy. His ferene highnefs thinks 
himfelf infinitely obliged to Major 
Generals Waldegrave and Kingfley, 
for their great courage and good 
order, in which they conduced their 
brigades. His ferene highnefs fur- 
ther orders it to be declared to Lieu- 
tenant General the Marquis of 
Granby, that he is perfuaded, that if 
he had had the good fortune to have 
had him at the head of the cavalrv of 
the right wing, his prefence would 
have greatly contributed to make 
the decifion of that day more com- 
pleat and more brilliant. In fhort, 
his ferene highnefs orders, that thofe 
of his fuite whcfe behaviour he moft 
admired, be named, as the Duke of 
Richmond, Colonel Fitzroy, Cap- 
tain Ligonier, Colonel Watfon, 
Captain Wilfon aid-de-camp to 
Major General Waldegrave, Adju- 
tant Generals ErftofF, "BuIow, Du- 
rendolle, the Count Tobc and Ma- 
lerti ; his ferene highnefs having 
much reafon to be fatisfied with 
their conducl. And his ferene high- 
nefs defires and orders the generals 
of the army, that upon all occaficns 
when orders are brought to them 
by his aid-de-camps, that they be 
obeyed pundlually, and without 

And his ferene highnefs on dif- 
covering a miltake in the preceding 
order of thanks, to the officers of the 
Britilh artillery, by which Captain 
Macbean was omitted to be menti- 
oned, his ferene highnefs was pleaf- 
cd to write a letter with his owr^ 
hand, to Captain Macbean, which 
was delivered by his excellency 
Count La Lippe Buckeburg, grand 
mailer of the artillery in the allied 
army, and of which the following 
is a tranflation. 





•' It is from a fenfc of your merit, 
and a regard to juftice, that I do in 
this manner declare I have reafon 
to be infinitely fatisfied with your 
behaviour, aflivity, and zeal, which 
in fo confpicuous a manner you 
made appear at the battle of Thon- 
haulen on the hii\ of Augult. The 
talents which you pofieis in your 
profeffion did not a little contribute 
to render our fire fuperior to that 
of the enemy ; and it is to you and 
your brigade that I am indebted 
for having Clenced the fire of a bat- 
tery of the enemy, which extremely 
galled the troops, and particularly 
the Britifh infantry. 

Accept then. Sir, from me, the 
juft tribute of my moft perfed: ac- 
knowledgements, accompanied with 
my fincere thanks. I (ball be happy 
in every opportunity of obliging 
you, defiring only occafions of 
proving it, being, with the moil 
diilinguilhed efteem. 

Your devoted, and 
entirely affedlionate fervant, 
Duke of Brunfwick and 
To Captain Macbcan, of the 

Royal Britilh artillery. 

Again his ferene highnefs on 
the third iflued the following or- 

" In the compliment his ferene 
highnefs made to the troops yefter- 
day, he forgot four regiments that 
particularly diftinguiflied them- 
felves, viz. Hardenburgh's third 
battalion of Heflian guards. Prince 
William's, and Gillie's : it is not 
that his ferene highnefs has reafon 
to complain of any others ; but, as 
they had particular opportunities 
ot dillinguiihing themfcives, it j$ 
for that reafon his ferene highnefs 

mentions the attention he himfelf 
gives to their good condudl." 

" Head quarters at Bielefeld, 
Aug. 7. 1759. 
" His ferene highnefs Duke Fer- 
dinand fent orders to Monfieur He- 
deman, his treafurer, to pay the fol- 
lowing officers of the Britifh artil- 
lery the undermentioned gratuities, 
as a teltimony of his great fatii- 
faftion of their gallant behaviour 
in the late adtion of the firft of this 

To Capt. Phillips 1000 crowns 
To Capt. Macbean 500 
To Capt. Drummond 500 
To Capt. Williams 500 
To Capt. Foy 500 

I hope the faid gentlemen will 
accept of this prefent from his high- 
nefs, as a mark of his particular 
efteem for them." 

Several accounts of Marjhal Bdldjle' s 
letters to Marjhal de Contadesy 
ntjith Mr. Maubert's rcjiedions up- 
on them. 

AMong the papers which were 
taken at Detmold, on the 5th 
of Auguft, by his majefly's light 
troops, an original letter is found, 
from the Marlhal Due de BelieiHe 
to Marflial Contades, dated Ver- 
failles, July 23, 1759. in which 
there is the following pa/Tage. 

*• I am ftill afraid that Fifcher 
fets out too late : It is, however, 
very important, and very efTential, 
that we Ihould raife large contribu- 
tions. I fee no other refource for 
our moft urgent expences, and for 
refitting the troops, but in the mo- 
ney we may draw from the enemy's 
country ; from whence we mult 
likewiie procure fubfiitence of all 
kinds (independently of the money) ; 


For the YEAR 

that is to fay, hay, ftraw, oats, 
for the winter, bread, corn, cattle, 
horfes, even men to recruit our fo- 
reign troop?. The war muft not 
be prolonged, and perhaps it may 
b« neceffary, according to the events 
which may happen between this 
time and the end of September, to 
make a downright defart before 
the line of the quarters which it 
may be thought proper to keep 
during the winter, in order that 
the enemy may be under a real 
impoiTibility of approaching us : at 
the fame time referving for our- 
felves a bare fubfiftence on the route 
which may be the molt convenient 
for us to take, in the middle of 
winter,- to beat up, or feize upon 
the enemy's quarters. That this 
objecl may be fulfilled, I caufe the 
greateft afiiduity to be ufed, in 
preparing what is neceffary fcr 
having all your troops, without 
exception, well cloathed, well arm- 
ed, and well equipped, and well 
refitted in every refped, before the 
end of November, with new tents, 
in order that, if it fhould be ad- 
vifeable for the King's political 
and military affairs, you may be 
well able to affemble the whole, 
or part of your army, to adl ofFen- 
iively and with vigour, from the 
beginning of January : and that 
you may have the fatisfadlion to 
ihew your enemies, and all Europe, 
that the French know how to acl, 
and carry on war, in all feafons, 
when they have fuch a general as 
you are, and a miniiler of the de- 
partment of war, that can forefee, 
and concert matters with the ge- 

You mufl be fenfible. Sir, that 
what I fay to you may become not 
only ufeful and honourable, but 
perhaps even neceffary, with refpecl 

1759- 235 

to what you know, and of which 
I (hall fay more in my private let- 

M, Due DE Bellf.isle." 

So.^e account of the letters from the 
Duke de Belleijle to Marpal de 

/^^KESE letl 
j^ undoubtedly 

otters, which arc 
ly genuine, were 
found among Contades's papers af- 
ter the battle of Minden, and dif- 
clofe many of thofe artifices which 
in a public capacity are pradtifed 
without either compundion or dif- 
grace, but which in a private ca- 
pacity could only be the effect of 
habitual villainy, and would incur 
not only infamy, but the pillory. 
The following extracts are inferted 
to juftify this cenfure : 

" After obferving all the forma- 
lities due to the magiflrates of Co- 
logne, you muft feize on their great 
arcillery by force, telling them, that 
you do fo for their own defence 
agamft the common enemy of the 
empire ; that you will reftore them 
when their city has nothing far- 
ther to fear, &c. After all, you 
muft take every thing you have oc- 
caiion for, and give them receipts 

for it." . 

" You muft, at any rate, con- 
fume all forts of fubfiftence on 
the higher Lippe, Paderborn, and 
Warfburg ; you muft deftroy every 
thing which you cannot confome, 
fo as to make a defart of all Weft- 
phalia, from Lipftadt and Munfter, 
as far as the Rhine, on one hand ; and 
on the other, from the higher Lippe 
and Paderborn, as far as Cafiel ; 
that the enemy may find it quite 
imprafticable to direct their march 
to the Rhine, or the Lower Roer ; 




and this with regard to your army, 
and with regard to the army under 
M. de Soubife, that they may not 
have it in their power to take pof- 
feffion of Caflel, and much lefs to 
inarch to Marpourg, or to the quar- 
ters which he will have along the 
Lahn, or to thofe which you will 
occupy, from the lower part of the 
left fide of the Roer, and on the 
right fide of the Rhine as far as 
D^uficldorp and at Cologne." 

♦' You know the neceflity of con- 
fuming, or deiiroying, as far as is 
poflible, all the fubfiltence, efpeci- 
allv the forage, betwixt the Wefer 
and the Rhine on the one hand ; 
2nd on the other, betwixt the Lippe, 
the biihoprick of Paderborn, the 
Dymel, the Fulda, and the Nerra ; 
and fo to make a defart of Welt- 

phalia and Heffe-" 

" Although the Prince of Wal- 
deck appears outwardly neutral, he 
IS very ill difpofed, and deferves ve- 
ry little favour. You ought, there- 
fore, to make no fcruple of taking 
all you find in that territory; but 
this mufl; be done in an orderly man- 
ner, giving receipts, and observing 
the moft exaft difcipline. All the 
fubfiftence you leave in his country 
will fall to the enemy's fhare, who 
will, by that means, be enabled 
to advance to the Lahn, and to- 
wards the quarters which you are 
to occupy on the left fide of the 
Roer. It is therefore a precaution, 
become in a manner indifpenfibly 
Beceflary to carry it all away from 


" The queflion now is, what 
plan you (hall think, moil proper 
for accomplilhing, in the quick- 
€i1 and fureft manner, our great 
purpofe ; which mull be to con- 
fume, carrv off, or deRroy all the 
forage cr fubhilence of the country 

which we cannot keep pofleflion 

" The upper part of the Lippe, 
and the country of Paderborn, are 
the moft plentiful ; they mufl there- 
fore be eat to the very roots." 

*' You did mighty well to talk 
in the moft abfolute tone with re- 
gard to the neceflaries Racroth and 
Duyftjourg muft furnifh our troops ; 
it is necelTary to (peak in that tone 
to Germans ; and you will find your 
account in ufing the fame to the re- 
gencies of the £!e6lor of Cologne, 
and ftill more to that of the Pala- 

" After ufing all becoming cere- 
mony, as we have the power in our 
hands, we muft make ufe of it, and 
draw from the country of Bergue 
what (hall be necelTary for the fub- 
fiftence of the garrifon of DufTel- 
dorp, and of the light troops, and 
referve what may be breught thi- 
ther from Alface and the bifhop- 

ricks for a cafe of necelhty." 

It appears by the following letter, 
written by the French King's agent 
at Cologne, to M. I'Abbe Bernis, 
that the accounts which have from 
time to time been publifhed of the 
diffolute and irregular behaviour of 
the French troops were not without 

foundation . 

" Sir, I muft not conceal from 
you what the chancellor told me ; 
that the Elector was extremely fur- 
prifed to fee how little the French 
were on their guard. The French, 
faid he to me, have neither guards, 
out-poils, nor centinels ; there is 
no order in their camp, every body 
lives there in the utmoft fecurity ; 
ftrangers walk there at pleafure, no 
body afks them any queftions ; 
they are fufFered to go every where, 
even among your batteries ; (pies 
have nothing to fear there j they 


For the Y 

fay, Ilkewife, that Hanoverian of- 
ficers in difguife come there every 
day, hear every thing that is faid, 
fee every thing that pafTes, and ob- 
ferve all your pofts : your councils 
of war are held in a tent, where 
they fpeak fo loud, that the peo- 
ple in the field, if they be any 
thing nigh, hear every thing that 
is treated in them. We hear, how- 
ever, that your army, after this 
day (which was the fixth) will en- 
camp in one line ; this gives us 
fome fecurity ; but you Tee how 
much this expofes you, and us at 
the fame time. Every day there is 
almoft a third of your array tak- 
ing their pleafure in Cologne, who 
frequently return to the camp 
drunk ; and, it is faid, that inllead 
of paying your fpies liberally, you 
think it enough to make them 

I have obferved that within thefe 
two days that people have been in- 
formed of thefe particulars, fear 
and difquiet have very much in- 
creafed at this court." 

The exhaulied Itate of the French 
finances, and the exigences to v/hich 
they were driven long before the 
late ftoppageof their payments, ap- 
pears from the following extraft. 

" I am going to write a long 
letter to M. Gayot on the article 
of expences ; they are inftipporta- 
ble ; and as I am inceffantly afking 
money from the comptroller gene- 
ral, who has none to give me, we 
muft, at leaft, do our endeavour, 
and I beg you. Sir, to help me, as 
well as M. Gayot, to fave, other- 
wife we fhall want money for the 
molt efiential articles." 

It appears alio from the following 
pafTage, that the clamour of a cor- 
rupt and difappointed faction againft 
our expedition on the French coaft 

EAR 1759; 437 

was the effe^ either of ignorance 
or of enmity to their country. 

'♦ You don't doubt how much I 
dcfire to procure you the pleafure 
of having your fon and nephew 
with you. I had taken fome lleps 
towards it ; but the new enterprife 
with which the Englifh again threa- 
ten us, has obliged me to retain all 
the troops on the coafts. All the 
orders were already expedited. I 
have been obliged to difpatch cou- 
riers into Normandv, Bretagne, 
Poitou, and Annis, to draw all the 
troops nearer the coafts. How was 
it pofTible then for me, during the 
winter, to call back regiments 
which were pofted on the moil 
v/eftern parts of the coafl, and or- 
der them to join your army ? Thofe 
regiments mail have come to you 
quite harraffed and ruined, efpeci- 
ally as they have had, and have 
Hill, many fick." 

T'/js foUoivifig rejieBioni on the pub' 
licatton of Belleijle's letter by the 
Englijh minijiry, are publijhed in 
the Brujjels Gazette, the author 
foys, by dcfire. 

N confequence of the afFair 
of the uric of Augiifc, a part 
of the allied army carried off, among 
other papers of the Marlhal de Con- 
tades of little importance, a difpatch 
of the Marfhal de Belleifle, dated 
July 23, which turned chiefly oa 
the meafures which it might per- 
haps be proper to take for making 
a barrier, at the end of the cam- 
paign, between the quarters of the 
[French] King's army, and toofe 
ot his Britannic majeily's forces. 

A few days after, a part of the 
letter in queilion appeared in ths 
Gazette that is printed at Lon- 



don by authority ; and feveral pa- 
pers, difperfed in England, have 
Sufficiently Ihevvn what was the de- 
fign of the Englifh minillry in pub- 
liihing this paifage. They flatter- 
ed themfelves that every body 
would, as they had done, take in 
the literal fenle that pafFage, which 
mentions, that perhaps it might be 
TieceJJiiiy io make a downright defart 
he/ore the line of the quarters, nvhich 
it might be thought proper to keep 
during the nvinter ; and that they 
fhould thereby be able to convidl 
France of adopting a plan of de- 
vaftation, which that crown will 
ever hold in abhorrence. We 
fliould not be furprifed that it 
,'i.oald be natural for the court of 
London, as if it were in fpight of 
thcmlelves, to give fuch a falfe and 
odious interpretation to the ex- 
preffion jull mentioned : the un- 
heard-of vexations exercifed by 
their ally the King of Pruflia in 
Saxony, in Mecklenbourg, and in 
Francouia, have acculliomed them 
to think that there is no other 
method of making a barrier before 
the (juarcers to be kept but total 
devaluation; but this fenfe will ne- 
ver enter into the heads of the 
impartial public on reading the paf- 
fages, who know how repugnant 
fucfi a conduct would be to that 
fyftern of equity, difmterellednefs 
and moderation, from which France 
has never once departed. It is 
eafy to conceive, that a country 
may be made a downright defart 
for an army, without making a de- 
fart for the inhabitants. To make 
a defart which may ferve for a bar- 
rier againrt any enemy, is to leave 
in it no tenable poll, nor any fub- 
fiftence which may draw them thi- 
ther : and in this fenfe the expref- 
fion in the Marflial de Belleifle's let- 

ters, of a downright defart, will be 
generally underllood. 

It is, moreover, fufEciently evi- 
dent, from the very part of the 
letter which is publifhed, that only, 
fubfirtence proper for an army is 
meant ; for it exprefsly fays, re- 
fervitrg for ourjd'ves a bare fuhfjience 
on the route ijuhich may be mcjl con- 
venient for us to take in the middle of 
^winter. It fhould feem that this 
refleftion efcaped the Englifh mi- 
niilry. It were to be vvjlhed, for 
the fake of their honour, that the 
fame fuppofition could be made 
with regard to fomc other paflages, 
which they have not thought pro- 
per to publifh : they may recollcft 
one, in which M. de Contades is 
commended for the rigid difcipline 
which he caufes to be obferved, 
and for the meafures taken by him 
in relation to fotne outrages cotnmit- 
ted at Ofnabiirg ngainjl the Englijh 
prifoncrs ; and another pafi'age, 
wherein it is exprefsly recommend- 
ed to him, to fee that every body 
be fatisfitd, and that the country he 
not laid HAjaJie ; and that nothing be 
taken by pillage, or any other kind of 
exaction. This may fufnce to fhew 
the defign of the Englifh in pub- 
lifliing a part only of the Marfhal 
de Belleifle's letter. 

I'raJiJlation of a letter from M. de la 
Clue to the Count de Merie, am- 
baffador of France at the court of 
Lijhon, dated Lagos, Auguft 28. 

I Was not in a condition to write 
to your excellency when I dif- 
patched a domeilic to inform you 
of the difaller that had befallen the 
King's fquadron under my com- 
mand. I palled the Streights in the 
night between the 16th and 17th 


For the Y E A R 

of Auguft, with twelve fliips of the 
line, and three frigates. I was 
not afraid of meeting Admiral 
Bofcawen, though his fquadron was 
ftronger than mine ; but by an 
unaccountable fatality, five of my 
fhips and three frigates parted from 
me, fo that next morning at day- 
break I found I had only feven 
with me : fortunately they were 
the largeft, viz. the Ocean, the Re- 
doubtable, the Centaur, the Guer- 
rier, the Souverain, the Temeraire, 
and the Modefte. At fun-rifing 
we difcovered eight fail to wind- 
ward ; 1 believed them to be my 
fnips, and waited for them, keep- 
ing as near the wind as pofiible, 
with very little fail. In a little 
time their number increafed fo 
much that we counted eighteen. 
I made no doubt of their being the 
enemy's fleet. I immediately de- 
termined to make all the fail I 
could to gain the weather gage, 
and made the proper fignal to my 
fhips, but I was obliged to wait 
for the Souverain, which is a heavy 
failer, and by that means the ene- 
my got up with me fooner than 
they would otherwife have done. 
Whilft the wind blew a briflc gale, 
they had no advantage over us : 
but at noon the wind dying away, 
I found that they failed much bet- 
ter than we. At half an hour after 
two, the Centaur, Capt. de Sa- 
bran, which was in the rear, was 
attacked by two (hips, one on the 
larboard, the other en the liarbcard 
lide, and defended herfelf with un- 
common bravery. The Guerrier 
was attacked foon after ; then the 
Ocean and the Souverain. The 
heat of the adtion was with thefe 
four (hips, each of which fought 
both fides of the (hip without inter- 
miflion. Admiral Bofcawen, who 
came down upon me with all the 

17.59- 239 

fail he could make, came athwart 
me within gun flict, about four 
o'clock, and poured a furious broad- 
fide into me, which I returned, 
and my fliot were fo well aimed, 
that his mizen-mart was carried 
away, his main-top-fail yard came 
in two upon the deck, the fprit- 
fail yard and the jack-flafF were 
cut away, all his fails were torn, 
and he (heared oiF to be out of the 
reach of my fire. I was ftruck at 
this time with a piece of iron, 
which made a large wound in my 
right leg, and broke my left leg, 
fo that I was forced to leave the 
Count de Carne to fight the Ihip. 
Never was fuch a fire feen as my 
fquadron kept up. I have all the rea- 
fon in the world to believe, that 
iff had all my fnips, I Ihould have 
beat them. The Englifh admiral, 
on leaving me, fell upon the Cen- 
taur, and made the fifth fliip which 
fhe had to engage ; fo that Ihe was 
forced to llrikc, after performing 
prodigies of valour. At night the 
engagement ceafed, the enemy keot 
the wind under an eafy fail. 

I cannot exprefs to your excel- 
lency the valour and courage fhewn 
by our Ihips companies, which did 
not flacken one moment. The 
enemy's fupe.-iority did not fright- 
en them. This was, no doubt, 
owing to the example of the of- 
ficers, who difcovered a courage 
truly heroic. My fhip fired 2500 
cannon-(hot. I judge that we had 
about ICO killed on the fpot, and 
feven ty dangerouHy wounded; one 
garde pavilion was killed, and fe- 
veral officers were wounded. We 
employed the night in preparing 
for a fecond engagement ; but the 
Count de Panat, who commanded 
the Souverain, and M. de Roche- 
more, captain of the Guerrier, left 
me in the night, which greatly 




diminiihed the force of my fqua- 
dron, and daunted the courage of 
my people. 

On the 1 8th, at day-break, the 
enemy crowded fail to come up with 
me. I then judged my ruin un- 
avoidable. Finding myfclf on the 
coaft of Portugal, 1 determined to 
burn the king's fhips there, rather 
than furrender them to the enemy. 
I ran the Ocean afhore two leagues 
from Lagos, under the fort called 
Almaduna, and fent notice to the 
commander of that fort, who fired 
three cannon fliot at the Englifn, 
f>ut they paid no regard to them. 
The Marquis de St. Aignan alfo 
ran his ihip on fhore, and both of 
us endeavoured to land our men, 
but the fea being rou^h, this took 
up a great deal of time. M. de 
Caftillon, captain of the Temeraire, 
and M. de Mouvre, captain of the 
Modeite, did not follow my exam- 
ple, but anchored as near as they 
cculd to forts Exavier and Lagres, 
hoping that the Englilh would re- 
fpeiSl thele forts ; but they paid no 
regard to tliem, and came and 
anchored clofe by the two French 
iliips, which they fought until they 

One of the enemy's fhips came 
and anchored behind the Ocean, 
and fired into her, and into the boats 
that were carrying the men adicre. 
The Count de Carne, finding he 
could not get out of the Ihip, was 
forced to ftrike his colours, and to 
furrender prilbner, with M, Dar- 
baud, and the Chevalier de Glan- 
deves, iVI. de Sufrim, the chevalier 
de Damas, and five inferior officers ; 
ihe reft v/ere loldiers, with fome 
gunners, making in all about ^ixty, 
whom the Englilh took on board, 
and fee fire to the vellel, which 
burnt in the night. 

I was carried on Ihore, and paf- 

fed the night with the officers and 
the wounded men, without either 
bread or v;ater. On the 19th the 
governor of Lagos fent to invite 
me to that place. I was carried 
thither, and all my people follow- 
ed me ; he gave us all the affiftance 
that wretched country could afford. 
Our people had no more than a 
quarter of a pound of bread a day, 
each day, for two days ; nor could 
I procure ftraw for the fick and 
wounded. I and the wounded of- 
ficers are lodged with the Capu- 
chins J thefe good fathers take 
great care of us. I am infinitely 
obliged to the Corregidor for his 

We have fent all our fhips com- 
panies to Cadiz, chiefly by fea : I 
remain here with three wounded 
officers, the Chevalier Beaucour, 
and my nephew, who ftays to bear 
me company ; he ferves me for fe- 
cretary, and prefents his compli- 
ments to your excellency. 

My wounds are in a very good 
way ; but 1 know not v/hen I fhall 
be able to leave this place. I am 
uneafy about the domeftic 1 fent to 
you, on account of the difficulties 
which, I hear, attend travelling in 
this country. If you have not (een 
him, I denre you would caufe en- 
quiry to be made about him. 

Abridgynent cf the placart ptthlijhed 
by his excellency Gen, James IFclfe, 
commander in chief uf the troops 
cf his Britannic majefy, on his 
arrival in the ri-jer St. Laurence, 
in the month of Auguji, 1 7 5 9 . 

" ^ I "^ H E King, jufilyexafpera- 
\^ ted againlt France, has fet 
on foot a confiderable armament 
by land and fea, to bring down the 
hauehtinefs of that crown. His 

For the YEAR 1759: 24 1 

aim is to dcflroy the mod: confiJer- weight of that mifery to which they 

able fettiemen: of the French in will expofe themfelves. 
North America. It is not againft General Wolfe flatters himfelf 

the induftrious peafatlts, their wives, that the whole world will do hiixi 

and children, nor againft the mi- juitice, if the inhabitants of Cana- 

hifters of religion, that he deligns da force him, by their refufal, to 

making war. He laments the mif- have recourfe to violent methods.* 

fortunes to which this quarrel ex- He concludes in laying before theiii 

pofes them, and promifco them his the llrength and power of England, 

prote6tion, offers to maintain them which generoally Itrctches out her 

in their pofTeffions, and permit^ hand to them ; ' a hand ready to 
them to follow the worihip of their 
religion; provided that they do not 
take any part in the dilrerence be- 
tween the two crown?, directly cr 

The Canadians cannot be igno- 
rant of their fituation : the Englim 

are makers cf the river, and block- 77,^ follonving letter is inferted as the 

vsxz up the paffage to all fuccours a.-r.,~.f} ^,>7,..-. fL„* .^„ l., j „ 

ilfill them on all occafions, and 
even at a time when France, by its 
weakiiefs, is incapable of afTilling 
them, and abandons them ia tha 
iTjOit critical moment.' 

ig up tne palfag 
from Europe. They have, befides, 
a powerful army on the continent, 
under the command of General 

The refolution the Canadians 
ought to take is by no means 
doubtful : the utmoft evertion of 
their valour v/ill be entirely ufe- 
le!s, and will only fervc to deprive 
them of the advantages that they 
might enjoy by their neutrality. 
The Cruelties of the French againit 
the fubjefts cf Great Britain in 
America, would excufe tlie moll 
fevere reprifals ; but Englifhmcn 
are too generous to follow fo bar- 
barous exa.mpies. Thev offer to 
the Canadians the A^eets of peac 

Jtrcngcjl pitture that can be dra^jjn 
of the dificultks that oppcfed them- 
J elites to the BritiftJ arms, in the 
redudicn cf f^chcc, as K>jell as of 
the aSli'vity and patience cf the 
general --juho furmounted them. The 
piece is no hfs valuable, as one of 
the clcarejl and moji elegant ac- 
counts of a fries of military opera- 
tions, ivhich hasy ^ erhapSy e-ver 
te.71 publifjed. 

Head quarters at Montmcrenci, in the 
rii'jr St. LaurencBy Sept. 2 ^ 1759* 

S I R, 

IV/iili I could, upon this occaf on, 
have the honour of tranfmitting 
to you a more favourable account 
amidrt the horror? of war ; it is left of the progrefsof his majefty's arms ; 
to their ownfelves to determine but the obftacles we have met 
their face by their conducl. If with in the operations of the cam- 
their prefumption, and a wrong- paign, are much greater than 
placed, as well as fruitkfs courage, we had reafon to e::pe:t, or could 
Ihould make them take the nioft forefce ; not fo much from the 
dangerous parr, they will only number of the eniniy, (thoughi 
have their ownfelves to blame, fuperior to us) as from the natural 
when they fhall groan under the ftrength of the country, which the 
Vol. n. It Mar(iui3 



Marquis de Montcalm feems wifely 
to depend upon. 

When I learned that fuccours of 
all kinds had been thrown into 
Quebec ; that five battalions of re- 
gular troops, compleated from the 
bed inhabitants of the country, 
fome of the troops of the colony, 
and every Canadian that was able 
to bear arms, befides feveral na- 
tions of favages, had taken the field 
in a very advantageous fituation ; 
I could not Hatter myfelf that I 
fliould be able to reduce the place. 
I fought however an occaiion to at- 
tack their army, knowing well, that 
with thefe troops Iwas able to fight, 
and that a viftory might difperfe 

We found them encamped along 
the fhore of Beaufort, from the river 
St. Charles to the falls of Montmo- 
renci, and intrenched in every ac- 
ceflible part. The 27th of June we 
landed upon the ifle of Orleans ; 
but receiving a meffage from the ad- 
miral, that there was reafon to think 
that the enemy had artillery, and a 
force upon the point of Levi, I 
detached Brigadier Monckton with 
foui' battalions, to drive them from 
thence. He pafled the river the 
29th at night, and marched the 
next day to the point ; he obliged 
the enemy's irregulars to retire, and 
poflcffed himfelf of tha: pofl ; the 
advanced parties upon this occafion 
had two or three fkirmiihes with the 
Canadians and Indians, with little 
Icfs on either fide. 

Colonel Carleton marched with a 
detachment to the welternmoftpuint 
of the ifie of Orleans, from whence 
Our operations were like to begin. 

It was abfolutely neceflary topof- 
fefs thefe two points, raid fortify 
tiiem, becaufe, from either one or 
ihe the enemy mi^ki make 

it impofTible for any fhip to lie 
in the bafon of Qjjebec, or even 
within two miles of it. 

Batteries of cannon and mortars 
were erefled with great difpatch on 
the point of Levi, to bombard the 
town and magazines, and to injure 
the works and batteries : the enemy 
perceiving thefe works in fome for- 
vvardnefs, pafi"ed the river with 1600 
men to attack and deftroy them ; 
unluckily they fell into confufion, 
fired upon one another, and went 
back again ; by which we loft an 
opportunity of defeating this large 
detachment. The effedt of this ar- 
tillery has been fo great, (though 
acrofs the river) that the upper town 
is confiderably danr,aged, and the 
lower town entirely deilroyed. 

The works for the fecurity of our 
hofpitals and ftores on the ifle of 
Orleans, being finifned, on the 9th 
of July, at night, we pafled the N. 
channel, and encamped near the 
enemy's left, the river Montmoren- 
ci between us. The next morning 
Capt. Dank's company of rangers, 
polled in a wood to cover fome 
workmen, were attacked and defeat- 
ed by a body of Indians, and had fo 
many killed and wounded, as to be 
almoft difabled for the reft of the 
campaign : the enemy alfo fuffered 
in this alFair, and were in their turn 
driven off by the neareft troops. 

The ground, to the eaftward of 
the falls, feemed to be (as it really 
is) higher than that on the enemy's 
fide, and to command it in a manner 
which might be made ufeful to us. 
There is befides a ford below the 
falls, which iTiay be paffed for fome 
hours in the latter part of the ebb 
and beginning of the flood tide ; 
and I had hopes, that poinbly means 
might be found of paffing the river 
above, io as to fight M. Montcalm, 


For the Y 

Upon terms of lefsdifad vantage than 
diredlly attackicg his intrench- 
menrs. In reconnoitring the river 
Montmorenci, we found it fordable 
at a place about three miles up ; but 
the oppoiite bank was intrenched, 
and fo fteep and woody, that it was 
to no purpofe to attempt a paiTage 
there. The efcort was twice attack- 
ed by the Indians, who were as of- 
ten repulfed; but in thefe rencoun- 
ters we had forty (ofucers and men) 
killed and wounded. 

The i8th of July, two men of 
war, two armed Hoops, and two 
tranfports, with fome troops on 
board, pafTcd by the town without 
any lofe, and got into the upper 
river. This enabled me to re- 
connoitre the country above, where 
I found the fame attention on the 
enemy's fide, and great diihculties 
on ours, ari fmg from the nature of 
the ground, and the obltacles to our 
communication with the fleet. But 
what I feared molt, vvc^, that if wc 
fhould land between the tov.'n and 
the river Cape Rouge, the body firfi: 
landed could not be reinforced be- 
fore they were attacked by the ene- 
my's whule army. 

Notwithftanding thefe difficulties, 
I thought once of actenipti:";g it at 
St. Michael's, about three miles a- 
bove the town ; but percsiving that 
the enemy were jealous of the de- 
ijgn, were preparing againil it, and 
had aftually brought artillery and a 
mortar, (which, being fr> near to 
Quebec, they could irxreafe as they 
pleafed) to play upon the fnipping : 
and it mult have been many hours 
before we could attack them, (even 
fuppofing a favourable night for the 
boats to pafsby the town unhurt) it 
fcemed fo hazardous that Ithojght 
it beft to defift. 

However, to divide the er.emv's 

EAR 1759. 241 

force, and to d.-aw their attentioa 
as high up the river as pofllble, and 
to procure fome intelligence, I fent 
a detachment under the command 
of Colonel Carleton, to land at the 
Point de Trempe, to attack what- 
ever he might find there, bring off" 
feme prifoners, and all the ufeful 
papers he could 'get. I had been 
informed that a number of the in- 
habitants of Quebec had retired to 
that place, and that probably wc 
fl'.ould lind a magazine cfprcvifions 

The colonel was fired upon by a 
body of Indians the moment he 
landed, but they were foon dif- 
perfed and driven into the woods : 
he fearched for magazines, but to 
no purpofe, brought off fome pri- 
foners, and returned with little lofs. 

After this bufinefs, I came back 
to Montmorenci, where I found 
that Brigadier Townfhend had, b}' 
a fjperior nre, prevented the French 
from erecting a battery on the bank 
of the river, from v. hence they in- 
tended to cannonade our camp. I 
now refolved to take the firft oppor- 
tunity which prefented itfelf, of at- 
tacking the enemy, though poiled 
to great advantage, and every 
where prepared to receive us. 

As the men of v/ar cannot (for 
want of a funicient depth of water) 
come near enough to theenemy's in- 
trenchments, to annoy them in the 
leaii. the admiral had prepared two 
tranfports (drawing bat litde water) 
which upon occafion could be rua 
a ground, to favour a defcent. With 
the help of thefe veiTels, which I 
under llood would be carried by the 
tide clufe in (hore, I propofed to 
make inyfelf mailer of a detached 
redoubt near to the water's cuga, 
and whofe fituation appeared to be 
cut of niufkec Ihct of the intrench- 
R 2 msnt 



itient upon the hill : if the enemy At a proper time of the tide, the 

fupported this detached piece, it fignal was made, but in rowing to- 

would neceliarily bring on an en- war^ s the ihore, many of the b jats 

gagcment, what we nvill withed grounded upon a ledge, that ran* 

tor; and if not, 1 fliould have it in olf a connderable diitance. Thr» 

my power to examine their fitua- accident put us in fome diforder, 

tion, fo as to be able to determine loll a great deal of time, and obliged 

where we could bell attack them. me to fend an ofF.ccr to Hop Briga- 

Preparations were accordingly dier Townlhend's march, whom I 

made for an engagement. The 3 ill then obferved to be in motion, 

of July in the afterm.on, the boats While the feamen were getting the 

of the'riset were filled with grena- boats off, the enemy fired a number 

diers, and a part of General Monck- 
ton's brigade from the point of Le- 
vi : the two brigades under the bri- 
gadiers Townlhend and Murray, 
were ordered to be in readinefs to 

of ihellsand (hot, but did no confi- 
derable damage. As foon as this 
diforder could be fet a little to 
rights, and the boats were ranged 
in a proper manner, fomeof the offi- 

pr.fs the ford, when it fhould be cers of the navy went in with me to 

thou'T-ht neceffary. I'o facilitate the find a better place to land : we took 

paiiagecf this corps, the admiral had one flat bottomed boat with us to 

placed the Centurion in the chan- make the experiment, and as foon 

nel, fo that Ihe might check the lire as we had found a fit part of the 

of the iov/er battery which com- fhore, the troops were ordered to 

mandtd the ford : this Ihip was of difembark, thinking it not yet to» 

great ufe, as her fire v.'as very judi- late for the attempt. 

cioufiy direfted. A great quantity of 
artillery was placed upon the emi- 
rer.ce, fo as to batter and enfilade 
ihe left of their intrenchmcnts. 

From the veffei which run a- 
ground neareft in, I ohftrved that 
the redoubt was too much com- 

The thirteen compatiieS of grena- 
diers, and 200 of the lecond royal 
A nerican battalion, got firfl on 
Ihore. The grenadiers were ordered 
to form themfelves into four diltinft 
bodies, and to begin the attack, 
fupported by Brigadier Monckton's 

nianded to be kept v.fithout very corps, as foon as the troops had pafT- 

gieatlofs; and the more, as the two ed the ford, and were at hand to 

armed fhips could not be i)rought afTift. But whether from the noife 

r.ear encugli to cover both with their and hurry at landing, or from fome 

artillery and mufquetry, which 1 at other caufe, the grenadiers, inflead 

lirft conceived they might. But as of forming themfelves as they were 

the enemy feemed in Ibm.e confu- direifed, ran on impetuouily to- 

fion, and we were prepared for an wards the enemy's intrenchmcnts ia 

action, I thought it a. proper time the utmoll diforder and confufion, 

to make an attempt upon their in- without waiting for the corps which 

trepchmeuts. Orders were lent to were to fuflain them, and join in the 

the brigadiers general to be ready attack. Brigadier Monckton was not 

with the troops under their com- landed, and Brigadier Townlhend 

mand Brigadier Monckton to land, was at a confiderable dillance, thd* 

and the Brigadiers Tovvnlhend and upon his march to join us, in very 

Murray to pais the ford. great order. The grenadiers were 


checked by the enemy's firft fire, 
and obliged to fheher tliemfelves 
in or abouc the redoubt, which the 
French abandoned upon iheir ap- 
proach. In this fituation they con- 
tinued for fome time, unable to 
form under fo hot a fire, and having 
.many gallant olHcers wounded, who 
(careieis of their perfons) had been 
folely intent upon their duty. I 
faw theabfolute neceffity of calling 
them off, that they might form 
themfel\'es under Brigadier Mcnck- 
ton's corps, which was now land- 
ed, and drawn up on the beach, in 
extreme good order. 

By this new accident, and this fe- 
condd-ilay, it was near night, a fud- 
den Uorm caa-.e on, and the tide be- 
gan to m.akc ; fo that I thought it 
iTioft advlfeable, not to perfevere in 
fo dirficult an attack, left (m cafe of 
a repuU'e) the retreat of Brigadier 
Townlhend's corps might be ha- 
zardous and uncertain. 

Our artillery had a great effeft 
upon the enemy's left, where Bri- 
gadiers Townlhend and Murray 
were to have attacked : and it is 
probable, that if thofe accidents I 
have fpokeu of had not happened, 
we fiiould have penetrated there, 
whilll our lefc and center (more re- 
mote from our artillery ./ muft have 
bore all the violence of the mufque- 

The French did not a':tempt to 
inteirupt our march. Some of their 
favages came down to murder fuch 
wounded as couid not be brought 
ciT, and to fcalp the dead, as their 
cullom is. 

The place where the attack was 
intended, has thcl'e advantages over 
all others hereahoiit. Our artillery 
could be brought into ufe. The 
greatell part, or even the whole, of 
the troops, might act at once ; and 
jhe retreat (in cale of u repulfe) 

For the YEAR 1759.' 245 

was fecure, at leafl: for a certain 

time of the tide. Neither one nor 
other of thefe advantages can any 
where elfe be fcund. The beach 
upoa which the troops were drawa 
up, was of deep mud, with holes, 
and cut by feveral gullies. 1 he 
hill to be afcended, very fteep, ar.d 
not every where pradicable. The 
enemy numerous in tlicir intrench- 
ments, and their fire hot. If the at- 
tack had fucceeded, our Icfs muil 
certainly have been great, and 
theirs ipconfiderable, fioni thefhcl 
ter which the neighbouring wood* 
a'Forded them. The river of Su 
Charles itill remained to be paifed, 
before the tov/n was inveited. All 
thefc circumftances I confidered ; 
but the delire to aft in conformity 
to the King's intentions, induced 
me to make this trial, perfuaded 
that a victorious army finds no dif- 

Immediately after this check, I 
fent Brigadier iviurray above the 
town with 1200 men, directing him 
to aiTiil Rear Admiral Holmes in the 
deilraftion of the French Ships, (if 
they could be got at) in order co 
open a conimur.icaticn v\ith Gene- 
ral Arnheriu The brigadier w as to 
feck cicry favourable opportunity 
Of fighting fome of the enemy's de- 
tachments, provided he could do it 
upon tolerable terms, and to ufe all 
the means in his power to provoke 
them to attack him. He made tv/o 
dirferent attempts to land upon the 
north ihore, without fuccefs ; but 
in a third more fojtunate. He 
landed unexpecledly at De Cham- 
baud, and burnt a magazine there, 
in which v.ere fome provifions, fome 
amiiiunidon, and all thefpare fiores, 
cloathing, arms, and baggage, of 
their army. 

The prifoners he took, informed 

him of the furrender of the fort of 

Jl 3 Niagara 



Niagara ; and wc difcovered by in- 
tercepted letters, that the eriemy 
had abandoned Carillon and Crown 
Point, we retired to the- ifle Aux 
Noix ; and that General Amherft 
was making preparations to pafs 
the lalce Champiain, to fall upon 
M. Bjurlemaque's corps, which 
Conrills cf three battalions of fc^ot, 
at:d as many Canadians as make 
the whole amount to 30CO. 

The admiral's difp-itches and 
mine wcuid have gone eight or ten 
days fooner, if I had not been pre- 
\-ented from writing by a fever. I 
found myfelf fo ill, and am Hill fo 
weak, that I begged the general 
officers to confult together for the 
public utility They were all of 
Opinion, that (as more fliips and 
provifions nave now get above the 
town) they flioula try, by conveying 
up a corps of 4 or jcco men, 
(which is nearly the whole ftrength 
t)f the army, aiter the points of 
Levi and Orleans are left in a pro- 
per ftate of dt'fencc) to draw the 
enemy from their prefent fituation, 
and bring them to an adion. I 
have acquielced in their prcpofal, 
and we are preparing to put it into 

The admind and I have examin- 
ed the town, v»ith a view to a gene- 
ral afFault ; but, a^ter confultmg 
with the chicfene'ncfr, who is well 
acquainted with the interior parts of 
it, and, after viewing it with thfe 
utmoft attention, we found, that 
though the batteries of the lower 
town might be eafily fikr.ced by the 
men of war, yet the bufmers of an 
affault would be little advanced bv 
that, fmcethe few pailages that lead 
from the lower to the (Tpper town, 
are carefully intrenched ; and the 
upper batteries cannot beaffeded by 
the fhipj, which muft receive Con- 
iiderable damage from them, and 

from the mortars. The admiral 
would readily join in this, or in any 
other meafurc for the public fervice; 
but I could not propofe to him an 
undertaking of fo dangerous a na- 
ture, and promifmg fo little fuccefs. 
'^I'o the uncommon Hrength of 
the country, the enemy have added 
(for the dtfence of the river) a great 
number of Hoating batteries and 
boats. By the vigilance of thefe, 
and the Indians round our ditterent 
polls, it hns been impoflible to exe- 
cute any thing by furprize. Wc 
have had almoll daily Ikirmifhes 
with thefe favages, in which they 
are generally defeated, but not 
without lofs on our fide. 

By the lift of difabled officers 
(many of whom are of rank) you 
may perceive. Sir, that the army is 
mjuch weakened. By the nature of 
the river, the m.ort formidable part 
of this armament is depiived of the 
power of ailing, yet we have alnioft 
the whole force of Canada to op- 
pofe. In this iituarion, there is fuch 
a ciioice of difficulties, that I own 
myfelf at a lols how to determine. 
The airairs of Great Britain, I 
know, require the moft vigorous 
meaiures ; but then the courage of 
a handful of brave men fliould be 
exerted only, where there is fome 
hops of a favourable event. How- 
ever, you may be afTured, Sir, that 
the fmall part of the campaign, 
vchich ri?mains, fiidl be employed 
(as far as I am able) for the honour 
of his majellvt and the intereil of 
the nation, in which I am lure of 
being well fcconded by the admiral, 
and by the generals. Happy if our 
fejuirts here can contribute to the 
fuccefs of his majefty's arms in any 
other parts of America. I have the 
honour to be, with the greateil re- 
fpe<ft. Sir, your moll obedient, and 
moll humbifc fervant, 

J. Wolfe* 

For the YEAR 17 



Articles of capitulation agreed on, be- 
t-ix^een General Tonjonjhend and M. 
de Ramzay, Commander of ^ehec. 

Article I. 

MDE RAM Z AY demands 
• the honours of war for his 
garrif )n, and that it fhall be con- 
du ted back to the army in fafety 
by the fnortell road, with their 
arms, baggage, fix pieces of brafs 
cannon, two mortars, or howitzers, 

ar.d twelve rounds. The 

garrifon of the town, compofed of 
land forces, marines, and failors, 
fhall march out with their arms and 
baggage, drums beating, lighted 
matches, with two pieces of cannon, 
and twelve rounds, and Ihall be em- 
barked as conveniently as poffible, 
in order to be landed at the firlt 
port in France. 

II. That the inhabitants Ihall be 
ihaintainedin the pofTeffion of their 
houfes, goods, eiieds, and privi- 
leges. — Granted, provided they lay 
down their arms. 

III. That the faid inhabitants (hall 
not be moleftad on account of their 
having borne arms for the defence 
of the town, as they were forced to 
it, and as it is cuftomary for the 
inhabitants of the colonies of both 
crowns to ferve as militia. -Granted. 

IV. That the eifedls belonging 
to the abfenj officers, or inhabitants, 
fliall not be touched. — Granted. 

V. That the faid inhabitants Ihall 
not be removed, nor obliged to quit 
their houfes, until their condition 
ihall be fettled by a definitive treaty, 
between their moft Chriltian and 
Britannic majeilies— Granted. 

VI. That the exercife of the Ca- 
tholic, Apoftollc, and Roman reli- 
gion ihall be preferved, and that 
fafe-guards fhall be granted to the 
lioufes of the clergy, j^nd to the mo- 

naileries, particularly to the bifhop 
of Quebec, who, animated with zeal 
for religion, and charity for the peo- 
ple of his diocefe, defires to refide 
conftantly in it, to exercife freely 
and with that decency, which his 
character, and the facred myfteries 
of the Catholic, Apollolic, and Ro- 
man religion require, his epifcopal 
authority in the town of Quebec, 
whenever he Ihall think it proper, 
until the poffefTion of Canada Ihall 
have been decided by a treaty be- 
tween their moft Chriftian and Bri- 
tannic majeilies. ■ The free 

exercife of the Roman religion, 
fafe-guards granted to all religious 
perfons, as well as to the bilhop, 
who Ihall be at liberty to come and 
exercife freely and with decency the 
fundlions of his office whenever he 
Ihall think proper, until the pof- 
feffion of Canada Ihall have been 
decided between their Britannic and 
moft Chriftian majefties. 

VII. That the artillery and war- 
like ftores fhall be delivered up bona 
fide, and an inventory taken thereof. 
— Granted. 

Vllf. That the fick, wounded, 
commifTaries, chaplains, phyficians, 
furgeons, apothecaries, and other 
perfons employed in the hofpitals, 
fhall be treated agreeable to the car- 
tel fettled between their moft Chrif- 
tian and Britannic majefties on Feb. 
6, 1759. — Granted. 

IX. That before delivering up 
the gate, and the entrance of the 
town to the Englifh forces, their 
general will be pleafed to fend fome 
loJdiers to be placed as fafe-guards 
at the churches, convents, and chief 
habitations. — Granted 

X. That the commaHder of the city 
of Quebec (hall be permitted to fend 
advice to the Marquis de Vaudreuil, 
governor-general, of thereduftion of 

B. 4 th« 




the tQwn J as alfo that this general trenching tools, &c. the nurrvUer pf 

flia'.l be allov\eJ to wiue to the whic'.i cannot be afcertained. 
French mlniftry, to inform thorn There have been alfo 37 guns 
thereof. — Grantr-d. and one niortar found, on fevcral 

XI. That the prefsnt cap'tula- bactt- ries between St. Charles river 
tion flia'.l be executed according and iieauport. 
to its form and tenor, without bein^ 

liable to non-execution, under pre- ~ " 

tence of reprifals, or the non-exe- 
cution of any preceding capitula- 
tion. — Granted. 

The prcfent treaty has been made 
and fettled between us, and dupli- 
cates figned at the camp befor? 
Quebec, Sept. 18, 1759. 

C Saunders. G. To-ucnjhend. 

De Ramzay. 

Killed In the battle of the 13th 

Memorial pre/er^^cd to the States Ge- 
neral on the I C)lh of October of this 
year., by the Count d JJ'rey, ambaj- 
fadorfrom France. 

riioh and mighty Lords, 

TH ERE are at this time at 
Amikrdam, iron cannon and 
balls of different f.zes belonging to 
the King my mafter. Upon the re- 
port vvhich I made to his majeily. 

One general, one captain, fix lieu- that yojr High MightinefTes made 
tenants, one enfign, three ferjeants, ' '' " '" ' ''' '"'"" ''"'^ 

forty-five rank and file. 

Wounded. One brigadier gene- 
ral, 4 fcalf-oincers, 12 captains, 26 
lieutenants, 10 enfigns, 25 lerjcants, 
4 drummers, 9c6 rank and lile. 

Artillery. One engineer wounde4> 
I gunner killed, 1 bombardier, \ 
gunner, 5 rnatrofies wounded. 

An account of the guns, i£c. found in 
S^ebec, on its furrender to his ma- 
jejlys troops. 

Brafsguns 6pd. ijlrafsmor. i^in. i 


^'ihowitzs. 8 3 


r Iron mort. 1 3 9 

Iron guns 36 

K 10 I 



8 3 



^, „ .77 



jnells 13 in. 770 



10 150 



8 and # 
6 J90 



Brafs petards 2 



with a coriliderablc qiianiit}' of 
powder, ball, fmali arms, and in- 

a difiiculty of fuffering them to be 
carried ou' of your country, he has 
commanded me to reprefent how 
contrary this refufal is to the neu- 
trality vvhich your High Mighti- 
nclTes have embraced. 

Vcur High MightinefTes will be 
p'eafcd to remember, that during 
the whole courfe of this war, the 
King has required nothing from 
your fiiendfh.ip that was inconfiftent 
with the flricle.c impartiality ; and 
if his majcily has departed from the 
engagements that fubiifted between 
him and your High iVIightineffes, it 
was by granting ihe moft e^ential 
and lucrative favours to the com- 
merce of your fubjeds, who wolM 
now have been in poifeffion of the 
immenfe advantages which the pru- 
dence of your relolutions had pro- 
cured for them, had they not bec'n 
ditlurhed in it, in violation of the 
faich of the moft folemn treaties, by 
the enemies of the King my mailer, 
and your rivals in trade. 

1 ihall uotente,-intoacircum{lan- 


For the YEAR 1759. 


tiki detail of theaSftance which our 
enemies, nocwithuanding their be- 
haviour to your republic, have de- 
rived from the trade of your fub- 
jecls, and the protection which their 
effects have found in the territory of 
the republic. I cannot, however, 
forbear taking notice, High and 
Mighty Lords, that the artillery, 
llores, and gunpovvder, that was at 
WeiTel, were depofited in the Unit- 
ed Provinces ; that every body 
knows hew little the Hanoverian 
army refpeiTted the territory of the 
republic on occafion of their palnng 
the Rhine, and the circurriftances 
thatpreceded and followed that event. 

]t is aho known, that when that 
army was obliged to repafs the 
Khine, it had recourfe to the only 
method of favlng a great part of 
their hck and wounded, whom they 
were obliged to leave behind, from 
falling in our hands, by putting 
them into b.)ats, and fending them 
to places whither they knew that 
pur rtfpeCl for the neutrality of the 
republic would not fufrer us to fol- 
jow them. It was at this time that 
the Hanoverian army faved moll of 
the grain, that was in the maga- 
zines, a part of which is iHll laid 
up ill fome towns of tne republic. 
Our enemies have alfo purchafed 
and contracted for very co.ifiderable 
quantities of gunpovvder in the 
United Provinces. 

Thefe and feveral other circum- 
ftances might have been made the 
fubjeft of the jjftelt complaints ; but 
the king did not think it proper to 
require that the freedom and inde- 
pendency of the fabjects of the re- 
public fbiould be reftrained in bran- 
ches of trade, are not inconfill- 
ent with its neutrality, becaufe he is 
venaadcd, that che faith of an en- 

gagement ought to be Inviolably 
preierved, notwithftanding fome ac- 
cidental and tranfient difadvanta- 
ges. Add to this, that his majelly, 
being informed of the prefent criti- 
cal ftate of che republic, was denrous 
of giving your High Mightineflas 
an elFential proof of his friendfhip, 
by ordering the generals of his army 
carefully to avoid encroaching on 
the territory of the republic, and 
transferring thither the theatre of 
war, when the enemy's generals, 
before they were forced to repafs 
the Rhine, feemed to fhuu the 
King's army. 

Your High Mightinefles will cer- 
tainly acknowledge, that after fuch 
marks of regard on the part of the 
King, his majefty would have the 
jufteit ground of complaint, if, con- 
trary to expectation, he Ihould hear 
that the cannon and balls belonging 
to him, which are at Amrterdam, 
were detained there ; and that he 
could not help regarding fuch a 
proceeding as a violation of the 
neutrality which your High Mighti- 
neffes have folemnly engaged to 
obferve, whilll the enemy, under 
cover of this neutrality, draw from 
the fubjects of your republic the 
fuccours they want. 

I therefore demand, in the name 
of the king my mailer, that your 
High Alightine/Tes will be pleafed 
to give the molt efficacious orders, 
that the artillery and balls in que- 
ftion, may be carried without delay, 
by the canals of Amfterdara, aiid 
the inland navigation to Flanders. 
Your High MightinefTes will doubt- 
lefs not hefitate about this juft de- 
mand, fo agreeable to your known 
equity and your grateful fenfe of 
repeated marks of invariable friend- 
fhip given you by the King my ma- 




iler ; difregardingthe imperious and 
groundlefs pretenilons of a neigh- 
bouring and jealous pov./er, which, 
roc content with interrupting your 
navigation and commerce, prete.jds 
tc give law in the bofom of ycur 
ilate, and whofe national fyftem 
tends to ruin your fubjeiTls, if it 
cannot make them fliare in the ca- 
lamities and d:ingers of the war. 
England will not accomplidi this ; 
and your High Mightineffes will 
prove to all Europe, that nothing 
can make them depart from that 
rnofi iniparti il neutrality which they 
have embraced, by giving the King 
tny mailer the fpeedieft and moll 
ample fatisfadion where he is {o 
much intitled to it ; by leaving to 
ycur fubjecls that liberty which is 
necpflliry to their trade ; and by 
granting them that prote;'ion which 
the fyftem and pi.">ceedings of the 
Engliih render indilpenfible. 

TH E enemies of his Pruf- 
_^ fiaa majefly having complain- 
ed of the treatment of their prifo- 
Jiers of war in the Pruffian territo- 
ries, that monarch, who iutfcrs no 
"Bnjuft calumny to prevail againft 
him, has caufed the following jUll:i- 
ficaticn of his conduft to be lent to 
his miniilers at foreign courts. 

" it is hnowh to all Europe, that 
I have provided for all the officers 
who are my prifoners of wsr, as 
well SwedeSj ^s French and Aut 
fiHans, and lately for the Ruii.ans, 
the bail accommodations, and every 
conveniencv ; having, for that end, 
permitted theiti to psfs the titne of 
Iheir captivity In my capital. Ne- 
rerthelefs, as fome of them hrite 
jrofsly abuled the liberty allowed 
them, by keeping up illicit corre- 
ff.ondenge3, and by other pra^lices, 

with which T could not avoid bein^ 
offended ; I have been obliged to 
caufe all of them to be removed to the 
town of Spandau, which n»uft not 
be confounded with the fortrefs of 
that name, from which it is entirely 
feparate, and vi/here they will enjoy 
the fame eafe as at Berlin, bat will 
be more narrowly obferved. This 
is a refolution no one can blame. I 
a:n fufficiently authorifed in it by 
the law of nations, and by the pow- 
ers who are leagued a-alnft me ; the 
court of Vienna having never fuf- 
fered any of my officers, that have 
fallen into their hands, io go to 
Vieiina, and the court of Ruffia 
having lent fome of them even to 
Cafan. However, as my enemies 
let flip no opportunity of blacken- 
ing my m ;I: innocent proceedings, 
I have thought pr iper to acquaint; 
you with my rea-ons for making 
this alteration, with regard to the 
ciacers who are my prifoners, &c." 

Saturday, Oti. 20. This day the right 
hon. the lord mayor, aldcrmeni and 
cotnmcns rfth^ city of London, ivait- 
ed on his majefiy, and being intro- 
duced by the right hon. Mr. Secre- 
tary Pitt, made tkeic compliments 
on the late fuccffes of his majefy^s 
arms', in the foUovjing addrejs . 

May if pleafeyour Majefy, 

O accept the moft humbTe 
but wArmelr congratulations 
of your majefty's dutiful and loyal 
fubjciSlb, the lord mayor, aldermen, 
and common council of the city of 
London, in common council alfem- 
bled, upon the rapid and uninter- 
rupted feries of victories, and fuc- 
celfes, which, under the divine blef- 
fing, have attended your majefty's 


For the YE 

hy fea and land, within the compafs 
of this diilinguifhed and ever me- 
morable year. 

The redudion of Fort duQaefne, 
on the Ohio ; of the iiland ot Goree, 
in Africa; anu of Guadaloupe, with 
its dependence, in the Weil Indies; 
the repulie and defeat of the whole 
French arifty by a li'^ndful of infan- 
try, 'in the plains of Mindcn ; the 
taking of Niagara, Ticohderoga, 
and Crown Point ; the naval victo- 
ry off Cape Lagos ; the advantages 
gained over the French nation in 
the Eaft Indies ; and above all, the 
conqueil of Quebec, (the capital of 
the French '-mpirc in North Ameri- 
ca) in a manner fo gl'uious to your 
majeily's arras, againit every ad- 
vantage of fituation and fuperior 
numbers, are foch events, as will fjr 
everrenderyour rnajelty's aufpicious 
reign the favourite a^ra in the hiuo- 
ry of Great Britain. 

But whilft we rerlc'il with furprife 
and gratitude upon fhis lalt and 
moft important conqueil, permit us, 
molt gracious fovereign, to exprefs 
our regret for the immenfc (though 
almoft only) lofs which has attended 
It, in the death of that gallant ge- 
neral, whofe abilities formed, whofe 
courage aaempced, and whofe con- 
duct happily effetled the glorious 
enterprife in which he fell, ferving 
to future times as an heroic example 
of military ikill, difcipUne and for- 

Meafures of fuch national con- 
cern, fo invariably purfued, and ac- 
quifitions of fo much confequence 
to the power and trade of Great 
Britain, are the noblell proofs of 
your majelty's paternal affeftion and 
jegard for the true intereft of your 
kingdoms, and reileft honour upon 
thofe whom your majefty has been 
pleafed to admit into your councils, 

AR 1759: 251 

or to intruft with the tbnduft of 
your Heets and armies. 

Thefe will ever command the 
lives and f)rtunes of a free and 
grateful people, in defence of your 
majeily's facred perfon, and royal 
family, againll the attempts of all 
your enemies. And we humbly 
trull, that Almighty God will blefs 
your majeily's lalutary intentions, 
with a continuance of fuccefs, and 
thereby iu time lead as to a fafe and 
honourable p^ace. 
To 'which addrefs his majefty ijoas 

pleafed to return this moji gracious 


I receive with particular fatisfac- 
tion, this molt dutiful and loyal ad- 
drefs, as an additional mark of your 
affection to my perfon, and of your 
fignal zeal for the honour of my go- 
vernment, in this jull and necelTary 
war. Our fuccelfes are, under the 
bleffing of God, the natural and 
happy fruit of union amongft my 
people, and of ability and valour ia 
my lieets and armies. I have an en- 
tire confidence in this truly national 
fpirit ; and the city of London may 
depend on my tender care for tha 
rights, trade, colonies, and naviga- 
tion of my faithful fubjedls. 

AhJirnB cf the report made to his Ca- 
tholic fnajejly by ike phyficians ap~ 
pointed to examine the Prince 
Royal, his eldejl fouy in confequence 
of i-vhich his royal highnejs has 
been declared incapable ofjucceed- 
itig to the throne of Spain. Tranf- 
lated from the original, publijhed 
at Naples, Sept. 27. 

I. '' t ^Hough his royal highnefs 

X Don Philip is 13 years old, 

he is of low ilature, and yet ths 

King his father, and the Queen his 




niother, are both of a very proper is continually changing; them, and 


2. His royal highnefs has fome 
contraclion in his joints, though he 
can readily move, and make ufe of 
tliem on all occafions. 

3. His royal highnefs is apt to 
Hoop, and to hold down his head, 
as people of weak eyes often do. 

4. The prince moll evidently 
fquints, and his eyes frequently 
water and are gummy, particulaily 
his left eye ; though we cannot 
fay he is blind, but are rather cer- 
tain of the contrary, as his royal 
highnefs can without dcubt diiiin- 
guifh objeds, both as to their co- 
lour and fituation. 

5. In his natural fundlions, and 
the moft common fenfations, he is 
fometimes indifferent to things that 
are convenient for him, and at 
other times js too warm and impe- 
tuous. In general, his paffions are 
BOt redrained by reafon. 

fhifriag from one thing to another. 
Signed by Don Francis Beniore, 
cliief phyhcian to the King 
and kingdom ; Don Emanuel 
della Pvofa, phyfician to the 
Queen ; and the phyficians 
Ca;far Ciribue, Don Thomas 
Pinto, Don Francis, 
and Don Dominique Saa Se- 

^</^ of abdication and fettbment of the 
croxvn cf the T-ivo Sicilies by his 
rnojl Cathclic Majejy, in fwvour 
cf his third fon., and in prejudice t» 
the natural right of' the elder. 

WE Charles, &c. &c. &c. 
The manifcft weaknefs oi 
mind under which the Prince royal, 
our elded fon, moH unhappily la- 
bours, has greatly increufed the 

6. The prince has an cbllinate anxiety occanoned by the important 

us and concerns of the monar- 
chy cf Spain and the Indies, de- 
volved to us by the de; th of our 
v.ell -beloved brother, his Catholic 
majeriy, Ferdinand VI. According 
to the fpirit cf the treaties of this 
a-^e, Europe requires that the fove- 
reigntv of Spain fhould be feparated 

averfion to fome kind of common 
food, fuch as fruits, fweetmeats^ &c. 

7. All forts of noife or found di- 
fiurbs and difconcerts him, and it 
has the faqne effeft whether it be 
foft and harmonious, or harfli and 

8. The -impreffions that he re- 
ceives from pain or pleafure, are from that cf Italy, when it can be 
neither ilrong nor laft'ing, and he eiTected without tranfgrefling the 
is utterly unacquainted with all the rules of juftice. As we are refclvecj 
pundlilio's of politcnefs and good then to provide a legal fucceiTor to 
breeding. 0!Jr don.inions in Italy before we 

9. As to fa^s and places, he fet out for Spain, it is neceffary be- 
fcmetimes remembers them, and fore we proceed to the choice of one 
fometimes not ; but he feems not of the many fons beftowed on us 
to have the leall ideas of the rnjlle- by heaven, to determine which of 
ries of our holy religion. our youngeil: fons ihall be found 

10. He delights in childifli a- qualiiied to govern the people, and 
mufements ; and thofe which are fucceed to the ftates of the Two 
moft boiHerous pleafe him bjil. He Sicilies, without iinitin^ them with 

tliofe of Spain and the Indies. 
This reafon of convenience for the 
tranquillity cf Europe (which we 
are delirous cf adopting, left it 
ftiould take the alarm on feeing 
by our leaving this affair undecid- 
ed, the fovereignty of Spain united 
in our perfon with the Italian mo- 
narchy) demands that we imme- 
diately take our refolution, with re- 
gard to the fucceiTion of Italy. 

A confiderable body which we 
have compofed of our ccunfellors 
of flate, the privy counfellor of 
Caftile, the chamber of St. Clair, 
the chamber of the finances, and 
the whole junto of Sicily, to whom 
we have added fix of our molt emi- 
nent phyficians, have reported to 
us, that, notwithftanding all the 
examinations, and all the experi- 
ments which they have made, they 
have not been able to find in the 
unfortunate prince royal, either the 
principles of reafon, reHeclioif, or 
judgment, and that as he has been 
in that ilate ever fince his infancy, 
he is net only incapable of any adl 
of religion or reafon, but there is 
not even the haft fiiadow of hope 
that he can ever acquire the ufe of 
his faculties ; unaninioufly con- 
cluding from thence, that we could 
not think of difpofing of it in his 
favour, though it might be agree- 
able to nature, and our paternal 
duty and afrertion. Being con- 
ftrained then by the divine will, for 
this time to pafs by the right of 
Our eldell fon, in favour of the in- 
fant Don Ferdinand, our third fon, 
according to the order of nature, 
his minority obliges us, when we 
fhall refign the fovereignty cf Ita- 
ly, to veit the management of thefe 
realms in a regency, as it is im- 
puiTible for us to aiX as a guardian 

For the YEA R 1759.' 253 

to a fon who fhall be Kin? of the 

Two Sicilies immediately on our 
departure for Spain. 

Having therefore put Don Fer- 
dinand, our third fon, in a condi- 
tion of receiving the cefiion of 
the Italian kingdom?, we previouf- 
ly declare, though perhaps it is un- 
necelTary, that we emancipate, and 
fet him at liberty by this prefent 
aft (which we ordain to be folemnly 
obferved, and have all the force of 
a legal act, nay even of a law) and 
that he is, from this time, freed, 
not only from all obedience to our 
paternal power, but even from all 
fubmiOion to our fupreme and fc- 
vereign authority. 

In the next place, we eftablilh 
and appoint a cauncil of regency, 
for the time of the minority of our 
above mentioned third fon (who is 
to be fovereign of our Italian king- 
dons, and lord of ail the eitates 
formerly poffeffed by us) in order, 
that this council may exercife the 
fovereignty during that time, ac- 
cording to the orders prefcribed by 
us in an ordinance of this day's 
date, figned v.ith our own hand, 
fealed with our own feal, and coun- 
terfigned bv our counfellor and 
fecretary of ftate for the depart- 
ment of ftate and palace royal ; de- 
firing tha.t this ordinance ihall be 
regarded as an elfential part of this 
prefent aft, as if it were inferted 
therein, and repeated word for 
word, to the end that it may have 
equally the force of a law. 

In the third place, we fix and 
determine (according to the per- 
petual and eftablilhed law of our 
eliates and demeines of Italy) that 
the minority of the princes, who 
fucceed to rhe kingdom of the 
Two Sicilies, Ihall expire when they 




have accomplifhed their fixteenth 
year, and that then they (hali aft 
as ibvereigns, and have the entire 
power of the adminiltration. 

In the fourth place, we eftablifh 
likewife, as a conilant and per- 
petual law, with regard to rht- fug- 
ceffion of the infant Don Ferdi- 
nand, and for the more a.nple ex- 
planation of the foregoing arrange- 
ments, that this fuccciljon be re- 
gulated, according to primogeni- 
ture, with right of reprefentation 
in the mafculine line, from male 
to male. In cafe the lall reprefen- 
tative of the dired line Ihould die 
without children, the eidell of the 
males of the neareft branch (hall 
fucceed to him, whether it be his 
uncle by the father's fide, or his 
brother ; or in a more diilant de- 
gree, provided he is the eldeft of 
the line, (according to the form be- 
fore fpecified) and fprung from that 
branch, which lliall become, or has 
already become, the neareil to the 
eldeft and dired line of the infant 
Don Ferdinand, or the immediate 
preceding reigning prince. 

We eliablifh the fame order in 
default of all the male iiTue of the 
males of the mafculine line of the 
above mentioned Don Ferdinand 
(from male to male) in courfe, to 
the infant Don Gabril, our fon, to 
whom the fucceflion fhall then de- 
volve, and to his defcendants from 
male to male, as it is before fet 
forth. If the faid Don Gabril, or 
his defcendants, Ihall fail of iflue, 
(proceeding from males) the fuc- 
ceffion Ihall pafs, in the fame order 
zs above, to the infant Don Antho- 
ny, and to his male defcendants 
(proceeding from males;) aod in 
failure of male ilTue (proceeding 
from males) of this laft, and his 
pofterity, the fuccefiion ihall dc- 

vplve, always after the fame mc- 
th-^id, to the infant Don Xavicr, 
and after him and his mafculine 
defcendants, (as belore fpecihed) to 
thofe iniantb, which it (lidll pleafe 
God hereafter to grant us, accord- 
ing to the o.uer of nature, and, in 
courfp, to their iifue male. 

In cnfe of the exiindion, in our 
poflcriry, of all the males (pro- 
ceeding from males ) the fuccefiion 
uiall belong to the female iliue of 
the fanie blood, (defcending in a di- 
reil male line) who fnall be living 
at the tirne of this extindion (whe- 
ther it be our daughter, or the 
daughter of any other prince of 
our pollerity, proceeding from the 
male line) who fhall be neareft to 
the reigning king, or to the laft of 
the males (defcended fro.m males) 
who fails of ifTue, or to the imme- 
diately preceding prince, who fliaH 
die without ilTue ; always under- 
ftiinding, neverthelefs, that the 
right of reprefentation be conftant- 
ly obferved, and that the proxi- 
mity, and quality of the cideil fe- 
male be adjufted accordingly, with 
refpedl to the male defcent, in re- 
gard to which, as well as the maf- 
culine defcendants of the male iffue 
of her who (hall fucceed, the order 
above eftablifhed fliall be obferved. 

In default of all which the fuc- 
cefiion fhall devolve to the infant 
Don Philip, our very dear brother, 
and to his defcendants, from male 
to male, aJ infrdtum ; and if this 
branch fliould likewife fail, the 
faid fuccefiion fliall likewife pafs to 
our very dear brother the infant 
Don Lewis, and to his defcendants, 
from male to male ; and in fiiort, 
if thefe fliould likewife fail, to the 
heirs female in direct male line, 
following therein the order above 
prefcribed ; obierving always, that 


For the YEAR 

according to the order of fuccefiion 
before fet forth, the monarchy of 
Spain {hall never be united with the 
fovereignty of the kingdom of the 
Two Sicilies. 

That the males or females de- 
fcended from us, above fpecified, 
may never be admitted to the fove- 
reigntv of the Rates of Italy, in cafe 
they fhall be, or ought to be de- 
clared Kings of Spain or Princes of 
Allurias, .inother male muft be ap- 
pointed, who, in virtue of this pre- 
sent difpofition, may fucceed to the 
Italian kingdoms : but if fuch is 
not to be found, the King of Spain 
Ihall be obliged to transfer the do- 
minions in Italy to a younger fon, 
a nephew, or a nephew's fon, if 
aj3y he has. 

Having thus eftablifhed the fuc- 
cefiion of our defcendants in the 
kingdoms of the Two Sicilies, we 
humbly recommend to God the in- 
fant Don Ferdinand, giving him 
at the fame time our paternal be- 
nedidlion, recommending to him 
the Catholic religion, juftice, cle- 
mency, vigilance, and a love for 
the people, who deferve our fincere 
acknowledgments for the unfeigned 
fidelity they have always mani- 
fefted for us, and for our royal fa- 
mily. We cede, transfer, and 
make over to the faid Don Ferdi- 
nand, our third fon, according to 
the order of nature, the kingdoms 
of the Two Sicilies, and all the 
other eftates, pretenfions, rights, 
titles, goods, and Hocks, which 
we poiTefs in Italy, making from 
this moment, a full and compleat 
deliv-ery, without refervation of the 
fmalleli particle ; to the end that 
from the inftant of our departure 
frcni this capital, the faid infant 
may, vvith advice of the council of 
ilate and the regency, adminiller 

1759- ^55 

and govern all that which we 
have juft now afligned, transferred, 
and made over. We hope that this 
law of emancipation, the conilitu- 
tion for the age of majority, the 
appointment of the tutelage and cu- 
ratage for the King, during his mi- 
nority, the fucceiTion of the eftates 
and jurifdiftions of Italy, thecelhon 
and donation, will turn cut for ths 
advantage of the people, the tran- 
quillity of our royal family, and 
that in ihort it will contribute to 
the repofe of all Europe. 

The prefent ordinance is figned 
by us, and by our fon the infant 
Don Ferdinand, and fealed vvith 
our arms, and countenlgned by the 
counfellors, and fecretary of Itate, 
who underiign it likewife, in qua- 
lity of members of the regency, 
and tutors of the above named ia- 
fant Don Ferdinand. 

At Naples, 061. 6, 1759. 


This law has been read in pre- 
fence of the chambre royal of St. 
Claire, the Syndic, Sec. of the city 
of Naples, the deputies of the fe- 
nate and cities of Palermo, &c. &c. 

Tratijlation of a memorial prefcr.ted 
to the States General, hy Major 
Gin. Torke, en the z%th cf Sep- 
tember, of this year. 

Am exprefsly commanded by the 
_ King my mafler, to acquaint 
your High Mightineffes, that his 
majelly hath received repeated ad- 
vices of a contraband trade carried 
en by fome merchants refiding in 
tiiefe provinces, in favour of France. 
This trade ccnfifts in cannon and 
warlike (lores which are brought 
from the Baltic to Holland in 





Dutch vefTels : and his majefty hath 
too much confidence in the fricnd- 
fiiip of the republic, to entertain the 
lealt doubt that your High Mighti- 
nefies will not fuffer his enemies to 
be aided by your fubjeclf, and llill 
Jefs permit them to make arfcnals 
of vour towns. Such a trade is, 
on the one hand, wholly repugnant 
to the connexions, which, by trea- 
ty, ought to fubfill betv\,ecn the 
King and your High Mightine.Tes, 
and on the other to every idea of 
neutrality, whether formal or tacit. 
Your High Mightincfles are in- 
formed, not only by the public voice 
and the immenfe preparations mak- 
ing on the coaft of the ocean, but 
alfo in an authentic manner, by the 
French ambalTador refiding here, 
that his court intends to invade 
his majefty's kingdoms ; and your 
High Mightinelfes will eafily per- 
ceive tliat fuch an acknowledge- 
ment authorifes the King to take 
his meafures, on every fide, for his 
fecurit ; and the demand I have 
this day the honour to make to 
you, is much lefs than his majefty 
is intided by treaty to reclaim in 
fuch a conjundure. 

The vigilance of the Englifh 
fquadron hniders warlike ftores 
from being openly carried to the 
ports of France, and lays that 
crown under a neceffity of procur- 
ing them by the moft fecret me- 
thods, which it hopes to do under 
the borrowed names of private per- 
fons, by bringing them on the ri- 
vers and canals of this country, and 
through the Dutch fortrellcs to 
Dunkirk, and other places. 

Your High ^HghtineHes will ea- 
fily perceive how hurtful thi; con- 
dutSl is to the King ; and i doubt 
not but you will ma.^e him eafy on 

that head, and immediately put t 
Hop to it. 

The attention which his majefty 
hath lately given to the reprefenta- 
tions of your High Mightineffcs, 
againd the excefies of the Englilh 
privateers, by confining their crui- 
zes and their fearchcs, by an ad 
of parliament, gives his majelly a 
good tiiie to the fame regard on 
your part. 

The trading towns nf your pro- 
vinces feel the good effeds of it, 
and that freedom of navigation 
which your fubjeds enjoy, amidlt 
the troubles by which Europe is 
diftraded, hath augmented your 
commerce much above what it hath 
been for feveral years pail. Some 
return ought to be made for fuch a 
folid proof of the King's friend- 
fnip and moderation ; at lealt the 
merchants who are fo readv to com- 
plain of England, ought not to 
be permitted to give into exceffes 
which would have jaltified the molt 
rigorous examination of the'r con- 
dud. Accordingly, his majelly hath 
no doubt that your High iViighti- 
neiTes will give all polnble atten- 
tion to this matter. Permit mc. 
High and Mighty Lords, to re- 
call to your memories, that, dur- 
ing the courle of the prcfent war, 
the King hath fevcral times ap- 
plied, through me, to- your High 
Migbtinelfes and to your minillers 
on the liberty given to carry ilores 
through the fortrefies of the repub- 
lic, for the ufc of France, to in- 
vade his dominions ; and if his 
majelly hath pafled over in filence 
many of thefe inllances of com- 
plaifance to his enemy, his majelly 
was not the lefs fenlible of them ; 
but he chofe rather to be a fufferer 
himldf, than to increale the em- 

For the YEAR 1759; 


Wrraflment of his neighbours, or 
extend the flames of war. 

Even the court of Vienna has, on 
more than one occafion, employed 
its intcreft with your High Mighti- 
neffes, and lent its name to get 
paffes for warlike llores and pro- 
vifions for the French troops, un- 
der pretence of the Barrier treaty, 
which it no longer obferves ; and 
after having put France in poffeffion 
of the ports of Oftend and Nieu- 
port, in manifeft breach of that 
treaty, and without any regard to 
the rights which your High Mighti- 
neffes, and the King my malter, 
have acquired in that treaty, at the 
price of their treafures, and the 
blood of their fubjetls, all the 
world knows that that treaty was 
never made to ferve France againfc 
Great Britain. 

The underfigned flatters himfelf, 
that from the equity of your High 
Mightinefl"es, and the value you fet 
on the friendfhip of the King my 
matter, you will foon be able to 
make his majefty eafy by the wife 
meafures you ihall take to prevent 
any thing from being done for the 
fake of private inrereft, that may 
prejudice the King's caufe, and the 
treaties fubfifting between his ma- 
jefty and you. 

J. Yo R K E. 

Hague, Sept. 28, 1759. 

^his piece may be deemed curious, in- 
a/much as it Jheojjs the independency 
cf the States of the United Pro- 
njtnces of each other. 

Hague, Nov. 8. 

TH E following placart has 
been lluck up in all the 
towns of this province. 

" The ftates of Holland and 
Vol. II. 

Weft-friezeland, to all whom thefe 
prefents Ihall come, greeting : 
Whereas the States of the town of 
Groninguen and Ommelanden did, 
in former times, negotiate, in be- 
half ©f their province, large fums 
of money on annuities, which were 
furniliied to them by many inhabi- 
tants of this province, as letters 
delivered to the perfons concerned 
do teftify: the faid Lords the States 
were at firft very negligent in ful- 
filling their promifes, and after- 
wards, from time to time, fell fo 
much in arrear, that, iince the year 
1685, the greateil part of the faid 
annuities have remained unpaid ; 
fo that the total of the juft claims 
on them aiijounts to feveral hundred 
thoufand florins. 

Though the faid Lords the States 
could not controvert the authenti- 
city of the debt, neverthelefs the 
frequent jull complaints made by 
the parties concerned of default of 
payment, and the divers repeated 
reprefentations and folicitations 
which we caufed to be made, and 
which were ofien fupported by their 
High MightinelTes themfelves, have 
not had any effect (except a fmali 
payment made feveral years ago, 
when vigorous proceedings were 
begun in this province;) inafmuch. 
as the faid Lords the States, who 
always found methods to content 
their own fubjedls, have never 
wanted pretexts to protraft this af- 
fair, as far as the inhabitants of 
this province v.'ere concerned, tho* 
they made continual promifis to 
take the fpeediefl and moil efFeftual 
refolutions to remove all fubjedl of 
complaint. But all thefe folenm 
promifes have had no efr'ecl, and 
we are fully perfuaded that they 
were not made v/ith an intentioa 
to be fuliilied ; of which we had 
S lately 



lately a prilpable proof: for his 
late moll ferene highnefs, of glo- 
rious memory, having in 1749, by 
virtue of powers given him by the 
faid Lords the States, put the po- 
litical and juridical affairs of the 
faid province upon a folid and equi- 
table footing, by a law and regula- 
tion that was never to be repealed ; 
and in conformity thereto, the par- 
ties concerned having fued the 
faid Lords the States for the ar- 
rears they owed, and after the fuit 
had laRed fome years, the faid 
Lords the States feeing no way to 
avoid being caft, did, in contempt 
of the laws they themfelves had 
made, exclude the faid concerned 
from the courts of juitice ; without 
regarding the powerful intercefTion 
of his late royal highnefs of glori- 
ous memory, and his repeated in- 
ftances to them to difcharge this 
juft debt, or at leaft to take proper 
meafures in behalf of the faid con- 

The affair being thus managed, 
and brought into a fituation that 
ill fuited between allies, and was 
even inconfifcent with all juftice, or 
even common honelly ; we have 
judged upon the whole, that ac- 
cording to law and equity, as well 
as precedents, nothing remained 
for us but to grant the parties 
concerned our protedlicn, and 
permiinon to make ufe of open 
force, in fuch a manner as the 
faid parties have already em:?loyed 
it, as theonly method of recovering 
the arrears juflly due to them : and 
this llep was not taken by us, till 
after giving notice thereof long 
before-hand to the faid Lords the 
States, that they might prevent Jt 
by reafonable m.eafures ; but as 
they paid no regard thereto, and 
contented themfelves with oflering. 

in a difobliging and indecent re- 
fcript, 15 per cent, of the faid ar- 
rears, which would fcarce pay the 
cofts the parties had been at in fo 
many years to obtain payment : 
and moreover, we having heard 
with great furprize, that the faid 
Lords the States of Groninguen, in- 
ftead of being thereby induced to 
make fome amicable regulations 
with regard to a debt which they 
themfelves acknowledge to be fo 
jurt, and afterwards to make us 
equitable propofals to prevent fur- 
ther broils, and hinder the province 
and its inhabitants from receiving 
other detriment, they were, on the 
contrary, greatly piqued at our 
manner of proceeding, to which 
they themfelves forced us ; and 
fought to blacken it, by alledging 
that it was contrary to all law, to 
revive old claims, to the prejudice 
of their inhabitants ; from this idea 
they have proceeded to meafures, 
which we, in order to fliew our 
moderation towards our allies, de- 
ferred taking till we fliould fee 
what other turn might be given to 
aifairs, and of all with which the 
province of Groninguen charges us, 
there is not one thing which did 
not take its rife from themfelves, 
who ought to have granted redrefs: 
and as we are by no means difpo- 
fed to drop our legal proceeding, 
till we obtain proper fatisfaclion, 
we find ourfelves forced to oppofe 
the unjuft condud of the States of 
Groninguen, and to grant the moft 
efiicacious protedion to our inha- 
bitants who are fo much injured. 

For thefe caufes, we have 
thought proper to grant permiflion, 
as we do by thelb prefents, that 
the parties concerned in the faid 
annuities on the province of Gro- 
ninguen (befides the attachment 


For the YEAR tysg 

they have already. In confequence 
of our permiffion, laid on fome vef- 
fels, efFefts, or merchandize belong- 
ing to the faid province, or fome of 
its inhabitants, or the attachment 
they may hereafter lay) feize all o- 
thereffeds, adions, debts, andfams 
of money, without exception, which 
the inhabitants of the province of 
Groninguen may poflefs or be 
entitled to in this province ; the 
inhabitants whereof we enjoin not 
to make, in any manner whatever, 
any remittances of money er effects 
to thofe of the province of Gronin- 
guen, nor to make them any pay- 
ments or transfer, but to keep the 
whole in their pofreifion ; we more- 
over will, that thofe who, contrap/ 
to this prefent prohibition, fhall 
jnake thefe forts of payments or 
transfers, be not only judged to 
have violated thofe attachments ; 
but farther that, in cafe thofe fums 
of money or effeds fhOuld be de- 
manded of them a fecond time, 
the receipts they may have for 
fuch payments or deliveries fhall 
not be judged valid j but they 
Ihall be bound to deliver fuch fums 
of money and effects to the per- 
fons appointed by a judge, in the 
fame manner as if they had paid 
nothing ; the whole to the end that 
in cafe the faid States of Gronin- 
guen fhould, contrary to expefta- 
tion, perfili in refufmg to give the 
faid concerned proper fatisfadion, 
by this or other methods hereaf- 
ter to be employed, payment of 
the faid arrears may be procured, 
vrith. fome indemnification for the 
farther damage caufed to our in- 
habitants by the proceedings begun 
by the States of Groninguen, and 
all other lolles refulting from a con- 
duel, not only fo unjuft in itfelf, 
and fo unufual among allien, bu: 


alfo repugnant to the laws and 
principles of right and equity. 

We moreover give notice by 
thefe prefents to all oor trading in- 
habitants, and all others whom it. 
may concern, that on occauon of 
the violences committed by the 
States of Groningtjen, contrary to 
all right and reafon, and merply 
to elude the payn^eni; of a debt 
acknowledged to be juft, ag::in{l 
the ftatcs and effeds of the inha- 
bitants of this province, that they 
abliain from fending any elFeds or 
merchanaizes to the province of 
Groninguen, that they may not be 
expofed to fuffer lofs : the whole 
provilionaily, and until we give 
further orders." 

T^e humble addrefs of the right ho' 
nourahh the Lords fpiritual and 
temporal in parliament ajjembledj 
prefented to his viajefiy on the four- 
teenth day of November , 1759» 

Mof gracious Sovereign, 

WE your majefty's moll duti- 
ful and loyal fubjeds, the 
Lords fpiritual and temporal in par- 
liament aiTembled, beg leave to ap- 
proach your majefty with the warm- 
efc fentiments of duty, and witii 
hearts full of the moll fmcere joy, to 
congratulate your majefty upon the 
great and Hgnal fuccef-^ with which 
it has pleafed Almighty God to 
profper your majefcy's unwearied 
endeavours for the fafety, welfare, 
and honour of your people. 

We acknowledge, with aUtliank- 
fulnefs and humility, the goodnefs of 
the divine providence, in the many 
glorious events, which will for ever 
dillinguiili this memorable year. 

We entirely rely upon your ma- 
jefty's conilaat regard and artention 
S z t*- 



to the true intereft of your fubjefts, 
from the full experience which \vc 
have had of the wife and cffedual 
ufe, which your majelly has made 
cf all the extenfive powers, with 
which the confidence of parliament 
has, from time to time, ftrengthencd 
your majefty's hands. But we muft, 
in 2 particular manner, gratefully 
acknowledge the extraordinary vi- 
gilance, vigour, and wifdom of your 
majclly's meafurcs, in the Heady and 
fuccefsful dire£\ion of fo many va- 
rious operations in dilFerent parts of 
the world. 

The happy progrefs of your ma- 
leRy's arms, from the taking of 
Goree on the coaft of Africa, and 
ifome of the French fugar iflands in 
the Weft Indies, to the acquifition 
of many important places in Ame- 
rica, and the defeat of the enemy's 
army in Canada, with the redudtion 
cf the capital city of Quebec, a- 
gainft the greateft difadvantage of 
Situation and numbers, has exceeded 
the moft fanguine hopes of your 
majefty's faithful fubjedls : nor has 
the good eftcAs of your majefty's 
prudent meafures been lefs confpi- 
cuous, in the difappointment of 
the dangerous defigns of your ene- 
mies in the Eaft Indies ; in the ef- 
fedual blocking up the principal 
part of the French fleet in their 
own ports ; and the important ad- 
vantage gained off Cape Lagos ; 
while your majefty's care has pre- 
fer ved your own kingdoms from 
any hoftile attempt, and has pro- 
tected the navigation and commerce 
of your own fubjeds, in almoft as 
full a fecurity as during the time of 
profound peace. 

The memorable viflory gained 
over the French near Minden, ran- 
r>ot but make a deep and lafting 
imprefiion upon every Britifu mind. 

Whether we confider the great 
and able conduft of your majefty's 
general Prince Ferdinand of Brunf- 
wick, the valour of your majefty's 
troops, the inequality of force, or 
the imminent peril of that impor- 
tant crifis ; the happy deliverance 
wrought by that action, and the 
glorious confequences of it, muft 
ever be the fubjed of our praife and 

It is matter of juft exultation to 
us, that the Britifli officers and pri- 
vate men, both by fea and land, 
have given fo many fliining in- 
ftances of pcrfonal bravery and 
military condudt. Their example 
will animate others : their reputa- 
tion is national ftrength, and will 
convince the enemy what they have 
to apprehend from a brave and 
gallant people, fired with zeal iu 
defence of their Kinc^ and country. 

We beg leave to exprefs the high 
fenfe we have of the magnanimity 
and tranfcendent abilities of the King 
of Pruflia; which have, in afurpriz- 
ing manner, prevented the m.ifchie- 
vous eftects of the united force of 
fo many confiderable powers, by 
which he has been attacked and fur- 
rounded on all fides ; againft whom 
he has bore up and fupported him- 
felf by the fortitude and inexhauf- 
tible refources of hib own mind, 
and the courage and difcipline of 
his troops. 

Permit us to declare, how highly 
we applaud your majefty's mode- 
ration and true greainefs of mind, 
in reftraining every impulfe of re- 
fentment, and defiring to prevent 
the farther effufion of chriftian 
blood, by putting an end to the 
war, (into which your majefty en- 
tered, not from views of ambition, 
but folcly from the defence cf the 
laudable rights, pofTeffions, and com- 

For the YEAR 1759J 


mffrcial interells of your kingdoms) 
as foon as fuch terms of peace can 
be ellabliihed, as flmll be juft and 
honourable for your majefty and 
your allies ; and by procuring fuch 
advantages, as, from the fuccefles 
of your majefty's arms, may in rea- 
fon and equity be expefted, Ihall 
bring with them full fecurity for the 

In order to the attainment of this 
great and defirable end, we beg 
leave to aiTure your majefty of our 
utmoft readinefs to concur in the 
effeclual fupport of fuch further 
meafures as your majefty, in your 
great wifdom, Ihall judge neceffary 
or expedient, for carrying on the 
war with vigour in all parts, and for 
difappointing and repelling any def- 
perate attempts which may be made 
upon thefe kingdoms. 

Our prayers are fincere and fer- 
vent for the prolongation of your 
majefty's moft precious life ; our 
endeavours fliall never be wanting 
to continue and confirm that affec- 
tion to your majefty's facredperfon, 
that confidence in your government, 
that zeal for the proteftaut fuccef- 
fion in your royal family, and that 
union and harmony fo confpicuous 
amongft all your fubjedls, which is 
fo effential to their own fecurity and 
happinefs, and to the fruftrating the 
defigns of your majefty's enemies. 

His Majefty's moft gracious anfwer. 

My Lords, 
I thank you for this very dutiful 
and affedVionate addrefs. The fatis- 
fadion you fo unanimoufly exprefs 
in the fucceffes with which it has 
pleafed God to blefs my arms by 
fea and land, and the afi"urance5 you 
give me of your further fupport, 
are extremely agreeable to me; and 
cannot^ fail to produce the bel! 
cifefts in the prefent conjuncture. 

T^e humble addrefs of the houfe of 
Commons to the King, 

Moft gracious Sovereign, 

WE your majefty's moft dutiful 
and loyal fubjeds, the Com- 
mons of Great Britain in parliament 
aifembled, return your majefty our 
moft humble thanks for the fpeech 
delivered, by your majefty's com- 
mand, to both houfes of parlia- 

Permit us. Sir, with the fmcereft 
zeal and duty, to congratulate your 
majefty on the glorious and unin- 
terrupted feries of fuccefs and vic- 
tory, v.'hich hath attended your ma- 
jefty's arms, during the whole courfe 
of this diftinguilhed aud memorable 

With the deepeft reverence, and 
moft devout gratitude to divine pro- 
vidence, we acknowledge thatmani- 
feft bleffing and proteclion, which 
God hath vouchfafed to beftow up- 
on your majefty's counfels and arms, 
and offer up our moft ardent vows 
and prayers for its continuance. 

Your majefty's faithful Commons 
will not attempt to enumerate ail 
the advantages and glcries derived 
to your majefty, and thefe kirig- 
doms, from the various fucceffes, 
v.'-hich have been extended into 
every quarter of the vvorld ; but 
we humbly beg leave to affurp your 
majefty, that our hearts are filled 
with the moft grateful and lively 
fenfe of the happy confequences, 
which, under God, are owing to 
the wifdom, vigilance, and vigour, 
of your majefty's meafures in tha 
profecution of this juft and neceffary 
war : particularly the taking of the 
illand of Goree, and the extenfion 
of our commerce on the coaft of 
S -^ Africa 



Africa : the defeat of the French 
fleet in the Eali: Indies, and the re- 
pulfe of their land forces before 
Madrafs, whvreby the dangerous 
defif^ns or" our enemies there have 
niifcarritd^ and proteftionhath been 
given to cJr trade and fettlements 
in thofe countries : the valuable 
conquefl o] Guadeloupe and Iv^arie- 
galante in the Weft Indies : the re- 
dutuon of fo many forts and places 
in North America, compleated and 
crowned by that glorious and de- 
cillve viftory over'the French army 
in Canada, and the furrender of 
their capital city Quebec, etiefted 
with fo much honour to the cou- 
rage and conduft of your majefty's 
officers both by fea and land, and 
with fo much lultre to your intrepid 
forces : the important fuccefs of 
your niajefty's fieet, in purfuing, 
taking:, and dellroying a confider- 
ablc part of the French fquadron off 
Cape Lagos ; and blocking up, for 
fo many months, the reft of the 
navy of France, in their own ports, 
which had greatly augmented the 
diftrefs of our enemies, whilft it has 
protected and fecured our commerce 
and navigation. 

Nor can we ever forget that cri- 
tical, fignal, and mem.orable defeat 
of the French army near Minden, 
fo jui^ly the fubjecl of lading ad- 
miration and thankfulnefs, if we 
confider the fuperior numbers of 
the enemy, the great and able con- 
duel of his fercne highnefs Prince 
Ferdinand of Brunfvvick, or the 
unconquerable valour of your ma- 
jefly's troops. 

When wc refleft upon this con- 
tinued train of fuccelTes, part of 
which v.'ould have been fufficie'^t 
to have fignal ized this long and ac- 
tive campaign, it is impofiible for 
us not to exprefs the highell fatif- 

faclion at the great ability, refolu- 
tion, and perfect harmony, fo con- 
fpicuous in your majefty's admirals 
and generals throughout the execu- 
tion of your commands ; and at the 
ardent courage, which hath m.ani- 
feftcd itfelfin the behaviour of the 
officers and forces by fea and land, 
with fuch perfonal and national 
glory. Nothing but this fpirit 
could have enabled them to fur- 
mount every difficulty arifing from 
the fuperior number, and advanta- 
geous fituation of the enemy ; and 
we are fully perfuaded, that the like 
refolution, ardour, and zeal, excited 
and animated by thefe beft incen- 
tives, your majefty's gracious ac- 
ceptance and royal approbation of 
their eminent fervices, followed by 
the warmeft and moll univerfal ap- 
plaufe of their country, will con- 
tinue to give terror to the enemies, 
and confidence to the allies of Great 

We view, with the higheft admi- 
ration, the magnanimity and unex- 
ampled efforts of that great prince, 
your majefty's ally the King of 
Pruffia, whofe confummate genius, 
unwearied activity, and unfhaken 
conftancy of mind, feconded by the 
bravery of his troops, have been 
able, in every f:tuation, to fupply 
refcurces fufficient to refift the u- 
nited forces of fo many and fucJi 
formidable powers. 

Your majefty's faithful Commons 
feel, with due gratitude, your pa- 
ternal care and concern for the 
peace and hnppinefs of your peo- 
ple ; and cannot too much admire 
that true greatnefs of mind, which 
difpofes your heart, in the midft of 
profperities, to wifh that a ftop 
mav be put to the effufton of chri- 
flian blood, and that public tran- 
quilitv may be rellored. 

For the YEAR 1759, 


We entirely rely on your majefty's 
known wifdom and firmnefs, that 
this defirable objeft, whenever it 
fhall be attained, will be on fuch 
terms as fiiall be juft and honourable 
for your majefty and your allies ; 
and Ihall bring along with them full 
fecurity for the future, on folid and 
durable foundations, by procuring 
fuch advantages as may, in reafon 
and equity, be expefted from the 
fuccefs of our arms, and which will 
fix, in the minds ofa grateful people, 
the lafting remembrance of this hap- 
py zera, and of the benefits derived 
to them, under your majefty's glo- 
rious and aufpicious government. 

In order to efFeft this great end, 
we are thoroughly fenfible that am- 
ple provifion mull be made for car- 
rying on the war, in all parts, with 
the utm-oft vigour : and v;e affure 
your majefty, that we will chearfully 
grant your majefty fuch fupplies, as 
ihali be found neceffary to fuftain, 
and prefs with effeft, all our exten- 
five operations againft the enemy, 
and at the fame time, by the blef- 
fing of God, to repel and fruftrate 
their daring defigns againft thefe 
kingdonis ; convinced from the 
long experience we have had of the 
wifdom and goodnefs of your majef- 
ty, that they will be applied in fuch 
a manner, as will beft anfwer thefe 
great purpofes. 

We cannot fufficiently teftify our 
grateful fenfe of the high fatisfac- 
ticn, which your majefty has been 
pleafed to exprefs, in that perfedl 
union and good harmony, which 
fo happily fubfifts amongft your 
faithful fubjefts, the falutary effefts 
ofwhich have been moftconfpicuous; 
and the pleafing experience we have 
had of them, joined to your majefty's 
paternal recommendation, muft be 
the moft powerful motiv^es to enforce 

the continuance of thofedifpofitions, 
foeftential to the full exertion cf 
oui' utmoft ftrength, as well as to 
the tranquility, good order, andhap- 
pinefs, of your majefty's people. 
His majefty's moft gracious anfwer. 
I return you my hearty thanks 
for this moft dutiful and affectio- 
nate addrefs, and for your unani- 
mous zeal for the defence of my 
crown, and for the fupport of my 
allies. You may always rely m 
my conftant care for the lafting 
welfare of my people. 

Ex/raJl of a letter fiihlifi?ed in the 
Paris Ga'x.ettetfroin Marfhal Con- 
fians to Comte St. Florentin, fccre- 
tary of marine y dated at Vatines in 
Bretagne, Nou. 22, 1759. 

PUrfuant to his moft chriftlan 
majefty's orders, having re- 
ceived a reinforcement of men out 
of M. Bompart's fquadron, I failed 
from Breft the 14th inftant, with 
a defign to give battle to the Bri- 
tifti fleet, who had been making 
their bravadoes all the laft fummcr 
off" our harbour ; but was deceived 
in my expeftation ; for the enemy 
(as 1 imagine) being informed of 
our defign, had abandoned the 
ccaft. 1 cruized two days in hopes 
of their return, but to no purpofe. 
At laft I formed a refolution to cut 
off Commodore Duff's fquadron, 
confifting of twenty fail of the line, 
moored in Quiberon Bay. Upon 
the 20th in the morning, being a 
little S. W. of Belleifie, the wea- 
ther hazy, and a frefti gale at N. W. 
I favv^ to windward a fleet cf fliips, 
which I took to be a convoy of 
viftuallers for M. Duff's fquadron, 
not judging it poflible for the ene- 
my's fleet to be fo near : neverthe- 
S 4 lefs. 



lefs, whatever might happen, I made 
theTipnal i'<n a line of battle. We 
were not half formed, when the 
weather clearing up, wc could 
plainly ftc it was the enemy's H'.et, 
confiding of forty fail of the line of 
battle, befides frigates, advancing 
in three divilions ; fo that we were 
in a manner farrounded. I judged 
it moll conducive to tl;e good of 
his majclly's fervice to avoid ha- 
zard in <( a general engagement at 
that vine; and rather to train on 
the cjiemy through the Ihoals and 
roc'is in the entrance of the river At half an hour part two 
in the afternoon, the enemy's van 
came up vvith our rear, and were 
warmly received by Monf. Verger, 
who commanded that divifion : but 
he and ail his oihcers being killed, 
there being no lefs than twelve of 
the enemy's fnipsengaged with him, 
his flnip, the Formidable, rtruclc at 
lail to Admiral Ilawke. ThcThe- 
ice and Superbe were overfet by a 
fquail of wind. At half an hour 
raft four, a ihipof three decks car- 
rying a fing, which 1 took to be 
Monf. Hawke's, came alongfide 
the Soieil Royal, where I com- 
manded ; hut he met with fuch a 
warm reception, that he was obliged 
to (heer 0:t in a little time ; though 
our rigging and fails were fo fliat- 
tered, Iha^ the thip not anfwering 
the helm, was obliged to run afhore 
an the nig t ; as did the Hero in 
the famecondiiion : nor could we 
hinder the enemy from burning 
both fliips next morning. Mean 
time the Orient alone drove two 
of their capital Ihips alhore upon a 
iand cahcd Le Four. Next day 
we had the misfortune to lofe the 
Juile upon a ro.k in the mouth of 
the river Loire. The remainder 
of our fleet got fafe into Rochfort 

and the river Vilaine : and as they 
have not fudained more damage 
than maybe foon repaired, lexpedl, 
by the junftion of Monf. Bompart's 
fquadron, to be foon able to g've 
a good account of the enemy, not- 
withftanding they have the boldnefs 
to moor upon our coafl. 

S/. jfames's, Friday, No-j. 23. 

Til E humble addrefs of the 
chancellor, mailers and fcho- 
lars of the univerfity of Oxford, was 
prefented to his majefly by the Rev. 
Doftor Brown, vice-chancellor, and 
provoit of Queen's college ; v^'hich 
his majelcy received very graciouf- 
ly. And they all had the honour 
of kiflinghis majefty's hand. 

To the King's moll excellent 
MoJI gracious Sovereign, 
" We the chancellor, mafters 
and fcholars of your majefty's moft 
loyal and faithful univerfity of Ox- 
ford, beg leave, amidft the gene- 
ral acclamations of a joyful and 
united people, to approach your 
facred perfon with hearts full of 
duty and aliedion, mcft humbly to 
congratulate your mrjefty on the 
many glorious and happy events of 
this memorable year. 

The uninterrupted and unparal- 
leled feries of fuccelVes w-^.i^h have 
attended )Our majelly's plans ofo- 
peration, during the courfe of a war 
I'o uncommonly complicated and 
extenuve, will ever ftand diftin- 
gaiftieU with a p^rcuhar luftrc i; the 
a inals of Great : fuc;eues, 
equally remarkable fjr th.u num- 
ber, x-ariety and ; every 
quarter of ihe globe hcving atrord- 
cd fcenes for your majeiiy's fignal 
triumphs both by fta and land, 


For the YEAR 1759. 


ar.d been a witnefs of the repeated 
dirappointments and defeat of your 
leftlefs and ambitious enemies. 

Among the numerous and happy 
effects of your majefty's prudent 
and vigorous meafures ; wheiher 
concerted for the fupport of the 
proteftant religion and the liberties 
of Europe ; or more immediately 
directed towards the prefervation 
and advancement of the commer- 
cial intercft of your Britifh domi- 
niurs; the truly difScuit and g;o- 
rious conqueft ef Quebec (attempt- 
ed in vain more than once by your 
royal predeccifors) doth, on many 
accounts, demand more particular- 
ly our v.armefc congratulations. So 
valuable and important an acquifi- 
tion feems to have been referved by 
providence to compleat and crown 
. all tlie preceding glories of your 
majerty's molt aufpici jus reign. 

In this and man) other arduous 
and fuccefsful enterprifes, we can- 
not bat fee, and, after your maje- 
fty's great and pious example, de- 
voutly adore the hand of divine pro- 
vidence, whicu hath on all occa- 
fions fo vifibly Supported the juiHce 
of your caufe, and the progrefs of 
your arms. 

And we doubt nor, but 'chat, un- 
der the proteftion of the fai-.-.e good 
providence, tne utmolf efforts of an 
enraged and defpondingener-y, will 
be bafHed and frultrated through 
your majefty's known wir.jni and 
experience, through thi abilities 
and activity of your miru'ers, the 
courage and conduft of your com- 
manuers, the intrepidity of your 
forces, aci that perfedt harmony 
and union, which happily fubfnts 
among all your fubjects. 

May your enemigs themfelves 
perceive at length, and acknowledge 
the interpofition of heaven, fo cou- 

fpicuous ia your majefty's favour; 
and, by entertaining more ferious 
fentiments of equirv" and modera- 
tion, give your majeily an oprcrtu- 
nity of accomplifhini^ the aefire of 
your heart, by difpeniing co contend- 
ing nations the greateft and moft 
comprehenfive of all temporal blef- 
lings, a general and laftin^ peace ! 

May your mrvjefty long live .0 en- 
joy fuch glorious frui.s cf your un- 
wearied labours for tlie public goodf 
and may chcre never hr. wanting ia 
your royal houfe a fucceiuGn of il- 
luftrious princes, inheriting your 
majefty's crown and virtues, and 
reigning, like your maje'ly, in the 
hearts of all their iu'-:jects! 

Given at our hoafe of convo- 
cation, this twentieth day of 
November, in the year of 
cur Lord 1759. 


1'he fQ.]lon.i:ing adclref; of the Ranan 
Caihol-.Ci of the city of Ccrk, ka~iS- 
ing been tranfmitied to the Earl of 
Shannon, has hy his lordjh'ip been 
prefented to his grace the Lord 

To his grace, John, Duke of Bedford, 
Lore. Lieut iKj.nt General, and Ge- 
ne/ al Gc'viimr of Ireland. 

The humble address cf the Roman 
Catholics of the ci:y of Cork. 

May it j>le:fe jou--- Grace, 

WE his majeltys dutiful and 
faithful fubjeds, ihe Roman 
Catr :lics of the city of Cork, hum- 
b'.y beg leave to congratulate your 
grace on th2 unparalleled fucceffes 
which ha\e attended his majefty's 
arms, in the profecution of this juft 
and neceiiary war. 

We arc truly fenfible of his ma- 
jefty's paternal care and tendernefs 



for his kingdom of Ireland. Ar.d 
it is with the deepeft fenfe of grati- 
tude, we acknowledge the protec- 
tion and indulgence we have expe- 
rienced under his majcily's molt 
mild and aul'picious reign 

With the greatefl indignation do 
we hear of the threatencu hollile in- 
vafion of tills kingdom, (particu- 
larly intended againfl thefe coafts) 
by an enemy, who grown defperate 
from repeated defeats, may poffibly 
make thr.t attempt as a lalt effort, 
vainly flattered with the imagina- 
ry hope of alfillance here, from the 
former attachments of our deluded 
predeceflbrs. But fo inconfiflent are 
fuch fchemes with our principles 
and intentions, that we allure your 
grace, in the mofi folemn manner, 
vc will to the utmcft exertion cf'our 
abilities, with our lives and fortunes, 
join in the defence and luppcrt of 
his majclly's royal pcrfcn and go- 
vernment, again ft all invaders what- 
foever. And will be always ready 
to concur in fuch mcafures, and to 
a£t fuch parts in the defence of this 
kingdom, in common with the rell 
of his msjelly's fubjefts, as your 
grace in your great wifdom fhall 
be pleafed to appoint. And we 
think ourfelves particularly happy, 
to be under the diredlicn and com- 
mand of fo known an affertor of 
liberty, and fo important and di- 
fiinguifhcd a governor as your 

We moft carneftly willi that his 
inajefty's arms may be crowned 
with fuch a continuance of fuccefs, 
as may enable him to defeat the de- 
vices of all his enemies, and obtain 
a fpeedy and honourable peace." 

It muft be a great pleafure to all 
true lovers of his majelly's perfon 
and government, to hnd fo much 
loyalty amongft all the fubje(^s of 

this kingdom, the Roman Catho- 
lies of this city as well as of Corke, 
having offered large loans in cafe 
of necefiity, to fupport our prefent 
happy ellablilhment, againft all our 
enemies, which is the llrongeft tell 
of their fidelity. 

Admiral Bofcanven' s letter, in relation 
to fo/ne cottiplaints of bis Jlopping 
and fearching Dutch jhips. 

" SIR, 

IN anfwer to your's of the 4th 
inftant, concerning a memorial 
of Meflrs. Hcpp, Boreel, and Meer- 
man, complaining that Icaufed fome 
Dutch merchantmen to be fearched 
near Cape Palos, who were under 
convoy of the Prince William man 
of war, Captain Betting ; and far- 
ther alledging, that notwithitanding 
the reprefentations of this captain, 
I detained fome of them ; I muft 
obferve, that having certain advice, 
that the Dutch and Swedes carried 
cannon, powder, and other warlike 
ilores to the enemy, I gave particu- 
lar orders to the captains of all the 
fhips under my command, careful- 
ly to examine all the vefTels of 
thofe nations bound to the ports of 
France. On the day mentioned in 
the memorial, and near Cape Pa- 
los, f made the fignal for the War- 
fpite, Swiftfure, America, and Jer- 
fey, to intercept fome veiTels then 
in fight ; and which, on their ap- 
proach, were found to be fome of 
the Dutch fhips under convoy of 
the Prince William, and bound to 
diiFerent ports of the Mediterrane- 
an, particularly two to Marfeilles, 
and two to Toulon. They were as 
ftriftly fearched as could be done, 
at {t2t, in the fpace of an hour ; 
but as no pretext was found for de- 

For the YEAR 



taming them, they were fufFered to 
proceed on their voyage, and the 
captains afTured me, that every 
thing pafTcd with great civility and 
good order. I never received any 
complaint on this fubject from Cap- 
tain Betting, nor indeed, had he 
an opportunity to make me any, as 
he continued his courfe to the Me- 
diterranean, and I i'teered for Gi- 
braltar, from whence I came foon 
after to England. As it is well 
known that the Dutch merchants 
airiH; the King's enemies with v/ar- 
like ftores, I think I did no more 
than my duty in fsarching the vef- 
fels bound to thofe ports. 

I would have anfweredyour letter 
fooner, but I was willing to inform 
myfelf, firit, from the captains who 
are ncv/ in England, whether any 
thing had happened on occafion of 
thisfearch, which they had omitted 
to mention in their report to me. 


Wednefday, Dec. 5. Trarjiaticn cf 
the declaration, vch'ich his ferene 
highnefs Duke Lev.ns of Brunfujick 
has deli'ver^d to the minificrs of the 
belligerent po-.vers, refiding at the 
Hague, in the name cf his Majcfj, 
and of the King ofFruJjia. 

THEIR Britannic and Pruffian 
majeities, moved with compaf- 
fion at the mifchiefs which the 
war, that has been kindled for fome 
years, has already occafioned, and 
mull; necefl'arily produce ; fhocld 
think themfelves wanting to the du- 
ties of humanity, and particularly to 
their tender concern tor the pre'fer- 
vation and well-being of their re- 
fpeclive kingdoms and fubjedls, if 
Xh^y neglected the proper iDeacs to 

put a flop to the progrefs of fo fe- 
vere a calamity, and to contribute 
to the re-eftablilhment of public 
tranquility. In this view, and in or- 
der to manifell the purity of their 
intentions, in this refped, their faid 
majeliies have determined to make 
the following declaration, viz. 

" That they are ready to fend 
plenipotentiaries to the place, which 
fhall be thought moll proper, in 
order there to treat, conjointly, of 
a folid and general peace, with 
thofe whom the belligerent parties 
ihall think lit to authorife, on their 
part, for the attaining fo falutary 
an end." 

A JJjort addrefs from Lord Gecrge 
Sacki-ille to the public. 

TH E various reports that have 
been propagated to my dii- 
advantage, and the many falluoods 
which have been ailerted to ruin my 
charatter, lay me under the necef- 
ficy of remaining not entirely filent, 
though I am debarred at prefent 
from ilating my cafe to the public, 
as I ihould have done, had I not had 
afiurances of obtaining a court-mar- 
tial for my trial, the only legal and 
ettedtual method of convincing the 
world, how little foundation there 
has been for the torrent of calumny 
and abufe, which has been fo mali- 
cioully thrown out againll: me. 

I had rather, upon this occauon, 
fubmit myfelf to all the inconveni- 
encies that may arife from the want 
of llile, than borrow afiiftance from 
the pens of others, as I can have 
no hopes of eflabiithing my cha- 
racter, but from the force of truth. 
I Ihall therefore, as plainly, and 
dillinftly, as pofiible, relate a few 



circumftances, which will at lead 
llievv that nobody could be more 
defirous than I was to bring truth 
to light, and fubjeft my condud to 
the ftrifteil fcrutiny. 

The inltant I found by the im- 
plied cenfure given out in orders, 
the zd of Auguft, that my condudl 
had appeared in an unfavourable 
light to Prince Ferdinand, on the 
day of action, I endeavoured to in- 
form myfelf what particular I had 
either failed in, or negledled my 
duty ; I heard in general of difobe- 
dicnce of orders, but I could fix no 
certain period of time to my fuppof- 
ed crime, till Colonel Fittroy ac- 
quainted me with what had paffed 
between his ferene highnefs and him 
npon this fubje*?:, in regard to the 
orders delivered to me by him (Co- 
lonel Ficzroy) that day : whenever 
my trial comes, I fl:all endeavour to 
clear up that point to the fatisfac- 
tion of the public : my own affer- 
tions may have little weight, but 
the oaths of witnefies, whofe vera- 
city cannot be called in qucftion, 
will, I truil, prove my innocence be- 
yond the poilibility of doubt. 

Under thefe circumftances, I im- 
mediately applied for his majcfty's 
permifiion to return to England, 
that I might anfwer anV accufation 
thatlhould be brought againit me ; 
for, as commander in chief of the 
Britifh forces in Germany, no per- 
fon there could order a court-mar- 
tial for my trial, had there been an 
accufation laid ; the power of fum- 
moning courts-martial and approv- 
ing their fentences, was veiled in 
me by my commilTion, and no Bri- 
tifh officer or foldier could be tried 
by any other authority. 

As focn as I arrived in London, 
on Friday evening the 7th, I in- 

flantly wrote the following letter to 
the fecretary of ftate. 
My Lord, 

*' I have the honour of acquaint- 
ing your lordfhip with my arrival in 
England, in purfuance of his ma- 
jefty's permiffion, fent to me, at 
my requeft, by your lordfhip. 

I thought myfelf much injured 
abroad, by an implied cenfure upon 
myconduft: I find I am ftiil more 
unfortunate at home, by being pub- 
licly reprefented as having negleft- 
ed my duty in the flrongelT manner, 
by difobeying the pofitive orders of 
his ferene highnefsPrince Ferdinand. 
As I amconfcious of neither negleft 
nor difobcdience of orders ; as lam 
certain I did my duty to the utmoft 
of my abilities; and as I am per- 
fuaded that the prince himfelf would 
have found, that he had no juft 
caufe of complaint againft me, had 
he condefcended to have enquired 
into my conduft, before he had ex- 
prelfed his difapprobation of it, 
from the partial reprefentation of 
ethers : I therefore mofl humbly 
rcquell:, that I may at laft have a 
public opportunity given me of at- 
tempting tojullify myfelf to his ma- 
jelly, and to my country, by a court- 
martial being appointed j that if I 
am guilty, I may fufFer luch punifh- 
ment as I may have defervcd ; and, 
if innocent, that I may ftand ac- 
quitted in the opinion of the world : 
but it is really too fevere to have 
been condemned before I was tried, 
and to be informed neither of my 
crime, nor my accufers. 

I am, my Lord, i£c. l^c. l£c. 
G. Sackville." 

I received an anfwer to this letter 

on Monday the loth, in which I 

was aiTured, that a court-martial, 

upon my application, would be 


For the YEAR 

granted, as foon as the officers ca- 
pable of giving evidence, could 
leave their polls ; but previoufly to 
the receipt of that letter, I was 
difmified from all my military em- 
ployments : notwithftanding which 
difmiflion, I ftill hope, and am in- 
formed, thac I may have the ad- 
vantage of a legal trial. 

In the mean time the only indul- 
gence I have to aCc is, that the pub- 
lic will fufpend its judgment till fuch 
fads can be produced, from whence 
alone the truth can appear. But if 
plans of a battle are to be referred 
to, which can give no jull idea of it; 
if difpoiitions of the cavalry and in- 
fantry are fuppofed, which never ex- 
irted ; if orders for attacks and pur- 
fuits are quoted, which never were 
delivered ; and if difobedience to 
thofe imaginary orders, are affertcd 
as a crime, what can an injured of- 
ficer, under fuch circumftances, have 
recourfe to, but claiming that juf- 
tice, which is due to every Enghfh- 
man, of being heard before he is 
condemned ? The fooner that hap- 
pens, the happier I Ihall be, as I am 
confcious my innocence muft ap- 
pear, when real facls are truly Ha- 
ted and fully proved. 

G. Sackville. 

We Jhall likenuife fuhjo'm the folloxv- 
ing letters i ivhich hwue been pub- 
lijhed under the title of a Vindica- 
tion of his lordfpip's condu6i. 

Copy of Lord G S '/ ht/er 

to Cclonel Fitzroy. 

Minden, Aug. j, 1759. 
Dear Sir, 

THE orders of yefterday, you 
may believe, afred. me very 
feniibly. His ferene highnefs has 

1759: 2^9 

been pleafed to judge, condemn, 
and cenfure me without hearing 
me, in the moft cruel and unprece- 
dented manner ; as he never a(ked 
me a fingle queftion in explanation 
of any thing he might difapprovc, 
and as he muft have formed his 
opinion on the report of others, 
it was ftill harder he would not give 
me an opportunity of firll fpeaking 
to him upon this fubjecl : but you 
know, even in more trifling mat- 
ters, that hard blows are fome- 
times ujiexpedediy given. If any 
body has a right to fay that I heli- 
tated in obeying orders, it is you. 
I will relate what I know of that, 
and then appeal to you for the 
truth of it. 

When you brought me orders to 
advance with the Britifh cavalry, I 
was very near the village of Halen, 
I think it is called ; I mean thac 
place which the Saxons burnt. I 
was there advanced by M. Mal- 
horte's order, and no farther, when 
you came to me. Ligonier follow- 
ed almoft inftantly ; he faid the 
whole cavalry was to advance. I 
was puzzled what to do, and begged 
the favour of you to carry me to the 
duke, that I might alk an explana- 
tion of his orders. — But, that no 
time might be loft, I fent Smith with 
orders to bring on the Briti;h caval- 
ry, as they had a wood before they 
could advance, as you directed ; 
and I reckoned, by the time I had 
feen his ferene highnefs, I Ihould 
find them forming beyond the wood. 
— This proceeding of mine might 
pofTibly be wrong ; but I am furc 
the fervice could not fuller, as no 
delay vvas occafioned by it. — The 
duke then ordered me to leave fome 
fquadrop.s upon the right, which I 
did ; and to advance the reft to fup- 




port the infantry, ThisI declare I 
did, as fall as I imagined it was right 
in cavalry to march in line. — I once 
halted by Lord Granby, to complete 
my forming the whole. Upon his 
advancing the left before the right, 
I again fent to him to flop. — He 
faid, as the prince had ordered us 
to advance, he thought we fhould 
move forward. — I then let him pro- 
ceed at the rate he liked, and kept 
my right up with him as regularly 
as' I could, till we got to the rear 
of the infantry and our batteries.— 
We both halted together, and after- 
wards received no order, till that 
which was brought by Colonel 
Webb, and the Duke of Richmond, 
to extend one line towards the mo- 
j-afs, — It was accordingly executed ; 
und then, in Head of finding the 
enemy's cavalry to charge, as I ex- 
pcdled, the battle was declared to 
be gained, and we were told to dif- 
mount our men. 

This» I proteft, Is all I know of 
the matter ; and I was never fo fur^ 
prized, as when 1 heard the Prince 
vas diflatisfied that the cavalry did 
not move fooner up to the infantry. 
— It is not my bufmefs to afk, what 
the difpofition originally was, or to 
find fault with any thing. — All I 
infill upon is, that I obeyed the or- 
ders I received, as pundtually as I 
was able ; and if it was to do over 
again, I do not think I could have 
executed them ten minutes fooner 
than I did, now I know the ground, 
and what was expected ; but, in- 
deed, we were above an hour too 
late, if it was the duke's intention 
to have made the cavalry pafs be- 
fore our infantry and artillery, and 
charge the enemy's line. — I cannot 
think that was his meaniog, as all 
the orders ran to luftain our infan- 

try. — And it appears, that botfi' 
Lord Granby and I underltood wC 
were at our poUs, by our halting 
when we got to the rear of our 

I hope I have Hated impartially 
the part of this tranfattion that 
comes within your knowledge — 
If I have, I muft beg you would 
declare it, fo as I may make ufe of 
it in your abfence ; for it is impof- 
fible to fit filent under fuch reproach, 
when I am confcious of having done 
the bed that was in n>y power.— 
For God's fake let me fee you be- 
fore you go for England. 

1 am, dear Sir, 

Your faithful humble fervant. 

Copy of Colonel Fitzroy" s letter to 
Lord G S • . 

Minden, Aug. 3, 1759. 
My Lord, 

HI S ferene highnefs, upon 
fome report made to him by 
the Duke of Richmond of the fitua- 
tion of the enemy, fent Captaia 
Li^onier and myfelf v.'ich orders 
for the Britiili cavalry to advance. 
— His ferene highnefs was, at thi* 
inftant, one or two brigades beyond 
the Englifh infantry, towards the 
left. — LTpon my arrival on the right 
of the cavalry, I found Captain 
Ligonier with your lordlhip.— — 
Notwithftanding, I declared his fe- 
rene highnefs's orders to you : upon 
which you defired 1 would not be 

in a hurry. 1 made anfwer, that 

gallopping had put me out of 
breath, which made me fpeaic 
very quick. — I then repeated the 
orders for the Britilh cavalry to 
advance towards the left, and at 
the fame time, mentioning the clr- 

For the YEAR 

tumftance, that occafloned the or- 
ders, added, " That it was a glo- 
rious opportunity for the Englifh to 
diftinguifh themfelves ; and that 
your lordihip, by leading them on, 
would gain immortal honour." 

You yet exprefled your furprize 
at the order, faying it was impof- 
lible the duke could mean to break 
the line. — My anfwer was, that I 
delivered his ferene highnefs's or- 
ders, word for word, as he gave 
them. Upon which, you a&ed, 
which way the cavalry was to 
march, and who was to be their 
guide. — I undertook to lead them 
towards the left, round the little 
>vood on their left, as they were 
then drawn up, where they might 
be little expofed to the enemy's 

Your lordfhip continued to think 
my orders neither clear nor exadly 
delivered ; and expreiTing your de- 
fire to fee Prince Ferdinand, order- 
ed me to lead you to him ; which 
order I v/as obeying when we met 
his ferene highnefs. — During this 
time I did not fee the cavalry ad- 
vance. — Capt. Smith, one of your 
aids de camp, once or twice made 
me repeat the order I had be- 
fore delivered to your lordfhip ; 
•ind I hope he will do me the 
juftice to fay they were clear and 
exadl. — He v/ent up to you, whiht 
we were going to find the duke, 
as I imagine being fenfible of the 
clearnefs of my orders, and the 
neceffity of their being immediate- 
ly obeyed. I heard your lordlliip 
give him fome orders. — What 
they were I cannot fay. — But he 
immediately rode back towards the 

Upon my joining the dake, I 
repeated to him the orders I had 

1759. 271 

delivered to you, and appealing to 
his ferene highnefs, to know whe- 
ther they v^-ere the fame he had 
honoured me with, I had the fatis- 
fadlicn to hear him declare, they 
were very exa6t. — His ferene high- 
nefs immediately afked, where the 
cavalry was, and upon my making 

anfwer, that Lord G did not 

underftand the order, but was 
coming to fpeak to his ferene 
highnefs, he exprelTed his furprize 

I hope your lordfhip will think 
I did nothing but my duty as aid de 
camp, in mentioning to his ferene 
highnefs my orders being fo much 
quelHoned by your lordihip. 

I am, SiC. 

Copy cf the declaration of Captain 
Smith, aid de camp to Lord G ■ ■• 


Mindcn, Aug. 3, 1759." 

HAT I have to fay with 
regard to the orders Col. 
Fitzroy brought, and to their not 
being put in execution, is — I heard 

Lord G S fay, on his 

receiving them, as they diliered 
from thofe he had juft before re^ 
ceived by Captain Ligonier, he 
would fpeak to the Prince himfelf ; 
and accordingly put his horfe in a 
gallop to go to him. I immediate- 
ly went up to Colonel Fitzroy, and 
made him repeat the orders to me 
twice. — I thought it fo clear and 
pofitive for the JBritifh cavalry only 
to advance where he ihould lead, 
that I took the liberty to fay to his 
lordfhip I did think they were fo ; 
and ottered to go and fetch them, 
whilfi he went to the prince, that 
no time might be loil. His anfwer 




was, he had alfo an order from 
the prince, from Mr. Ligonicr, for 
the whole wing to come away ; 
and he thought it impoflible the 
prince could mean that. I replied, 
that if he would allow me to fetch 
the Britifh, they were but a part, 
and if it was wrong, they could 
fooner remedy the fault. — He faid, 
then do it as fall at you can. — Ac- 

cordingly I went, as fafl as my 
horfc could go, to General Mollyn. 
— He knows the reft. — This is all 
that part, as near as I can recoiled. 
— It was fpoke as we galloped, and 
could not be long about, as I have 
been on the ground fince, and do 
not believe, when his lordfhip fent 
me back, I had above fix hundred 
yards to go to General Mollyn. 



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fering the acrimony of that anfwer 
CharaSler of Ednvard Uyde. Earl of to have pafled to the commons. 

His tender concern for that im- 
portant branch of the conftitution, 
epifcopacy, cannot be too much 
commended by thofe who have a 
regard for the religion of the church 
of England. He mufi: be allowed 
to have well difcharged his truft, 
in faithfully attending and inftruft- 
ing his pupil, the Prince of Wales; 
and to Lord Clarendon cannot be 
imputed any of his royal highnefs'a 
exce/Tes, who held them in the 
higheft detellation, and by repeat- 
ed and open advice endeavoured to 
deprefs them ; which freedom of- 
ten and greatly provoked the King, 
who faid, that the lord chancellor 
was obftinate and imperious, and 
never liked any thing but what he 
propofed himftlf ; a manifell fymp- 
tom that he advifed him well, but 
not gratefully ; that the counfel was 
falutary, but not palatable. Indeed 
moft of the allegations laid to his 
charge are fo unreafonable at firft 
fight, that we are apt to be furprifed 
at the virulence of his too poweiful 
enemies, who at length triumphed 
in his difgrace ; and, to make that 
difgrace more contemptuous, caufed 
his apology to the Lords to be 
burnt by the common hangman, 
which, with the punller, was cer- 
tainly a liuniing Jhame ^.Tid zfagrant 


WE fliall look upon this no- 
bleman in two diftindl 
lights ; as a ttatefman, in which we 
Ihall confider his integrity and cor- 
ruption ; as a writer, in which we 
Ihall obferve his genius or incapa- 
city. And firll:, as a ftatefman ; 
that he was a very able counfellor 
and a trufty one to his prince, will 
appear from his great excellence in 
penning thofe feveral remonftrances, 
arguments, anfvvers, and declara- 
tions, which tended to fupport the 
conftitution of the people, in vin- 
dication of that jurt equilibrium 
between the King, Lords, and 
Commons, which was notorioufly 
invaded by the ufurpation of Crom- 
well and his partizans. The merit 
of thefe arguments has been hither- 
to given to his mailer Charles the 
hrit ; and the enemies of Mr. Hyde 
have accufed him of having led the 
King too far into non-compliance 
with the will of his parliament : 
this imputation, however, will ap- 
pear groundless to any one who 
will pleafe to remember, that he 
prefumed fo far as to advife the 
King to amend and foften the acri- 
mony of his anfwers to the parlia- 
ment, from whom he was one of 
the commiffioners : if he had fo 
great an inclination to prevent the 
King from non-compliance, as has 
been faid by fome, he had here a 
fair opportunity cf making a moll 
fatal breach between them, by fuf- 


Neither Charles the lirft or fe- 
cond were fools as to their under- 
ftandings, and they both equally 
rev'ered the couafels of Mr. Hyde 
and the lord chancellor; the Ion 



For the YEAR i 

paid a veneration to his advice, 
becaufe he believed it to bs jafl and 
wife, though to him not toothfome. 
His generofity to his moft invete- 
rate enemies, Coventry and. Arling- 
ton, was illuftrious ; for when it 
was well known that a combina- 
tion had been entered into by thofe 
gentlemen to undo the chancellor, 
under the mediation of the favour- 
ite lady, it is well known, that he 
was applied to by feveral members 

7b9' 275 

As to the calumny of his having 
hoarded vaft eftates in his admini- 
ilration, by corruption and bribery, 
the badnefs of his fortune, at the 
time of his difgrace, very evident-' 
]y proves the contrary ; which 
could not be owing to diffipations 
of his own, from which he was 
very ayerfe, being- a temperate 
man, a great reader, and no way 
inclined to waile. Another impu- 
tation of being chief miniller, and 

of the houfe of commons to accufe having the power and credit to do. 

them, who told him, that they 
would accufe him, and be before- 
hand with him, if he did not. 
They faid, " That there was but 
one way to prevent the prejudice 
againii him, which was by falling 
firlt upon them, which they, the 
members, could and would affift 
him in, if he would join them in 

or advife to be done, all he had a 
mmd to, it mull be urged in his 
defence, that he had no fuch v/eak 
mailers, or joint privy counfellori, 
to deal with, as to be governed 
folely by him, or to be control- 
led or direfted in their meafures 

(often o^ a very delicate, danger- 
ous, and extraordinary texture) by 
fuch information as it could not hut one man, he often having given up 
be in his power to do if hepleafed : his opinion, particularly in the 
that they were both grown very war, from which he was more a- 

odious in general ; the one for his 
fupercilious behaviour towards all 
men, and for the manner of getting 
into his office, by having an old 
faithful fervant turned away ; and 
the other, for being formerly en- 
trufted and employed by Cromv/ell, 
and as notoriouily corrupt in felling 
all officesj when entruiled by the 
King." They further told the 
lord chancellor, *' That he never 
faid or did any word or aftion in 
the moft fecret council, but they 
two had declared to his prejudice; 
and that if he would now, as fe- 

verfe than any other man in the 
kingdom, whofe conllitution was 
fore, and whofe pulfe he had a 
right to feel and underftand as well 
as moft, and whofe wealth, the 
fincws of war, was no ways able to 
fupport, as there was little or no 
money in the nation^ and no alli- 
ances made with the neighbouring 
princes ; a war which, the chancel- 
lor forefaw, would be the greateft 
misfortune to the kingdom. Nor 
was it owing to his majefty's want 
of forefight, that alliances had not 
been made pfevioufly thereto, nor 

cretly as might be, give them fuch to his own want of care, nor to thac 

information and light as might fur 
niih matter of impeachment againft 
thofe two gentlemen, they would 
divert the ftorm which was gather- 
ing, and v.'hich threatened to break 
upon his head ;" all which appli- 
cation he politely rejected. 

of the other privy counfellors in- 
trufted with him, as co-operators 
in the diretStion of Hate; but to the 
conjunct and complicated affairs 
which diftracled France, Spain ^ 
Holland, Denmark, Sweden, the 
Empire and England. As he did 
T z from 



from his foul abhor the entering 
into this war, fo likewife did he 
never preAime, when it was en- 
tered into, to give any advice or 
counfe!, or any other way meddle 
in the condudting it, than merely 
as a privy counlellor, leaving the 
other extrajudicial branches of it 
to thofe of the military depart- 
ment. He abfoiutely and determi- 
nately refufed, with fcorn, io,oool. 
a year offered to him by the French 
King, to bring his majefty into a 
treaty with that monarch ; and was 
fo far from being fole manager 
in thofe aiiairs, that it was wtll 
known, and not to be denied, that 
he was not twice in any room alone 
with his majefty for one whole 
year, and very feldom for three 
whole years together ; wnich could 
not very well have happened, if he 
had had theJling's ear at his com- 

The diftradlion and difcompcfure 
of thofe times were evidently and 
frequently amended, rather than 
made worfe by his adminiftration ; 
and if he cannot, in the firft place, 
be charged with invriding the con- 
Hitution with Cromwell, fo neither 
can he be charged with deferring 
or prejudicing the regal authority, 
to which he was a profcfled friend. 
The number of illicit grants to 
which he refufed to fet the feal in 
Charles the fecond's time, the la- 
dy in favour with the King, her 
creature Mr. Bcnnet, and the duke's 
dangerous favourite Mr. Coventry, 
all together, with the accumulated 
weight of the unprecedented Duke 
of Buckingham, concurring at once 
to undo him, did really and effec- 
tually make him odious to the pjo- 
pie, fince to him this powerful 
junto imputed every milcarriage : 
we believe, and may atlirm, that 

he was no ways inftrumental in 
introducing thoie great calamities 
the plague and pelHlence, which 
ruined the lives and connexions 
of the people ; nor will the fire of 
London be laid at his door ; nor 
ought Erounker's infamoU'S trea- 
chery and cowardice, though never 
punilhed, but Screened and pro- 
teded, to be alledged againfl him ; 
and yet thefe calamitous times gave 
many opens to his enemies towards 
exerting their power and improving 
their influence againll him wherein 
he was no ways concerned ; how 
then can he be charged with the 
more exorbitant accufaticns of a 
defign, with the King, to eftabliih 
ablblute monarchy, to diffolve par- 
liaments by fupporting a ftanding 
army, and overturning the efta- 
blifhment ; who had a fair ■'ppor- 
tunity, in a more diftrafted time, 
to have joined ambitious men in 
fuch formidable projedls ? and with 
as little colour of reafon can he be 
fuppofed fo weak as to exprefs him- 
felf, in the hearing of many of his 
majefty's fubjefts, that the King 
was in his heart a papilt, admitting 
that he had fo believed. 

To the charges of venality and 
other articles, particularly that of 
his having advifed the King to the 
fale of Dunkirk, the treatment 
which he received from the French 
King in his flight, and exile in that 
kingdom, was a fufficient teftimo- 
ny that that prince did never ap- 
prehend himfelf or crown any way 
obliged to the lord chancellor for 
that or any other fervice ; nor were 
or could any of the feventeen arti- 
cles of impeachment againft him be 
proved ; though, if it was poffible to 
have been efiMjded, it is notorious, 
he had enemies enough who would 
find out ways and means to prove 


, For the Y 

any fingle one of them, much more 
all of them. 

And now ha\4ng as we appre- 
hend, vindicated the lord chance'- 
lor from corruption, or foul ad- 
miniftration as a ftatefman, and 
proved his ability, integrity, and 
trull; as a fervant, we Ihall confider 
him as a genius and a writer ; and 
a moli excellent writer he is con- 
feffed to be by his worft enemies. 
His hillory of the civil wars ftands 
a monumental proof of his being 
the beft, the moll accurate, and 
polite hiftorian of his time, or in- 
deed any other time. He does not, 
like other hiilorians, trifle away 
hi? labour in a detail of facts, a 
dry nanative, and ir.fipid relation, 
a minute circumilaiicial account of 
things, perfons, times, or places ; 
but he illullrates thofe points by 
throwing incidental lights upon 
them ; and a fad, when he relates 
it, becomes like a precious bril- 
liant, reflefting; rays from every 
point of it. When he makes us 
acquainted v»ith perfons, he intro- 
duces them with the accuracy of a 
diligent obferver, one who knew 
the utmofl; recefles of the heart of 
man ; he traverfes their deligns, 
and, like a lord chancellor, inve- 
fligates, unravels and developes, 
all the windings, turnings, and e- 
vafions of the moft fubtile. How 
amiably - does he handle a good 
character ? we are enamoured with 
the virtuous, and lament the decay 
of goodnefs on the comparifon with 
a vicious charadler, which he un- 
mafcs and lays open with the judg- 
ment of an artili. His colourings 
are of a molt vivid and glolTy com- 
plexion. His features are admira- 
ble, whether extraordinary on the 
fide of virtue .or vice. In Ihcrt, 
few will deny to join in commend- 

EAR 1759. 277 

ing the Lord Clarendon, as a very 
great man, but as a writer one of 
the beft in the univerfe. 

Charader of the Stuart family, frcm 
Clarendo/i 5 life. 

THEY were naturally credu- 
lous, and fubmitted, very of- 
ten, their judgments, which were 
very good, to be impofed upon by 
thDfe who were weak. They were 
naturally virtuous, but eafily led 
over and corrupted by the inclina- 
tions of thofe who were vicious ; 
too much inclined to like men at 
fi rt light; did not care for men much 
older than themielves ; defpifed old 
acquaintance, for no other reafon, 
than becaufe they were old. They 
could not deny any thing, and lefs 
to Ibangers than to themfelves ; 
they were enamoured of royal pre- 
rogative over- much, and thought 
a King of England; contrary to the 
conftitution of England, Ihould be 
like the Kino- of France, agreeable 
to the confatution of France, that 
is, defpotic. They were bounteous 
and generous, not "for the fake of 
bounty or generofity, (which lafl 
was a flower that never grew natu- 
rally in the hearts of the Stuart fa- 
mily, or that of Bourbon) but be- 
caufe they could not deny, or with- 
iland im.portunity, and ofren con- 
lented, where they were convinced 
they ought to have denied. If the 
Duke of York was more fixed than 
his brother Charles II. it v/as owing 
to hisobllinacY, not to his judgment; 
he hated debate ; and, to avoid it, 
refolved very often what and when 
he Ihould not : his judgment was 
more fubjedt to perfons, than to ar- 
guments, which weighed little with 
him ; whereas the king's judgment 
T 3 was 



Vvas in greateft danger from quick 
ftarts, and was to be taken hy fur- 
frij'e. I'he duke had both reve- 
rence and love for the king, and 
was in every refpeft more dutiful, 
fubmiffive, and obedient to liim, 
than any other fubjed the king 
had, feme of whom he permitted 
to affront him unpunKhicd: and to 
ejitort things from him Ly violence 
before his face, and contrary to his 
judgment : for the king's good- 
nature was exceffive ; he was over- 
facetious, ovcr-fimiliar ; and his 
exxefs in good-nature begat his ex- 
cels in every thing elie. 

A fnccinci account of the per/ctj, the 
nx'ay f.f livhig, and cf the court of 
the King of PruJJia. 

TH E King of Prufila is abcut 
forty- feven ycais of age, in 
flriture about five feet fix inches, 
extremely well made, but fomewhat 
remarkable in his deportment, yet 
very polite ; his countenance is 
agreeable and fprightly ; his voice 
mufical and fine, even when he 
fwcars, which he rarely does, except 
when in a paflion. He is better 
vericd in the French lano-uaQ-e, and 
fpeaks It more fluent and correctly 
than the German, and never makes 
ufeof the latter, but to thofe whom 
he knows to be ignorant of the for- 
mer. His hair is of a dark fine chef- 
nut colour, and always in queue ; 
he takes a pleafure in dreiiing it 
himfelf, and never wears nightcap, 
night-gown, or fiippcrs, but only 
puts on a linen cloak when he 
drefics his hair. Three times in 
the year he has a new fuit of the 
uniform of the firft battalion of his 
guards, which is a blue cloth faced 
V. ith red, and filver Brandenburgs, 

after the Spanilh manner ; his waift- 
coat is plain yellow, a point d'ef- 
pagne hat, and white feather; He 
wears boots, and never appears in 
fhoes, even at his public court days ; 
this trifle gives him an air very con- 
llrained and particular 10 his fo- 
reign courtiers. 

He always rifes about five, and 
is bufy till three quarters after fix : 
at fevcn he drefTcs, and then receives 
letters, petitions, and memorials, 
and directs anfv.-ers ; and having dif- 
patchcd thcfe, at nine his minifters 
(or rather his domeflics) attend him 
till eleven, at which time precifely 
he relieves his guards, and kti 
them perform their exerciles ; is 
very exact in correcting any millake, 
and giving the word of command 
himfelf, unl^fs he is indiipofcd j 'tis 
not therefore to be wondered, that 
moft of the generals of other princes 
endeavour to imitate the Pruilian 
exercife and difcipline, as they sre 
the beft now in Europe : after this 
is done, he returns, and continues 
in the great hall of his palace, and 
grants public audience to any of his 
fubjedls, and permits them to prefent 
their own petitions ; and fo defirous 
is he to do jullice, and relieve all 
injuries and oppreliions, that he 
ftriclly commands his executive of- 
ficers, to hear, determine, and ad- 
judge aii difpures without delay. 
Having difpatched his public affairs, 
he returns to his clofet ; and, tho' 
only his own domelHcs are prefent, 
he has fo habituated himfelf in bend- 
ing his body in a bcu iiig polture, 
that he always retires bowing in the 
moll courtly manner. A% foon as 
he enters his clofet, he refumes his 
bufinefi alone, or finiflics with his 
minifters, if anv thing remains un- 
done before his going to the parade, 
v/hich frequently is the cafe ; for let 


For the YEAR 1759. 

the bufinefs be never fo important, 
he Is pundual in relieving his guards 
at the rtroke of eleven. 

He fits down to dinner at half an 
hour after twelve in general, accom- 
panied with his ovn minifters, and 
thole of foreign princes, Vv'ho arc at 
pGtzdam, and cl e ofricers of his firft 
battalion of giiards. His table con- 
fiifs of twerity-io.ur covers, though 
it frequently exceeds that number. 
He is very t isgant and particular 
in his deierts of fruit. The dinner- 
time does net exceed an hour ; after 
dinner he walks about a quarter of 
an hour, converfmg with fome of 
the company, and then retires to 
his clofet, bowiiig in iiis ufual man- 
ner as he goes out. 

He continues in private till live 
o'clock, when his reader comes to 
him and reads till feven, and his 
reading is fucceeded by a concert, 
which lafts till nine. He takes 
great delight in, and underftands 
mufic extremely well, and few can 
equal him upon the flute. His dai- 
ly concert confiRs chiefly of wind 
inllruments, and vocal muflc, which 
are the beft in Europe ; namely, three 
eunuchs, a counter-tenor voice, and 
Mademoifelle Aftra, an Italian. 
Thefe fingers cannot be equalled, 
for he will admit of none that are 
not fuperlatively excellent. 

At nine fome of the Voltaires, AI- 
garottis, Maupertuis, and the other 
wits, never exceeding eight, includ- 
ing the King, and one or two of the 
King's favourites, v/ho ufually fup 
with him, meet in an apartment for 
that purpofe : and fupper is ferved 
up at half an hour after nine, which 
never confifts of more than eight 
difhes, all introduced at the fame 
time : from the time of fupper wit 
flies about very freely till twelve, 
during which time the King lays 


afide his majelly, and is only dif- 
tinguiOied from the reft of the com- 
pany by his fuperior wit and bons 
mots : at the ftroke of twelve the 
King withdraws to bed, and is fo 
exact, that the moft entertaining 
fubjedls never make him exceed the 
time above live or ten minutes. la 
this manner the twenty-four hours 
are fpent throughout the whole 
year, particularly during the nine 
months which the King fpends at 
Pctzdam ; unlefs fomething extra- 
ordinary intervene, fuch as the pre- 
fent, when his thoughts are diverted 
from his private pleafures and 
smufements, and direded to the 
bufinefs of war. ... He has an ut- 
ter averfion to all forts of gaming, 
and in general to moft rural amufe- 

The daily expence of his table for 
the kitchen is fixed at 33 German 
crowns, or five guineas and a half 
Englifn money. For this fum he 
has 24. difhes, 16 for dinner, and 8 
for fupper; the former confifts of 
24 covers, and the latter of eight; 
if there be more than 24. covers, he 
pays the overplus to the purveyor of 
the kitchen, at the rate of a crown 
a head : all the fea-fifh and game is 
not included in this expence, but is 
charged to the King over and above 
the five guineas and a half. Out 
of the thirty-three crowns, the pur- 
veyor pays for wood and coals, and 
buys the kitchen furniture, fuch as 
tables, kitchen linen, and in gene- 
ral, every thing that belongs to it, 
the wages of the cooks excepted, 
which the King is charged with ex- 
traordinarily. There are four cooks 
employed in the kitchen, a French- 
man, Italian, Auftrian, and PrufBan, 
and each of them dreffes four difhes 
for the dinner, and two for the fup- 
per } fo that in this variety of cook- 
T^ ry. 



ry, 'tis calculated that every man's 
palate may be pleafed, which is the 
intent of the King in having four 
cooks of four different countries, of 
which his company generally con- 
fifts. Whether the King be prefent 
or not, he gives a dinner all the 
year through to the officers of his 
bartalion ; and allows them a bottle 
of wine and a bottle of beer alter- 
nately each day, between two. 
There are alfo made ready every 
day at twelve o'clock, three large 
difhes of roall and boiled meat, bread 
and beer, for the officers of his two 
other battalions of fcot-guards, and 
every one may take of this as he 
pleafes ; 'tis a fort of whet before 
dinner, the price of which is alfo 
fixed with the purveyor of the kit- 
chen, who provides at his own diC- 
cretion a certain quantity. . . . 

The King has an univerfal know- 
ledge ; but excels in nothing fo 
much as in the art of war, in which, 
by the mere natural ftrength and 
fuperiority of his judgment, he at 
once became a general and a hero. 
He diftinguiflieswithprecifion, what 
inferior minds never difcover at all, 
the difference between great diffi 
culties and irapoffibilities, and be- 
ing never difcouraged by the former, 
has often feemed to execute the lat- 
ter. He is indefatigably laborious 
and adive, cool and intrepid in ac- 
tion, difcerns as by intuition, feizes 
with rapidity, and improves with 
Ikiil the lliort but favourable, and of- 
ten decifive moments of battle. Mo- 
dell and magnanimous after viftory, 
he becomes the generous protedlor 
of the fubdued and captive enemies. 
S-efclute and undejeded in misfor- 
tunes, fuperior to dillreffcs, aiid 
ftruggling with difficulties, which 
no courage nor conllancy but his 
pwn would have refilled, or could 

have furmounted. . . . He is a very 
good judge of compofition, whe- 
ther in verfeor profe, in both which 
he has been an author himfelf with 
good fuccefs. He has a great deal 
of humour, and fucceeds well in 
raillery, and is very fatyrical on 
thoie whom he has any diflike to. 

He is a great politician, and very 
converiant on the nature of finances, 
and more fo as to the value of com- 
merce ; and knows very well how 
to fow in order to reap. He treats 
every body with great civility and 
refpeft, being extremely fojicitous 
to oblige the meaneft of his fubjeds, 
and makes his dignity familiar to 
them, by the modelty and fimplicity 
of his behaviour, and never thinks 
himfelf too great for the lowell of- 
fices of friend fl-iip and humanity. . . 
Thefalaries arebut trifling which he 
annexes to the great officers of his 
court, and moll of them inpartibus. 
Through all his territories he has 
no governors of provinces or cities ; 
he himfelf commands alone. The 
commanding officers of the regi- 
ments ferve for governors, wherever 
they are in garrifon ; nor has he 
any eilablilhment for a llaff in any 
of his places. Thefe three articles 
coll immenfe fums to other poten- 
tates. A foldier who diilinguilhes 
himfelf, and is obfervant of military 
difcipline, generally meets with the 
King's particular favour, and very 
probably in twenty or thirty years, 
raay rile through all the lleps till he 
gets the command of a regiment. 

His only minifters are jullice and 
humanity, though he has an officer 
fliled a chancellor, who does not 
open his mouth. A grand veneur, 
who dare not kill a quail. A cup- 
bearer, who knows not whether he 
has any wi ne in his cellar. A ^laf- 
tcr of the hcrfe, who dare not order 

For the YEAR 1759. 

one of them to be faddled. A 
chamberlain, who has never given 
him his fhirt. A great niafler of 
the wardrobe, who does not know 
his taylor. The funftions of all 
thefe great officers are exercifed by 
one fingle perfon, whofe name is 
Frederickftoft, who is likewife valet 
de chambre, and private fecretary 
in ordinary, and has filled all thefe 
nominal polls for leveral years. His 
own extenfive mind forms all his 
plans of government, undebafed by 
minifierial interells and milrepre- 

His whole houfhold confifts of 
eight gentlemen pages, as many 
footmen, fourteen running footmen, 
and fixteen men with drelTes of dif- 
ferent forts^ after the manner of the 
Jiailern nations, all in rofe colour 
wich galloon lace. In all his apart- 
ments the furniture is very neat and 
plain, the hangings of rofe colour 
pale lilies, both for himfelf, the 
two queens, and the relt of the royal 

The late King his father loved 
hunting, and kept a very expenfive 
equipsge on that account ; but his 
prefent majeily has an utter aver- 
fion to it ; and on his advancement 
to the throne, fent for the grand 
veneur (who was a great lover of 
the diverfion) to lay before him an 
account of the annual expence of 
the chafe ; who reprefented it as a 
great benefit to the King to continue 
it, and urged it fo far as to tell him, 
that, if he fuppreffed it, he would 
lofe 23,000 crowns a year by it: 
upon which the King told him, that 
he would give him all his game, and 
the fifh in his rivers, in confidera- 
tion of 20, ceo crowns a year, and 
v.'ould pay him for all he haxi occa- 
fion for himfelf. The poor veneur, 
\vho had aiTerced bv his own account 


that he mufl be a great gainer at 
this rate, durft not refute the offer, 
and inadvertently laid a fnare ia 
which he was caught himfelf, and 
proved his ruin : for he was a: lafl: 
obliged to abfcond, and had neither 
money nor game. 

The cueen confart is as good a 
woman as lives, and greatly efteem- 
ed bv the King for her virtues, tho* 
he feldom fees her, and never coha- 
bits with her. The Princels Amelia 
is very agreeable and lovely, and 
poffeifed of every amiable quali6- 
cation to render her accompiiihed. 
Prince Henry is very amiable, and 
extremely polite and generous. 
Prince Ferdinand has diftinguifhed 
himfelf in fuch an extraordinary 
manner in Germanv, that his great 
quajificaticns are too well known to 
need a recital here ; therefore let it 
fuffice to fay, that he is loved and 
elleemed by all who know him. . . 

Characier of General Wolfe, 

GEneral Wolfe feemed by nature 
formed for miiirary greatrefs ; 
his memory was retentive, his judg- 
Inent deep, and his coinprehenfion 
amazingly quick and clear : his 
conflitutional courage was not only 
uniform, and daring, perhaps to an 
extreme, but he poffeffed that higher 
fpecies of it, (if I may be albwed 
theexprefiion) that ftrength, fteadi- 
nefs, and activity of mind, which no 
difficulties could obllruft, nor dan- 
gers deter. With an unufual live- 
linefs, almoft to impetucfity of tem- 
per, he was not fubjeft to pafuun : 
with the greatell independence of 
fpirit, htQ from pride. Generous 
almoll to profulion : he contemned 
every little art for the acquifition of 
wealth, whilfl he fearched after ob- 




jeds for his charity and beneficence : 
the deferving foldier never went un- 
rewarded, and even the needy in- 
ferior officer frequently tafted of his 
bounty. Conftant and diltinguifh- 
ing in his attachments : manly and 
unrcferved, yet gentle, kind, and 
conciliating in his manners. He 
enjoyed a large fhare of the friend- 
ihip, and alnvoll: the univerfal good- 
will of mankind ; and, to crown all, 
fmcerity and crindour, a true fenfe of 
honour, juftice, and public liberty, 
feemed the ir'herent principles of 
his nature, and the uniform rule of 
his conduct. 

He betook himfelf, when very 
yoimg, to the profefiion of arms ; 
smd with fuch talents, joined to the 
moft unwearied affiduity, no wonder 
he was foon lingled out as a moft fi- 
fing military genius. Even fo early 
at the battle of La- feldt, when fcarce 
twenty years of age, he exerted 
himfelf in fp mafterly a manner, at a 
very critical jundarc, that it drew the 
higheft encomiums from the great 
officer then at the head of the army. 

During the whole war he went 
on, without interruption, forming 
the military charafter ; was prefenc 
at fevery engagement, and never 
pafTed undiilinguifhed. Even after 
the peace, whilil others lolled on 
pleafure's downy lap, he was culti- 
vating the arts of war. He intro- 
duced (without one aft of inhuma- 
nity) luch regularity and exadlnefs 
of difcipline into his corps, that, as 
long as the fix Eritifh battalions on 
the plains of iVIinden are recorded 
^n the annals of Europe, fo long 
vvill Kingfley's ftand amongft the 
foremoil of that day. 

Ot that regiment he continued 
lieutenant-colonel, till the great mi- 
niller who routed th? flecping ge- 
nius of his country, called him forth 

into higher fpheres of aclion. He 
was early in the moft fecret conful- 
tations for the attack of Rochfort : 
and what he would have done there, 
and what he afterwards did do at 
Louiftjourg, are \eiy frefh in every 

He was- fcarce returned from 
thence, when he was appointed to 
command the important expedition 
againft Quebec. There his abilities 
ilione out in their brighteft luftre ; 
in fpight of many unforefecii diffi- 
culties, from the nature of the fitua- 
tion, from great fuperiority of num- 
bers, the ftrength of the place it- 
felf, and his own bad (late of health, 
he perfevered, with unwearied dili- 
gence, practifing every ftratagem of 
war to erf'ecl his purpofe ; at laft, 
Jingly, and alone in opinion, he form- 
ed, and executed, that great, that 
dangerous, yet neceftary plan, which 
drew out the French to their defeat, 
and will for ever denominate him 
1 he Conqueror cf Canada. But there 

- -tears will How there, when 

within the grafp of viclor)', he firft 
received a ball through his wrift, 
which immediately wrapping up, he 
went on, with the fame alacrity, ani- 
mating his troops by precept and ex- 
ample : but, in a few minutes after, 
a fecond ball, through his body, ob- 
liged him to be carried off to a fmall 
diftance in the rear, where rouzed 
from fainting in the laft agonies by 
the found of they run, he eagerly 
a&ed, " Who run?" and' being 
told, the French, and that they 
were defeated, he faid, *• Then, I 
" thank God ; I die contented;" 
and almoft inllantly expired^ 

On Sunday, November 17, at 
feven o'clock in the morning, his 
majefty's fhip Royal William (in 
vvhich this hero's corpfe was brought 
from Quebec to Portfmouth) fired 


For the YEAR 1759. 2S3 

two fignal guns for the removal of hero. — On the 20th et night, his 
his remains. Ac eight o'clock the body was depofited in the burying 

boiy was lowered out of the Ihip 
into a twelve-oar'd barge, towed 
by two twelve-oar'd barges, and 
attended by twelve twelve-oar'd 
barges to the bottom of the point, 
in a train of gloomy iiient pomp, 
fuitable to the melancholy occafion, 
grief fhutting up the lips of the 
fourteen barg-cs crews. Minute 
guns v/ere fired from the fhips at 
Spithe^d, ffom the time of the bo- 
dy's leaving the ihip to its being 
landed at the point at Portfmouth, 
which was one hour. The regi- 
ment of invalids was ordered under 
arms before eight, and being join- 
ed by a company of the train in 
the garrifon at Portfmouth, march- 
ed from the parade there, to the 
bottom of the point, to receive the 
remains. At nine the body was 
landed, and put into a travelling 
hearfe, attended by a mourning 
coach (both fent from London) 
and proceeded through the garrifon. 
The colours on the fort were ftruck 
half flag ftift; the bells were 
muffled, and rung in folemn con- 
cert with the march ; minute guns 
V.'ere fired on the platform from 
the entrance of the corpfe to the end 
of the procefiion ; the company of 
the train led the van with their 
■ arms reverfed ; the corps followed ; 
and the invalid regiment followed 
the hearfe, their arms reverfed. 
They condufted the body to the 
Land port gates, where the train 
opened to rhe light and left, and 
the hearle proceeded through them 
on their way to London. Although 
there were many thoufands of peo- 
ple affembled on this occafion, not 
the leaft diilurbance happened ; 
nothing to be heard but murmuring 
troken accents in praife of the dead 

place belonging to his family, at 

Some particulars of the life of Dr, 


Dmund Halley was the only 

chefier-ftreet. He was born in Lon- 
don, Oft. 29, 1656, and educated at 
St. Paul's fchool, under the tuition 
of Dr. Gale. In his early years he 
difcovered an uncommon genius for 
learning, and before he was fifteen 
had made a confiderable progrefs 
in mathematics, more particularly in 
thofe branches that led to the know- 
ledge of heavenly bodies. In his 
feventeenth year he was entered a 
commoner in Queen's College ; and 
before he was nineteen publilhed, 
in the Philofophical Tranfaftions, 
a direct and geometrical method of 
finding the Aphelia and Eccentri- 
city of the planets, by v/hich the 
hypothefis advanced by Kepler was 
reduced to demonftration. Some 
obfervations which he made on an 
eclipfe of the moon, June 27, 1675, 
and upon a fpot in the fun the year 
following, determined the motion 
of the fun round its own axis, 
which was not till then fufnciently, 
afcertained. The fame year he ob- 
ferved at Oxford an occultation of 
Mars by the moon, which he after- 
wards had occafion to refer to in. 
fettling the longitude of the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

Ailronomy now became his fa- 
vourite ftudy. He had in his youth, 
by unwearied application, an un- 
common Ihare of claffical learning ; 
and this in his riper years gave him 
the more leilure to parfue his pro- 




grcfs in the fciences. He had ac- 
curately oblcrved the motions of 
Jupiter and Saturn, and had cor- 
rected fome errors in the tables of 
thofe planets ; and he had taken 
fome pains to complete the cata- 
logue of fixed ftars, a tafk which 
he foon found upon enquiry, was 
in other hands. He then formed 
his great dcfign of perfeding the 
whole fcheme of the heavens, by 
the addition of thofe ftars which lie 
fo near the South pole, that they 
could neither be feen by Mr. Flam- 
flead at Greenwich, nor Hevelius 
at Dantzick, the two aftronomers 
who had undertaken to complete 
the catalogue. Full of this projedl 
he left the univcrfity, and with the 
confent of his father, and the royal 
recommendation, he embarked for 
St. Helena on board one of the Eaft- 
India company's (hips, in Novem- 
ber i6j^', before he had acquired, 
by his rcfidence, any title of thofe 
degrees of univerfity honours, that 
are alike conferred on wife men and 

After his arrival he loft no time 
in purfuing his ta{k, and having 
finiftied it to his own fatisfadlion, 
in 1678 he returned to London, and 
delineated a planifphere, on which 
he laid down the exaft place of all 
the ftars near the South poie, and 
prefente<l it to his majeily, who 
had already honoured him with his 
patronage, and who, as a further 
mark ot his royal favour, gave him 
a letter of mandamus to his univer- 
fity for the degree of mailer of arts, 
in compliance with which the de- 
gree was conferred Dec. 3, 1678, 
and the fame year he was chofen a 
fellow of the royal fociety. 

By the tables, which he foon af- 
ter publifhcd, he fliewed, from his 
own obfervations, that former aftro- 

nomers had been dcfeflive in calcu- 
lating the motions of the heavenly 
bodies ; that Saturn moved much 
flower, and Jupiter more fwiftly 
than had been before imagined ; 
and that the obliquity of the eclip- 
tic was no lefs erroneous. 

About this time a conteft had a- 
rifen between our countryman Mr. 
Hook, and the renowned Hevelius, 
already mentioned, about the pre- 
ference of plain or glafs lights in 
aftronomical inftruments ; and Mr. 
Halley, who was fcarce two arid 
twenty, was pitched upon by the 
royal fociety to go over to Dantzick, 
to terminate the difpute. Mr. Hal- 
ley was charmed with the old gen- 
tleman's manner, who had been an 
obferver above forty years, and he 
was no lefs fo with his converfation 
and the pcHtenefs with which he 
was received. From May 26, till 
July 18, the two aftronomers con- 
tinued their obfervadons aimoft 
every night, and on taking leave, 
Mr. Halley gave a tcftimony of the 
accuracy of the old aftror.jmer's 
apparatus which not a little pleafed 
him, and diff^ufted Mr. Hook. It 
would be foreign to our deli en to 
enter into the merits of this difpute, 
and therefore wc fliall only take 
notice that the learned Dr. Wallis 
took upon him, in fome mealure, 
to juftify Mr. Halley, by declaring 
thus far in his f;ivour, that if he 
had been too lavifti in his com- 
mendations of Hevelius, Mr. Hook 
had been the fame in his reprehen- 
fions ; and thus the matter reftcd. 

In i68oMr. Halley, accompanied 
by his friend and fchool-fellow, the 
pious Mr. Robert Nelfon, fct out tor 
France, ard about the midway be- 
tween Calais and Paris he was the 
firft who difcovered the remarkable 
comet of that year, in its return from 


For the YE 

the fun. He had already obferved it 
in its defcent, and had now the la- 
tisfadion of a complete gratification 
of his curiority, in viewing that ex- 
traordinary phenomenon from the 
royal obfervatory, which was then 
but jufc erected in France ; and at 
the fame time an opportunity of 
ellablilhing a friendly correfpond- 
ence between ths royal aftronomers 
of Paris and Greenvvich, the cele- 
brated Caffini and Mr. Flamllead. 

From Paris the travellers conti- 
nued their journey, with a view to 
make what is commonly called the 
grand tour ; and paiTing through 
Lyons, arrived in Italy, where they 
fpent the greatcft part of the year 
1681 : Mr. Halley's affairs calling 
him home, he left his companion at 
Rome, and returning by the way of 
Paris, he had a fecond opportunity 
of vifiting Signior Caffini, whom 
he affiited in reforming his inftru- 
ments, which he found vtry diffi- 
cult to manage ; and having com- 
municated to one another their for- 
mer obfervations upon this comet, 
as well thofe made at Greenwich, 
as thofe made at Paris, a foundation 
was laid for fettling the path of it, 
and of the eftablilhins: a new aftro- 
nomy with refpeft to thcfe celeitial 

It was not, however, till two 
years after, that he predifted the 
comet which now appears, and 
which muft now be univerfally- ac- 
knowledged, to the honour of his 
memory, to have been foretold by 
an EngliCiman*. 

AR 1759; 285 

Upon his return to England he 
married Mary the daughter of Mr. 
Tooke, at that time auditor of the 
Exchequer, a young lady amiable 
in her perfon, and of excellent en- 
dowments, with whom he lived 
happy fifcy-five years. 

The following year, 1682, he 
fettled at Iflington, and pubiifhed 
his theory of the variation of the 
magnetical compafs, in which he 
fuppofes the whole globe of the 
earth to be one great magnet, hav- 
ing four poles or points of attrac- 
tion, by which the needle is fuc- 
ceffively governed as it approaches 
neareft to either. But this hypo- 
thecs, tho' well Kcceived at firlt, by 
reafon of its novelty, was afterwards 
found irreconcileable to practice, 
and rejed.ed by himfelf for one that 
appeared to many no lefs whimfical 
than the former ; but this he perfifl:- 
ed in with great obltinacy, and the 
rather, as it folved all the appear- 
ances of the variation, without ab- 
folutely giving up the four poles on 
which rcfted tlie credit of his firft 
conje(Snre. He fuppofed the outer 
furface of the earth to be a iliell 
like that (for iliulbation fake) of a 
cocoa nut : that within this ihell 
was a fmaller fhell, not occupying 
the whole hollow fpace, but ad- 
mitting a floating medium between 
the infide of the outer, and the oat- 
fide cf the inner fliell ; that both 
thefe, having the fame common 
center and axis of diurnal rotation, 
would, by continual turning, vary 
a little ; and by that means the 

* This comet In i6Ea was accurately obferveJ at Greenwich by Mr. Flam- 
ftcacJ, when it c^iine to its peiihclion, Sept. 4; arnf Mr. Halley having traced it 
back to its appearance in 1607, when the time of its piiiiielion was Oit. 16 j 
and thence to 1531, wlien it came to its perihelion Aug. 25 j ventured to forctel, 
that it would appear again about the end of 1758, or the beginning of 1759 } 
a prediction which rcflcds immortal honour upon the memory of this great man, 
and upon the counii y in whicli he was born. 




poles would in time become differ- 
ent ; but that both the inner and 
outer poles, having the fumt power 
of attraftion, would produce the 
greater or le/lcr variation as they 
happened to be at a gieater or lefs 
diftance from each other: this a- 
mendment is by Tome difref^arded ; 
by none that we know of adopted j 
and yet fonie late experiments, 
made both by the French and Eng- 
lilh in different parts of the world, 
feem now to favour it, 

Mr. Hallcy fpared no pains to 
cftablifli his theory by repeated ex- 
periments, and he had fo much 
credit with King William after the 
revolution, that he obtained the 
comtnand of the Paramour Pink to 
complete his obfervations. In his 
iirlt attempt, his men proving fick- 
]y, and his firft lieutenant refufing 
to obey orders, he returned without 
effecting any thing; but having fuf- 
pended his lieutenant, and procured 
of the government another lliip of 
leCs burthen to attend him, he took 
his departure from the coaft of 
England in September 1699, and 
having traverfed the vaft Atlantic 
ocean from one hemifphere to the 
other, as far as the ice would per- 
mit, in his way back he touched at 
St. Helena, the coaft of Drazil, Cape 
Verd, Barbadoes, Madeira, the Ca- 
naries, the coaft of Barbary, and in 
many other latitudes, till at length 
he arrived in England in 1700, and 
publifned a general chart, Ihevving, 
at one view, the variation of the 
compafs in all thofe Teas where the 
Englifh navigators were acquaint- 
ed ; by which he laid a foundation 
for the difcovcry of the laws of that 
variation, fo different in different 
parts of the world. 

The method of finding the lon- 
gitude at fea, by the motions of 

the moon, was fir ft proje£ted by 
Mr. Halley, who tf)ok great pains 
to reduce it to practice ; but at the 
very time when he was moft intent 
upon perfecting his obfervations, 
his father's death, and the unex- 
pected reverfe of fortune that hap- 
pened to him on that occafion, put 
a period to his pleafurable ftudies, 
and obliged him to turn his thoughts 
to the fupportof a numerous family. 
His father, who, before the tire of 
London, was poffeifcd of an eftate 
in houfes of loool. a year, partly by 
imprudence in marrying a fecond 
wife, and partly by misfortunes, 
died infolvent. 

Mr. Halley, difappointed of his 
paternal inheritance, began to think 
ferioully of converting that know- 
ledge and experience, which had 
coft him fo much labour and ftudy, 
to his own more immediate advan- 
tage ; and it was fortunate for hitn 
that he made himfelf acceptable to 
Sir Ifaac Newton, by applying to 
him for the folution of a problem 
which had baffled the ikill of Sir 
Chriftopher Wren and Mr, Hook, 
who were at that time celebrated all 
over Europe for their great /kill in 
the mechanical powers, and for their 
knowledge in the fciences ; which 
Mr. Newton anfwered without he- 
fitation. Mr. Newton was then at 
Cambridge, and employed in his 
Principia,aworknow fowell known, 
that it is fcarce neceffary to mention 
more of the title : he was pleafed 
with the application made to him 
by Halley, and ever after conceived 
a friendiliip for him. 

In the interval between his firft 
voyage and his father's death, Mr. 
Halley had made many ufeful dif- 
coveries, which are omitted in their 
place, particularly a method of 
meafuring the elevation of very 


For the YEAR 1759. 


Kigli mountains and other emi- 
nences, by the barometer, and the 
phyfical caufes of the trade winds 
and monfoons, which he illuftrated 
by a chart, reprefenting their di- 
reftion, wherever they blow, in 
every part of the globe ; he ac- 
counted alfo for the equality of 
heigSt in the- Mediterranean fea, 
notvvithftanding the continual ac- 
cumulation of waters to it by nine 
large rivers, and the conflant fet- 
ting in of the current in the mouth 
of the Straits, without any vifi- 
ble difcharge by any canal what- 

We fhould likewife have taken 
notice, that Mr. Halley was chofen 
aflillant fecretary to the royal focie- 
ty, on the refignation of Dr. Muf- 
grave, in 1685 ; and in 1691, he 
was difappointed of the Savilian 
profeflbrihip at Oxford, by the jea- 
loufy of Mr. Flamftead, who took 
it in his head that he had fufFered in 
the eftimation of Sir Ifaac Newton, 
by Mr. Halley's growing friendihip 
with that great man. 

Soon after this mortification, he 
publifhed his tables, fhewing the 
value of annuities for lives, calcu- 
lated from the bills of mortality 
at Breflau in Silefja ; and the fame 
year came out his famous univerfal 
theories for finding the foci of optic 

In 1695 he refigned the office of 
afliftant fecretary, and was appoint- 
ed comptroller of the Mint at Chc- 
fter in 1696. Here his aftive ge- 
nius gave no way to idienefs. He 
employed himfelf during the two 
years that this fubfilled, in philo- 
fophical experiments, and phyfical 
difquifitions, and his hypothefis 
concerning the caufe of the uni- 
verfal deluge by the approach of a 
comet, which Mr. Whilton adopted 

in his new theory of the earth, was 
about this time produced. 

We have already related the fuc- 
cefs of his voyages in the Paramour 
Pink, before which he was emploved 
by King James JI. to obferve 'the 
courfe of the tides in every part of 
the Britiin channel, and to take the 
latitude and longitude of the prin- 
cipal headlands, which he perform- 
ed with great accuracy, and in 1702 
publilhed a large map of the Br;tifh 
channel. The fame year he was 
fent by Queen Anne to the Emperor 
to view the coaft of Dalmatia, and 
to conftrudl a fafe harbour for (hip- 
ping, as commodious as poffible for 
the trade of the Adriatic fea ; but 
fome objedlions being made to this 
projedl by the Dutch, the execution 
of the defign v/as deferred, and Mr. 
Halley returned home, with very 
fingular marks, however, of the 
Emperor's favour, who gave him 
from his own finger a ring of confi- 
derable value. Not long after his 
arrival in England, he was again fenc 
upon the fame errand, and in his 
way to the Emperor's court, had the 
honour to fup with his late majeiry 
King George I, at his palace of 
Herenhaufen, where he was enter- 
tained with great marks of refped. 
On his arrival at ^'ienna, he was 
again prefented to the Emperor, 
who ordered his chief engineer to 
attend him to Iftria, where they 
added fome new works to the' for- 
tifications of Trieile, the port of 
Boccari being found capable of re- 
ceiving fhips of all burdens witli 
the greateft fafety. 

In the year 1703, juft before the 
great ftorm, he returned to Eng- 
land, and Dr. Wallis being then 
dead, he was now appointed Savi- 
lian ProfefTor at Oxford without 
oppcfition, and was complimented 


with the degree of doftor of laws 
by that univerfity. Here he was 
employed in tranflating, and re- 
vifing fome ancient authors on the 
abftrufer parts of mathematics, par- 
ticularly Apollonius de fcftione ra- 
tionis and Serenus's Conies. 

In 1713 he fucceedcd Sir Hans 
Sloane in the poll of fecretary to 
the royal fociety ; and, as perfefl- 
ing the theory of the moon's itk^- 
tion was always uppermolt in his 
thou;>hts, though prevented from it 
by the multiplicity of public bufi- 
nefs, he now applied all his leifure 
hours to that fubjeft, and in 17 15 
he was able by that means to pre- 
<ii(5l the central eclipfe of the fun 
to a few minutes, and to project a 
map of the extent of the moon's 
fhadow to fuch a degree of exaft- 
nefs, as adi'anced his reputation in 
that article of aftronomy beyond 
the reach of party oppofition. On 
thedeath of Mr. Flamilead in 17 19, 
he was appointed to fucceed him. 
By this new employment he was 
r.ot only enabled to purfue his fa- 
vourite fludies without interruption, 
biit he was alfo pofTefTed of a com- 
petency to fupport liis family with- 
out that anxiety of mind, to which, 
by the uncertainty of his income, 
he had long been fubjcft. 

When he was advanced to Green- 
wich he was in the 64th year of his 
age ; notwithftanding which he at- 
tended the telefcope with uncom- 
mon application for 18 years with- 
out any afliftance: in all which time 
a meridian view of the moon fcarce 
everefcaped him whenever the dif- 
pofition of the heavens would per- 
mit. In 1721, he refigned the poll 
of fecretary to the royal fociety, 
that nothing might iiiterrupc the 
bufinefs of his new employment. 
Upoa the acceflion of his prefent 

majelly to the throne, the hte 
Queen Caroline made a vifit to thd 
royal obfervatory, and being high- 
ly delighted with the polite recep- 
tion (he met with, was pleafed to 
add to his falary the half-pay of a 
captain of the navy, to which, by 
his former commifiion, he had an 
undoubted claim ; but he declined 
the offer that was made him of be- 
ing appointed mathematical pre- 
ceptor to the Duke of Cumberland, 
as incompatible with his years, and 
the ordinary attendance of his duty 
at Greenwich. 

In Augull 1729 he was admitted 
a foreign member of the academy 
of fciences at Paris, in the room of 
Signior Branchini ; and in 173 1 he 
publiflied a propofal for finding 
the longitude at fea within a de- 
gree, having perfefted his tables for 
one whole period of the moon's 
apogaeum, in which time he had 
obferved the right afcenfion of the 
moon at her tranfit over the meri- 
dian near 1500 times, a number 
not lefs than Tycho Brahe, Heve- 
lius, and Flamftead's, added toge- 

In 1737 he was feized with a 
paralytic diforderln his right hand, 
an attack the more alarming as it 
was the firll he had ever felt upoa 
his conflitution ; which gradually 
increafing, he came at length to 
be wholly fupported by fuch cor- 
dials as were ordered by his phy- 
ficians, till being tired with ihcfe, 
he aflted for a glafs of wine, and 
having drank it, expired as he fat 
in his chair, on the 14th of Janu- 
ary, and in the 8zd year of his 
age, without a groan. He was in- 
terred at Lee, near Greenwich, in 
the fiime grave with his beloved 
confort. And as he was a member 
whofe name refleded honour up n 


For the Y E 

the Royal Academy of Sciences at 
Paris Mr. Mairan, according to 
cuilom, pronounced his eulogy, 
from which theTe further particu- 
lars are extracted. " Pie, fays 
Mairan, polTefied all the qualifica- 
tions neceffary to pleafe princes 
who are delirous of inllrudion, 
great exient of knowledge, and a 
conllant prefence of mind ; his an- 
fwers v.-ie ready, and ac the fame 
time, pertinent, judicious, polite, 
and fin cere. When Peter the Great, 
Emperor of Ruffia, came into Eng- 
land, he fent for Mr. Halley, and 
found him equal to the great cha- 
rafter he had heard of him. He 
alked him many q-jeliions concern- 
ing the fleet he intended to build, 
the fciences and arts which he wilh- 
ed to introduce into his dominions, 
and a thoufand other fubjecls which 
his unbounded curiofity fug^eRed ; 
he was fo well fatisfied with Mr. 
Halley's anfwers, and fo plealed 
with his converfation, that he ad- 
mitted him familiarly to his table, 
and ranked him among the num- 
ber of his friends; a term which 
we may venture to ufe with refpeft 
to a prince of his chara£ler : a 
prince tri'ly great, in making no 
dillindions of men but that of iheir 
merit. But Mr. Halley, continues 
this writer, pofTefTed Hill more of 
the qualifications necelfary to ob- 
tain him the love of his equals. 
In the firft place he loved them ; 
naturally of an ardent and glowing 
temper, he appealed animated in 
their prelence with a generous 
warmth, which the pleafure alcne 
of feeing them feemed to infpire ; 
he was open and pundual in his 
dealings, candid in his judgment, 
uniform and blamelefs in his man- 
ners, fweet and affable, always 
ready to communicate, and difm- 
VoL. II. 

A R 1759. 289 

terelled. He opened a way to 
wealth by all that he ctfefted for 
the improvement of navigation : 
to the glory of which he has add- 
ed, that of having done nothing 
to enrich himfelf: he lived and 
died in that mediocrity fo much 
extolled by philofophers, the free 
choice of which implies a great 
degree both of virtue and wifdom. 
The only mere lucrative place he 
ever had, was that in the mint at 
Cheller, which foon determined, 
and he never defired another. He 
was generous, and his generofjty 
exerted itfelf even at the expence 
of vanity, from which the learned 
are no more exempted than other 
men, and which perhaps they more 
frequently betray. I am furnillied, 
proceeds Mr. Mairan, with an in- 
ftance of this, by a letter which 
accidentally came into my hands 
about fix years ago, written by 
him to an author whom he knew 
only by reputation. Mr. Halley, 
in his letter, with equal fagaciry 
and politeoefs, points out an error 
in a very critical calculation which 
that author had fallen into, in treat- 
ing on the principal point of a 
quellion in allronomy and phyfics. 
It mult not however be concealed, 
that Mr. Halley never publifhed 
that letter, although it would cer- 
tainly have done him honour ; but 
we muft not too particularly reveal 
a fecret, from the concealment of 
which he derives Itiil more. 

The reputation of others gave 
him no unealinefs, arefllefs jealouiy 
arid anxious emulation were ilran- 
gers to his breaft. He was equal- 
ly ignorant of thofe extravagant 
prejudices in favour of one nation, 
which are injurious to all others. 
The friend, countryman, and dif. 
ciple of Newton, he fpoke of Des 

U Cartes 



Cartes with refpedt ; and fucceflbr idea. However, tho' only a boy 

toDr. Wallis, he did jullice to the of nine years old, he ftill perfifted 

memory of our ancient geometri- in puriuing his ftudies, travelled 

cians. To conclude, thefc un- about from fchool to fchool, and 

common and valuable qualifications begged his learning and his bread, 

were tempered in Mr. Hailey with When at the age of feventeen, in- 

a vein of gaiety and good hu- rtead of applying himfelf to any 

mour, which neither his ahftrafted of the lower occupations, which 

fpeculations,^ the infirmities of old feem bed adapted to fuch circum- 

age, nor the pally itfelf, which fiances, he was refolved to travel 

feized him fome years before his 
death, could impair : and this 
happy difpofuion, the gift of na- 
ture, was the more per.ert, as it 
was ftill attendant upcn that peace 
of mind, which is the nob'elt en- 
dowment of virtue." Since his 

for improvement from Norway, 
the place of his birth, to Copenha- 
gen, the capital city of Denmark. 
He lived here by teaching French, 
at the fame time avoiding no oppor- 
tunity of improvement, that his 
fcanty funds could permit. Eut hia 

death, his long expccled tables of am.bition was not to be reftrainedi 

the fun and planets were'publiihed or his third of knowledge fati^- 

in 1752, in 4to. with this title, fied, until he had feen the world. 

Aftronomica! tables, with precepts Without money, recommendations, 

both EngliHi and Latin, for com- or friends, he undertook to fet out 

puling the places of the fun, moon, upon his travels, and make the tour 

planets, and comets. 

Jn account of Baron Holhcro^ ex- 
traSied frmn Jn enquiry into the 
frefent Jlate of polite learnifig in 

HE hiHory of polite learn- 
ing in Denmark, may be 
comprifed in the life of one Tingle up his refidence for two years in 

the univerfitv of Oxford. Here he 

of Europe on foot. A good voice, 
and a trifling ficili in mufic, were 
the only nnances he had to fupport 
an undertaking fo extenfive; fo he 
travelled by day, and at night fung 
at the doors of peafants houfes, to 
get himfelf a lodging. In this man- 
ner young Holberg pafTed throtigh 
France^ Germany, and Holland, 
and, coming over to England, took 

man ; it role and fell uith the late 
famous Baron Holberg. This was, 
perhaps, one of the mofl extraor- 
dinary perlonages that has done 
honour to the preient century. 
His being the fon of a private cen- 

fubfillcd by teaching French and 
mufjc, ani wrote his Univerfal 
Hillory, his earliell, but worll per- 
form.Tnce. Furnifhed with all the 
learning of Europe, he at lait 

tinel, did not abate the ardour of thought proper to return to Copen- 

his ambition ; for he learned to hagen, where his ingenious pro- 

i-ead, though without a mailer, dutlions quickly gained him that 

Upon the death of his faiiier, being favour he deferved. He compofed 

(eft entirely delV.tute, he was in- not lefs than eighteen comedies ; 

vol\*cd in ail that dlihefs which is thofc in his own language are faid 

cnmnion among the poor, and of to excel, and thofc whicn are wrote 

V.iuch the great have fcarce any in French has e peculiar merit. He 


For the Y 

was liononred with nobility, and 
enriched by the bounty of the 
King; fo that a life begun in con- 
tempt and penury, ended in opu- 
lence and efleeni. 

To this account nve Jhall fuhjoin the 
folloxving extra& from a ^work of 
Monf. Bcaumelle, <vQritten origi- 
nally in French, and fuUifyed a 
fe-iv years f trice under the title of 
Mes Pcnsees, gi'ving a farther ac- 
ccunt of Baron H^lber^^ and the 
prefent flat e nf the Danipjiage. 

THE Danifh comedy owes its 
birth and progrefs to the Ba- 
ron Holberg : this learned and in- 
genious gentleman has drawn from 
his fiuitful vein feven or eight vo- 
lumes of dramatic performances ; 
his manner is exaft, dry, natural, 
at leaft if one can judge by the 
German tranflation ; every where 
as correct: as Terence, and fome- 
times as pleafr.nt as Plautus ; the 
reading of the modern French co- 
mic writers has not fpoiled him ; 
no infipid dialogues, no metaphy- 
ijcal fcenes, no over exquifite and 
fine-fpun fentiments. Jt is eafier 
for a foreigner to fay what he is not, 
than to guefs what he is ; among 
his countrymen, fuch as ; re deli- 
cate and nice judges objeft to him 
his low jells, and a profufion of 
that grofs humour proper only to 
pleafe the tafte of the mob ; they 
fay that Mr. Holberg has not the 
language of the polite world ; that 
he makes choice only of the low and 
trivial ir manners ; that he iliould 
have made more brilliant foibles 
the objefts of his humour; that he 
might have found in high life per- 
fons, charatflers, and follies more 
interelling : in a vvord, they com- 
pare him to thoi'e paincers who 

EAR 1759. 291 

copy nature exactly, but who never 
rtudy nature in her beauties. Bet 
thefe cenfures are too fevere ; be- 
caufe the profeflbr Holberg de- 
ferves fome indulgence, for his 
being not only the father of the 
llagc, but belides that he has no 
fucceffor; not to mention that he 
is the ill ft profeifor of a collecre 
who has obliged the world with 
valuable comedies. 

Melampus, The Honed Ambi- 
tion, The Whimfical Lady, Henry 
and Ferine, are not farces : we 
tranflate every day Englilh plays 
that are much inferior to them: this 
author had without doubt excelled 
in polite comedy, if the pit had 
permitted him to follow his own 
tafte ; it was this pit that extorted 
from him the Political Pewterer, 
Plutus and Ulyffes. 

The llage might be eafily per- 
fected : we ought firft to profcribe 
all the French farces which painful 
tranflators turn into Danifh, at ten 
crowns a-piece : there is in eveiv 
country more than wit enough to 
compofe good farces; what occa- 
fion therefore 13 there for tranHating 
any ? We ought to be exceeding 
delicate in the choice cf tjanfia- 
tions : in this kind their lift of plays 
Ihould efter only what are wrought 
in the higheft perfedion ; gocd 
ceconomy requires that in matters 
of pleafure nothing (hould be bor- 
rowed from foreigners, but what 
is excellent and exquifitely finifhed. 
A 'lage fliould tranllace only to fornx 
itielf; it fliculd therefore copy 
only great models: The r*.Iij£r, 
the Mifar.thrope, the Gamefier, ihe 
Bo;iller, will peiftct the taise of 
authors and of me pit. The Mock 
Do£lor, the Feiiin de Pierre, and 
Naiiine, "re enough to vitiate both 
the one and the Cther. 
U i To 



To have good original pieces, 
it is neceffary to encourage the au- 
thors; and to encourage them, we 
mud folicit thenn with the tempta- 
tion of gain : the flage ftiould be 
the patiimony of men of parts and 
wit, and every peiformance paid 
according to the number of the re- 
prefentations. If authors confult- 
ed their intereft, they would not 
print their pieces 'till after the firft 
fire of the public curiofity was 
fomewhac abated. The cuftom ob- 
fe:ved in Denmark of printing the 
piece at the fame time with the 
play-bill, irritates the fpirit of cri- 
ticifm, and blunts the edge of our 
curiofity. The of the poet 
cannot pay too great a regard to 
the delicacy of ihe fpeftators. 

TheDnnifh ilage will be imper- 
fect as long as there are no trage- 
dies performed there ; it will be^, 
if I may be allowed the exprcfTion* 
a limping Itage. '1 he Danes have 
only fome few fcenes of the Cid 
tranllated by Mr, Roflgaerd, the 
bed of their poets. Some perfons 
charge their knguage for not being 
proper for tragedy : but is it cre- 
dible that a tongu.', whofe tone is 
fo plaintive and fo moving, Ihould 
not be proper to convey the pa- 
thetic, and exprefs fcntiments ? 
Others pretend that tiie charadter 
of the nation is repugnant to it: 
but is it conceivable, char a haugh- 
tv, noble, and generous nation, can- 
not nroduce authors that can treat 
of tlie molt highly intereiling fub- 
jcds ; that are zicquainted' with the 
human heart, anil are cap.ihle of 
moving the pafilons ? If the Danes 
have no tragedies, 'tis neither the 
fault of tlieir language, nor their 
want of genius; but is purely totre 
afcribed to cjrcumfianccs : their 
ilage is but in its infancy ; and the 

language of the poets among thern 
is not yet become the languageof the 
gods. Be this as iii will, they never 
will have excellent comedies, till , 
they have, at leall, bad tragedies. 

1 forgot to obfcrve, that their co- 
medies are all in profe. At Paris, 
it is found infinitely difHcult to keep 
up the fpirit of the piece, in profe, 
for five a6ls : at Copenhagen they 
judge it infinitely more fo to keep 
it up in verfe, without reckoning 
that the mechanifm of poetry feems 
there ridiculous in the mouths of 
people who (liOuld fpeak naturally, 
limply, and without any prepa- 

The aAors are as good as the 
pieces they perform. As the pro- 
ieffion of a comedian in Denmark 
is neither fligmatized by the law, 
nor by religion, nor by the culloms 
of the country, this occupation is 
exercifed by younp' perfons, who 
for the moll part have had a libe- 
ral education, who have natural 
and improved underllandings. In 
France players are defpifed by the 
people, and careffed by the nobi-- 
lity : in Denmark they are not, 'tis 
true, careffed by the men of qua- 
lity, but neither are they defpifed 
by the commonalty. It were to be 
wifhed, for the perfection of the 
rtage, that they flrouid be admitted 
into the bell; company ; they would 
foon catch their manner, and amufe 
the public by copying them. Their 
Haiiequin is tolerable : a tour to 
Paris vvouid quite form him. Their 
Fop is fuch as fuits a country where 
no fuch characler is found in per- 

As to the adrefies, they are lefs 
handfome than pretty, more pretty 
than agreeable, more agreeable than 
good. The public is divided be- 
tween Mademoifelle Sliilo and Ma- 
de moifelle 

For the Y E 

demoifelleMaterne; the oneis more 
applauded, the other is better loved. 
Paris would look upon the firli as a 
very delicate morfel. 

Some people complain that the 
a<flors want tafte in drefs : this re- 
proach falls with more judice upon 
the aftrefies. Yet, I mull declare 
my fentiments, even at the rifk of 
lying under the imputation ofrude- 
nefs : their ornaments are without 
elegance, and their drefs without 
iinagination. The flage that fhould 
give the tone to fafhions, receives 
them from the court, the court bor- 
rows them from the city, the city 
has them from Hamburgh, which 
imports thtm from Paris, from 
Berlin, from Drefden, and from 
Hanover, and fpoils them all, by 
mixing with them that clumfy fpirit 
which the heavy air of trade throws 
upon every thing. 

Methinks the direflors are not 
attentive enough to procure new 
fubjeds ; they never have the fird 
appearance of an aftrefs, or fetting 
out of a new aftor. This is, how- 
ever, the only means of putting the 
ftage upon a folid footing, and of 
keeping continually alive the curi- 
ofity of the public. 

The falaries of the adlors are not 
very confiderable, nor are thcfe of 
the acflrefTes proportionable either 
to their talents or to their condudt. 

The room of the play-houfe is 
built with judgment, the feats di- 
llributed with ceconomy, the ma- 
chines compoled with a great ex- 
pence and fimplicity : the ftage is 
almoil as iarge as the pit; which is 
a feniible defed. They fay that the 
muficof the orchreftra is very good ; 
it may be fo; but the interludes are 
fo long, that it has always confider- 
ably tired me. 

This company has its directors : 

A R 1759: 293 

would it not be better that they 
dire(5led themfelves ; and that they 
had, as in France, the gentlemen of 
the bed chamber for theirfuperiors? 

Nothing of what tends to the 
perfection of the public fpefiacles 
and fciences can be indifferent to 
the public good; and I fliould be 
ghid that Denmark, which dillin- 
guifiies itfelf in fo many particulars, 
would diilinguifh itfelf in every 

There is at Copenhagen a com- 
pany ^of French coinedians ; they 
have a penfion from the King. It 
would be an eafy matter to take 
proper meafures to put them in a 
condition to reprefent all the good 
pieces, and to repiefent them with 

CharaSiers of Magliabechi, and Hill 
on Englijh taylor, ivith a paralkU 
by Mr. iipence. 

1'^HE Italian, who forms one 
part of this comparifon, is 
Signior xAntonio Magliabechi, li- 
brarian to the Grand Duke of Tuf- 
cany. This man was born at Flo- 
rence, Oft. 29, 1633. Such was 
the poverty of his parents, that 
they thought themfelves happy in 
getting him into the fervice of a 
man who fold herbs and fruit. Here 
he took every opportunity, though 
he could not tell one letter from 
another, to pore on the leaves of 
fome old books that ferved for wafte 
paper, declaring that he loved it 
of all things. A neighbouring 
bookfeller, who obferved this, took 
him into his fervice. Young Mag- 
liabechi foon learned to read ; and 
his inclination for reading be- 
came his ruling pafiion ; and a 
prodigioui memory his diilinguifli- 
U 3 ed 


ed talent. He read every book life, fuch an affluence as very few 

that cnn:c inio his hands, and re- perlons have ever procured by their 

tained not only the fenfe of what knowledge or learning. By his 

he read, but often all the words, will he left a very fine library col- 

and the very manner of fpelling, if leifled by himfclf, for the ufe of the 

fingular. To make trial of the public, with a fund to maintain it ; 

force of his memory, a gentleman and the overplus of the fund to the 

]enthim a manufcript he wasgoing poor. It had been ufual for every 

to print. Some time after it was author and printer to make him a 

xeturned, the gentleman came to prefent of a copy of every thing 

him, with a melancholy face, and they publilhed. 

pretended it was loll. Magliabechi Though he was not an ecclefia- 

being requeued to recolledl what flic, he would never marry. He 

he remembered of it, wrote the was quite flovenly in his drefs He 

whole, without miffing a word, or 
varying the fpelling. He was con- 
iuited by all the learned who pro- 
pofed to write on any fubjecl. If a 
pried, for indance, was going to 
con-ipd'c a panegyric on a faint, 
Magliabechi would tell hi.Ti every 
author, to the number of an hun- 
dred fometimes, who had faid any 
thingof that faint, naming the book 
and the page, and the very words. 
He did this fo often, and fo readily, 
that he came at lait to be looked 
upon as an oracle; and Colmo 111. 
Grand Duke of Florence, made 
him his librarian, the mod fuitable 
ofHce to Magliabechi's genius. In 
the latter part of his life, when a 
book came Into his hands, he would 

received his friends, and thofe who 
came to confult him on any point 
of literature, in a civil and oblig- 
ing manner; though in general he 
had almoll the air of a favage, and 
even affeded it ; together with a 
cynical or contemptuous fmilc. In 
his manner of living, he affecled 
the character of Diogenes : three 
hard eggs, and a draught or two 
of water, were his ufual repaft. 
When any one went to fee him, 
tiiey moll ufually found him lolling 
in a fort of fixt wooden cradle in the 
middle of his ftudy, with a multi- 
titude of books, fome thrown in 
heaps, and others fcaitered about the 
floor, all around him ; and this 
his cradle or bed, was attached to 

lead the title page all over, dip the nearcll pile of books by a 

here and there in the preface, de- 
dication, and prefatory advertife- 
ments, if there were any ; and then 
cad his eyes on each of the divi- 
iions, fedions, or ch2ptcr^■. After 
this he could tell at any time what 
the bonk conta'ncd. 

Thouoii V'agliabechi mull have 
lived a very fecer.tary life, yet he 
attained to the ageofSi. He died 
July 14, 1-14, in the miolt of the 
publiiT applaui'e, atter enjoying, 
during ail the latter pan of his 

number of cobwebs. At their en- 
trance he commonly ufed to call 
out to them, '• Not to hurt his 

Mr. Spence felefls to compare 
with th's verv extraordinary man, 
KOBh-RT liiLL, born Jan. 11,- 
1699, **' Mifvvell, near Tring, in 
Hertfo.'dlhire. His mother loll her 
hulband within the year : and a- 
bout hve years af;er married ano- 
ther at Buckingham. This child 
was left with bis grandmother, 


For the YEAR 1759 

"wlro taught him to read, and fent 
Jiim to I'chool for feven or eight 
weeks, to learn to write : which 
was all the fchocling he ever had. 
At the age of eleven he was fet to 
drive the plough : but his confti- 
tution being weakly, he was 
bound apprentice, in 1714, to his 
father-in-law, whofe name was 
Robinfon, a taylor at Buckingham. 
Two years afterwards he got part 
of an acciderice and grammar, and 
about three fourths of Littleton's 
di(5lionary. He conceived a violent 
palTion for reading, and wanted 
greatly to learn Latin, for no 
other reafon, that he remembers, 
but that he might he able to read 
the Latin epitaphs in the church. 
As his mafter would not allow him 
time from his work by day, he 
ufed to procure candles as privately 
as he could, and read for good part 
of the nights. In 1717, the fmall- 
pox coming into Buckingham, he 
was fent to Tring-grove, and em- 
ployed in keepiug his uncle's flieep. 
The happinefs of the Arcadian 
fvvains of romance writers was not 
equal to Robin's, while he could lie 
under an hedge, and read all day 
long ; though his library confilled 
only of the Practice of Piety, the 
Whole Duty of Man, and Mauger's 
French Grammar. 

Returning to Buckingham in 
1719, he had the fatisfadtion of 
meeting with his old friend the 
Latin grammar, and by the afTilt- 
ance of the boys at the free-fchool, 
.'ittained to read the Latin Tefta- 
ment, and C^far's Commentaries. 
A Greek Tel^ament being foon 
jifter added to his books, he re- 
folved to learn Greek. In the mean 
time, his wife proving a very good 
breeder, his income became defi- 
cient: he therefore, in 1724, fet 


up for a fchcol-mafter, as well as 
a caylox. In this new employment 
he was brought into a terrible 
dilemma: a boy from a neighbour- 
ing fchool, who had learned deci- 
mal fractions, came to Hill's fchool, 
when Hill himfelf had got but a 
little way in divifion. He fet his 
new fchojar to copy the tables of 
decimal fraft ions in Wingate, which 
engaged him about fix weeks ; 
and in the mean time, by fitting 
up the greateft part of every night, 
he made himfelf mailer of decimal 
fractions before that time was ex- 
pired. About 1726 he maintained 
a controverfy for two years with a 
popilh bilhop, who endeavoured to 
feduce one of his fcholars. Two 
years after this, he lolt his wife, and 
in 1730, married a fecond, who 
proved a bad woman in all re- 
fpeds. The debts fhe brought 
upofl him, obliged him, at the end 
of two years, to leave Buckingham, 
and to travel and work about the 
country as a taylor and (lay-maker. 
So.Tie time before he fet out, upon 
feeing fbme Hebrew quotations in 
the works of Mr. Weemfe, pre- 
bendary of Durham, he became ex- 
tremely defirous of learning that 
language. For want of proper 
helps he laboured feveral years ia 
this lludy with little fuccefs : and 
the difficulty of dillinguifhing be- 
tween the pronunciation of the two 
vowels fo alike, Camc'.z. and Ca- 
metfcatter, at lafi: quite tired his 
patience, and he parted with all 
his Hebrew books. This was only 
a fudden gull of paiTion : his eager- 
nefs to matter the Hebrew returned ; 
and having bought (in 173") 
Stennit's grammar, it immediately 
cleared up his grand difiiculty ; 
and after this he went on fuc- 
U 4 ' AW 



All this .while, as it was ncceflary 
his place of lefidencc fhould be con- 
cealed, he' kept up no correfpon- 
dence at Buckingham, io that death 
had kindly removed his greateft 
trouble, two or three years before 
he heard of it. She had, as he 
hiuifelf allows, one child, and, as 
ihe ufed to affirm, two by hiai : 
but the parentage of the latter was 
very equivocal. However, they 
both died foon after the mother, 
and Hill returned to Buckingham 
in the end of January, i744> 
N. S. He maintained himfelf for 
four or five years, by his firlt oc- 
cupation of taylor and ftay-maker ; 
but marrying a third wife, in 1747, 
who proved as good a breeder as 
his firft, this, with the dearnefs 
of proviiinns, and hardnefs of the 
times, reduced him to inexpreffible 

Though his modefty had always 
iTiade him keep his acquifition of 
I he learned languages as fecret as 
poffible, it was rumoured about the 
country, '* That he could read 
the bible in the fame books, and the 
fame ftrange figures as the travel- 
ling Jews did." A neighbouring 
clergyman, finding it to be true, 
took a liking to him, and has been 
his friend everfince. This gentle- 
man fome time after, fet him to 
write remarks on the Ejjaj on Spi- 
rit, which appeared in 1-5^, and 
was the tiril piece of Mr. Hill's that 
was printed. The next thing the 
fame gentleman employed him a- 
bo'Jt was, a traft againlt the pa- 
pilis, fliewing that the favourite 
doctrines of the church of Rome 
are novel inventions. About tiie 
fame time he wrote T/re Charaifer 
vf a ye-<.v, when the bill for natura- 
lizing that people was in agitation. 
This, he lays, was the belt thing 

he ever wrote, and was the leaft 
approved of. And, latterly, he has 
written Criticifms on 'Joh, in five 
iheets, which is the largeft of all 
his works. 

He fays, he would now engage 
to teach Hebrew to any body of 
tolerable parts, and with very mo- 
derate application in fix weeks at 
an hour each morning; and another 
each afternoon. He is writing a 
Hebrew grammar, on which fort 
of fubjedl he will probably fucceed 
better than in any other, bccaufe 
it has been the moil general ftudy 
of his life. Mayr's grammar he 
thinks much the belt of twenty 
Hebrew grammars he has read : 
he therefore intends to build his 
chiefly on Mayr's ; as Mayr him- 
felf did on that of Cardinal Bellar- 
mine. He fays, It is very hard 
work fometimes to catch a Hebrew 
root; but that he never yet hunt- 
ed after one whch he did not 
catch in the end. He might affirm 
the fame of every thing he has at- 
tempted, for his application and at- 
tention exceed what any one can 
conceive, who hath not obferved 
the procefs of his ftudies. He is a 
vail admirer of St. Jerom, whom 
he equals to Cicero. He fays, he 
has had more light from father 
Simon, than from all our other 
writers put together. He thinks 
the Hutchinfonians wrong in al- 
mofl every thing they advance. 
He is a moll zealous fon of the 
church of England. Of the poets, 
his chief acquaintance have been 
Homer, Virgil, and Ogilvy. The 
Iliad he h^s read over many 

The Odyfley being put into his 
hands, in 17^8, both in the origi- 
nal, and in Mr. Pope's tranflation, 
he was charmed with both ; but 


For the YEAR 

faid that It read finer in the latter, 
than in Homer hirr.felt'. Pope's 
Effay on Criticifm charmed him ftill 
more: he called it "The wHeft 
poem he had ever read in his whole 

Hill feems to have been the bet- 
ter citizen, in marrying three times ; 
and Magliabechi, perhaps, was the 
wifeft ftudent, in not marrying at 

I am very forry that there is ftill 
one point remaining, in which Hill 
is as unlike Magliabechi, as many 
of the preceding. Magliabechi 
lived and died, as has been already 
faid, in very great affluence : he 
abounded in money, and his ex- 
pences Were very fmall, except for 
books ; which he regarded as his 
trueil treafure : whereas poor Mr. 
Hill has generally lived in want, 
and lately more than ever. The 
very high price, even of the moft 
necefiary provifions, for this and the 
1 aft year, [that is 1758 and 1757] 
have not only made it often difficult 
for him to provide bread for him- 
felf and his family ; but have in 
part ftopt up even the fources for 
it, in leftening his bufinefs. Buck- 
ingham is iiorich place at beft ; and 
even there his bufinefs has chiefly 
been among the lowerforrof people ; 
and when thefe are not able to pur- 
chafe the food that is neceffary for 
them, they cannot think of buy- 
ing new cloaths. This has re- 
duced him fo very low, that I have 
been informed, that he has paFed 
many and many whole days, in this 
and the former year, without tail- 
ing any thing but water and to- 
bacco. He has a wife and four 
fmall children, the eldeft of them 
not above eight years old ; and 
what bread they could get, he often 

1759. 297 

fpared from his own hunc^er, to 
help towards fatisfying theirs. — 
People that live aiwHvs at their 
eafe, do not knew, and can fcarce 
conceive, the difficulties our poor 
have been forced to undergo in 
thefe late hard times. He himfelf 
affured me, upon my mentioning 
this particular to him, that it was 
too true.—" But, alas ! (added he) 
it is not only my cafe, but has been 
that of hundreds in the town and 
neighbourhood of Buckingham, in 
the laft, and for the former part of 
this year (175S) ; and I fear we 
muH make many more experiments 
of the fame kind, before it is at an 

If any one in this age, fo juftly 
erninent for charities of almoft all 
kinds, fliall be fo far moved with 
the diftrefs and neceffities of fo 
worthy and induftrious a poor 
man, as to be inclined to help 
to'i/ards relieving him ; they are 
humbly intreated to fend any pre- 
fent which they might wifh in his 
hands, either to Mr. Richardfon, 
in Salifbury-court, Fleet-ftreet, or 
Me/r. Dodfley, bookfellers, in Pall- 
mall, London ; Mr. Prince, at Ox- 
ford ; Mr. Thurlbourn, at Cam- 
bridge ; Meff. Hamilton and Bal- 
four, at Edinburgh ; Mr. Faulkner, 
at Dublin ; Mr. Owen, at Tun- 
bridge ; Mr. Leake, at Bath ; Mr. 
Cadell, at Brillol ; Mr. Hinxman, at 
York ; Mr. Richardfon, at Durham ; 
Mr. Creighton, at Ipfwich ; Mr. 
Chafe, at Norwich; Mr. Burdin,a£ 
Winchefter; Mr. Collins, at Salif- 
bury ; and Mr. Seeley, at Bucking- 
ham : and they may be alTured, 
that whatever may be thus colleft- 
ed, Hiall be put to the propereft 
ufe for the fervice of him and his 



mZ'Z 't ^'■^'•^''" '^ f ''''' ^^''^ ^«"^" i"to England was 
Jiipop Atterbnry, nvntten hy Mr. in fo critical o f;„« ^ . s'^"^ J^^s 

npHE duke, rays Mr^ Fairfax, [J^ali i' t^K^n^^^S.^ce ^^""^- 

1 inherited from his father the In the year i6Ts Zv' 

greateft rule, a^d from his mother- a Prifoner^n he Ifle'of W^'i?^ """J 

the greateft eftate of any fubied in hiVf ipn,5 " r , '^^^' ^"'^ 

Engtand ; and from th^m bo h fo land defi 'inrto"' '"''' f ^"^- 

.i^raceful a body, as gave a kftre o Duk; H. ^ renew the war ; 

Che ornamenr/of hiLind. Earl of h"]' 7 '". ^r''"'^' ^^^^ 

The duke and his brothel' rvCon-, " ^^'^'^^ '" Sur- 

Francis were fent to Trinity o! Z^ and EH^"^!" :,',!" r"^ " ''\"- 

]ege, Cambridge whence thL re- laft X ts^^f die dy nV/LfT" ''^ 
paired to King CharJes J. at Ox- The A,A-. a u I 

^ord; and there, fays this the^r rJn • u"^ ^°'^''' "^^ ^o^d 

paneoyn,, they 'chT tw^^ ^t^^^ ';r:;;L:d% fth ^1 %^^^^°^ 

tutors to enter them in the w;,r H^ii ?^^j "^ '^^ ^^""^ '^'^ 

PHnoe R.perr, /ni".; 10^0;: "" dd 'abo .^Rvt: f '"l'^^"""^ 
/ard ; and vient with them into a Th. i- R)gate in Surry. 

ihey were now committed to chefier ^ 

berl.'nT f i^' ^^'r^ "^ ^'°^^^"'"- ^ome troops of horfe were fent 
beri.ind, and were fent to travel in unH<>r .K^ ^t^ "ync were lent 

f."rr,S & .-ss lis f''^: £•=• '■•?? 

hgion home again, wherein they feated tiem ' ' '"'^ '^'- 

liad been educated, under the eve M,. r r^^A v • , , 

K^tr Tt^dXdid\t^5 jv^'i^^aw"„r-.n^orrnv: 

pted.ciror, ,„ the tleoV Lrd hi T' K' '° '" '"^■'"' '" "^^ 
-iady CathaiincManner., f«Je daughter and heir of Francis Earl of Rutlt'J: 

For tie YEAR 1759. 


barbaroudy rcfufmg to give it ; t'-ll, 
v.'ith nine'wounds^in his beautiful 
face and body, he was flain. The 
oak-tree is his monument, and has 
the two firll letters of his name, 
F. V. cut in it to this day. 

Thus died this noble, valiant, 
and beautiful youth, in the twen- 
tieth year of his age. A few days 
before his death, when he left 
London, he ordered his fteward, 
Mr. John May, to bring him in a 
lift of his debts ; and he fo charged 
his eftate with them, that the par- 
liament, who feized on the eftate, 
paid his debts. 

His body was brought from King- 
Hen by water to York-houfe in the 
Strand, and was there embalmed, 
and depofited in his father's vault 
in Henry the Vllth's chapel. 

The duke, after the lofs of his 
brother, fled to St. Need's, where, 
the next morning, finding the 
houfe where he lay furrounded, 
and a troop of horfe drawn up 
before the gate, he had time with 
his fervants to get to horfe ; and 
then caufing the gate to be open- 
ed, he charged the enemy, and 
killed the officer at the head of 
them, and made his efcape to the 
fea-fide, and to Prince Charles, 
who was in the Downs, with thofe 
{hips that had deferted the Earl of 

And now again the parliament 
gave him forty days time to return 
to England : but he refufed, and 
chofe rather to llay with the prince, 
who was foon after King Charles 
the fecond, and to follow him in 
his exile. 

The parliament feized on his 
eftate, the greateft of any fubjeiTt in 
England, having now his brother's 
eftaie fallen to him ; the yearly 
vaJue was above 25,00c 1. 

It happened that the manor of 
Helmefiy, wliich was his brother's, 
was given to my Lord Fairfax, with 
York-houfe in the Strand, for part 
of his arrears, and this fortunately 
came to him by his marrying my 
Lord Fairfax's daughter. 

All that he had to liveon beyond 
fea, was the money he got at Ant- 
werp for his pidlures, which were 
part of that coftly and curious col- 
leftion his father got together from 
Italy, by the help of Sir Henry 
Wootton, and others, which adorn- 
ed York-houfe, to the admiration of 
all men of judgment in pictures. A 
note of their names and dimenfions 
is all that is now left of them. The 
Ecce Homo of 1 itian was valued at 
5C00I. being the figure of all the 
great perfons in his time. The 
archduke bought it, and it is now 
in the caftle of Prague. Thefe pic- 
tures were fecured and fent to him 
by his old trully fervant, Mr. John 
Traylman, who lived in York- 

The King (Charles II.) refolving 
to go into Scotland, the duke at- 
tended him, and now again the par- 
liament offered him to compound 
for hiseftatefor 2c,ocol. which was 
lefs than a year's value ; but he 
chofe to run the King's fortune 
in Scotland, worfe than exile, came 
with him out of Scotland into Eng- 
land ; and at Worcefter his efcape 
was almoll as miraculous as the 
King's in the Royal Oak. He ef- 
caped again into i- ranee, and wenc 
a volunteer into the French army, 
and was much regarded by all the 
great officers, fignaliling his cou- 
rage at the fiege of Arras and Va- 

When he came to the Englifh 
court, which was but feldom, the 
l^ing was always glad to fee him. 


He Joved his perfon and his com- 
■pany ; but the great men about 
himceflred ratlier hi* room than his 

^ Theie then happened a great turn 
m the courfe of his life. My Lord 
Fairfax had part of his eUatc, about 
50C0I. per ?.nnum, allotted him by 
the parliament, towards the oay- 
ment of his arrears, due to hiiv as 
jreneral, and he remitted more than 
vouM have pr.rchafed a greater 
elbre. They gave him the manor 
vf J-Fclmedy, the feat of the noble 
family of Rutland in Yorkfhire, as 
a falve for the wound he received 
there, being lliot through the body. 
Ti ey gave him alfo York-houfe in 
London, which was alfo the duke'5. 
'Jhe duke heard how kind and 
generous my Lord Fairfax was to 
the countefs of Derby, in payin'^ all 
the rents of the Jfie of Mdn, which 
the parliament had alfo a'Jigned to 
liirp, for his arrears, into her own 
hands, and (he conkfied it was 
more than all her fervants before 
had done. 

The duke had reafon to hope my 
Lord had the fame inclinations as to 
this eftate of hii, which he never 
accounted his own, and the duke 
wanted it as much as the countefs. 

He was not deceived in his hopes, 
fcr my Lord Fairfj.\- wiihed only frr 
a;i opportunity of doing it He 
lived in York-houfe, wftere e\tTy 
chamber was adorned with the arms 
of Vilhers and Manners, lions and 
peacocks. He was defcended from 
the fame anceftors. Earls of Rut- 
land. Sir Guy Fairfax his two fons 
having married two of the dauch- 
ters ot the iiarl of Rutland ; which 
my Lord took frequent occr:fion to 

The duke rcfolved to frv his for- 
tune, wiiia. hdd hnhrrto'been ad- 


verfe enough, and he had Tome re- 
venge on her, by his tranflation of 
thecdein Horace, " Fortuna favis 
:' la^ta negotiis." Over he came 
into England, to piake love to his 
only daughter, a moft virtuous and 
amiable lady. He found a friend 
to propofe it, and I think it was 
Mr. Robert Harlow. 

The parents confented, and the 
young lady could not refill his 
charms being the mod graceful and - 
beautiful perfon that any court in 
Europe ever faw, &c. All his trou- 
ble in wooing was, he came, faw, 
and conquered. 

When he came into England, he 
was not fure either of life cr liherty 
He was an out-Ia.^-, and had not 
made h!s peace with Cromwell, 
jvho would have forbid the banns if 
he had known of his coming over 
He had a greater fhare of his*"eftarei 
had daughters to marry, and would 
not have liked fuch a conjunftion of 
Mars and Mercury, as was in this 
alliance; knowing my Lord's affec- 
tion to the royal family, which did 
afterwards produce good effedts to- 
wards Its reftorution 

They were married at Nun-Ap- 
pleton, fix miles from York, Sept. 
7» '6", a new and noble houfe 
built by my Lord Fairfax, and 
where he kept as noble hofpita- 

Cromwell, it frems, was fo of- 
fended at this match, that he fent 
the duke to the Tower ; which fo 
provoked Lord fairfax, that hieh 
words arofe between him and the 
Proteilcr ; but the latter dying foon 
afier, I (ccntirues this writer" car- 
ried the duke the news, and he had 
then leave to be prifoner at Wind- 
ier cartle, where his friend Abraham 
Cowley vn as bis conllant companion. 
R;ch^;d Cromwell foon after abdi- 

For the YEAR 



cated, and then his liberty came of 

This was the happiefl time of all 
the duke's life, when he went to his 
father-in-law's hcufe at Appletcn, 
and there lived orderly and decent- 
ly with his own wife : where he 
neither wanted, nor fo abounded as 
to be tempted to any fort of extra- 
vagance, as he was after, when he 
came to pofTefs his whole eftate. 
He now underftcod the meaning of 
that paradox, Dimidium plus toto, 
with which he ufed to pofe young 
fcholars ; and found by experience, 
that the half, or third p:.rt of his 
own eftate which he now enjoyed, 
was more than the whole which he 
had at the King's refioration. 

Now he lived a moft regular life, 
no courtfhips but to his own wife, 
not fo much as to his after-beloved 
and colily millrefs, the philofopher's 

My Lord Fairfax was much 
pleafed with his company, and to fee 
him fo conformable to the orders 
and good government of the fa- 
mily. If they had any plots toge- 
ther, they were to the bell purpofes, 
the reftoration of the royal family. 

My Lord Fairfax's maxim in po- 
litics was, that the old veteran army 
which he had commanded, was not 
to be beaten by any new raifed force 
in England, and that the King's 
friends ihewed more affection than 
difcretion in their plots to reilore 
him, while they were united ; and 
that this old army would never be 
beaten but by icfelf; as the event 
ihewed, when Lambert and Monk 
divided them. But the moO; fatal 
influence of this opinion in my Lord 
Fairfax, was the night before the 
3o;h of January, when fome of his 
friends propofed to him to attempt 
the next day to refcue the King, 

telling him that 20,00c men were 
ready to join with him ; he faid he 
was ready to venture his own life, 
but not the lives of ochers, againlt 
the army now united againft them. 

The fame appeared in the in- 
furreclion of Sir George Booth, 
which Lambert, with a brigade 
of this old army, did {o eafily 
fupprefs ; the fuccefs whereof in- 
fpired him with the ambition of 
imitating Cromwell, in diiTohlng 
the parliament, and making hi:n- 
felf Protedor. 

The duke had given fufRcient 
teuimony of his loyalty, and my 
Lord Fairfax of his affedion and 
defire to fee the royal family re- 
Hored ; and new was the tiaie of 
doing it. 

General Monk in Scotland de- 
clared againft Lambert, who march- 
ed againft him with a firong body 
of horfe. 

My Lord Fairfax, and the duke 
with him, declared for Monk iu 
Yorkfhire ; but the duke was obli- 
ged to withdraw, becaufe his pre- 
fence gave a jealouiy, that the de- 
fign was to bring in the Kin^, 
which was too foon to be owned. 

What the event was, is well 
known. I fiiall only repeat the 
duke's words in an expoftulatory 
letter to King Charles feme years 
after : " As to your majefty's return 
into England, I may juftly pre- 
tend to fome ftiare; fmce without 
my Lord Fairfax his engaging 
in Yorkfhire, Lambert's army had 
never quitted him, nor the Duke 
of Albemarle marched out of Scot- 

The King's reftoration, •volver.da 
dies en attulit vitro, reftored the 
duke to his eftate ; but fuch a train 
of expence with it, as brought him 
acquainted with bankers and fcn- 




veners, that infefled it with the gan- 
grene of uiury, which it never re- 

Farther anecdotes from Lord Claren- 
don., lahich helps to put in a 'very 
Jircng light the character of this 
extraordinary ferjon. 

THE Duke of Buckingham 
has been inentioned before as 
a man of extraordinary condudl ; 
the livelinefs of his v. it, and the tal- 
lies of his imagination, bore him 
away; and indeed he paid as much 
fubmiffion to his pafTions as other 
men would or Ihould pay to their 
reafcn ; but in nothing more con- 
spicuous does this prodigy of a man 
appear, than !n his behaviour with 
refpeft to the King ; whom he often 
grofiy infulted. If the King had 
faults, this nobleman multiplied and 
magnified them with great afliduity 
to the eyes of the people, who loved 
the duke to that excefs, that he was 
willing to believe that he had a 
defign of making him King. For 
proof of this Lord Clarendon gives 
us the following fhort hiftory. 

There was one Braythwaite, a ci- 
tizen, who had been a great confi- 
dent of Cromwell, and of the coun- 
cil of ftate. Upon the King's re- 
turn this man fled beyond fea ; 
but, incognito, made fever al voyages 
backwards and forwards, from 
Hofland to London. Sir Richard 
Browne, then lord m.ayor of the 
city, a very diligent magillratc, dif- 
coveied the prefumption of Mr. 
Braythwaite, and informed the 
Kinu of it ; and having long en- 
<Jeavoured to apprehend him, he at 
length had an opportunity, burun- 
derllood he was a fervant of the 
Duke of Buckingham, and in great 
rruft with him, as indeed he was his 

fleward. The major-general told 
tiie King of this man, and confefTed 
his furprife that the duke fhould re- 
tain fo known and To virulent an 
offender, reprefcnting him to his 
majef^y as a perfon of dangerous 
parts, one worthy to be fufpedcd 
for al! difloyal purpofes, and as like 
to bring them to pafs as any man in 
England, of his condition. At this 
time the facetious duke, by thofe 
faculties towards mirth in which he 
excelled all other men of the age, 
had rendered himfelf very accept- 
able to the King, who delighted in 
nothing more them in thole extra- 
vagancies of ridicule, with which 
the duke entertained himfelf and 
all other people, fo as to become 
their darling. 

His majelly told the duke what 
he had heard concerning his ftew- 
ard ; the duke received the ani- 
madverfion fubmilTively, and Teem- 
ed to thank the King for his free- 
dom ; but begged him to hear what 
the man could fay for himfelf; for 
that be was a very faithful fervant 
to his eftates, and was convinced 
that he repented heartily for being 
concerned with Cromwell. The 
King admitted Braythwaite, heard 
him, and took him into favour. 
Some time after this he pri- 
vately to the King, and told him, 
that in duty he thought himfelf 
bound to acquaint his majefly with 
what he had obfcrved lately of the 
duke his matter's condu6\, for that 
he was very much altered, and kept 
company with people- of ver) mean 
conditions, and of as defperate in- 
tentions, whom he ufed to meet at 
very uni'eafonable hours, and that 
he believed the duke was falling cfF 
from his allegiance, and humbly 
hoped, that whatever unreafonable 
proiefls and extravagancies the duke 


For the YE 

Hiould fall into, his majefty would 
not impute them to him, for that 
he defigned to withdraw himfelf 
from his iervice The Lord Ar- 
lington farther confirmed this tefti- 
motiy ; and it appeared that there 
was a poor fellow, who had a poorer 
lodging fomewhere about Tower- 
hill, and who profefied knowledge 
in horofcopes, or judicial altrology, 
and had, from a calculation of the 
duke's nativity, foretold him, that 
he would be king. Lord Arlington 
produced letters which he had in- 
tercepted between the duke and the 
fortune-teller, and the fufpicion be- 
came fo flagrant, that the man and 
fome others were committed to the 
Tower, where Lord Arlington exa- 
mined them, and by full evidence 
proved the guilt and treafon to the 
King. One letter produced was to 
this elFed, " That the duke, whom 
he ftiles prince, was the darling of 
the people, who had fet their hearts 
and aftedions, and all their hopes 
upon his highnefs, and what great 
things his Itars had deftined him 
to" — with many other fuch foolifh 
and fuilianexpreiTions. His majefty 
was pleafed to inform the chancel- 
lor, and told hira in what places the 
duke had been fmce he abfconded ; 
that he flayed very little in any one 
place, and that he intended, on fuch 
a day, to be at the houfe of Sir 
Charles Wolefly, in StafFordihire, 
one of great eminence with Crom- 
well, of his council, and of thofe 
who had been fent by the houfe of 
commons to perfuade that ufurper 
to accept of the crown with the 
title of King. Upon the whole mat- 
ter, which was evident enough, his 
majefty afked the chancellor, what 
way was the beft to proceed with 
the duke ; to which he aniwered, 
that he Ihould be apprehended, and 

A R 1759. 30^ 

committed to the Tower; and the 
King ilTued out his warrant to ap- 
prehend him, which came to the 
duke's ears, who fecreced himfelf 
in holes and obfcure places. The 
ferjeant at arms followed him into 
Northamptonftiire, but was refufcd 
admittance into the houfe where he 
faw the duke enter ; upon which in- 
formation of the ferjeant, he was 
immediately proclaimed, and re- 
moved from the privy-council, and 
from his place ot gentleman of the 
bed-chamber, being fucceeded by 
the Earl of Rochefter. The duke, 
in fo dangerous a fituation, fmt his 
own fecretary» Mr. Clifford, to the 
lord chancellor, to intreat him to 
interpofe with his majefty in his be- 
half; who fent for anfwer, that he 
would do well to furrender himfelf, 
and, if poftible, purge himfelf of 
the foul crimes with which he was 
accufed : the duke alfo wrote to 
the King, profefling his innocence, 
defiring him to let him be heard in 
private, and imputing to his ene- 
mies the malice of his profecution. 
The King foon became weary of 
the profecution, and feemed to have 
much apprehenfion of the duke's 
intereft in parliament : upon thefe 
favourable afpefts, and the interpo- 
fition of Sir Robert Howard, the 
duke furrendered himfelf, was com- 
mitted to the Tower, examined at 
the council-board, forgiven, and 
the whole weight of the accufation 
and profecution laid upon the fhoul- 
ders of the chancellor, who about 
this time was little able to bear 
fuch an additional weight, having 
loft his wife, the fevereft blow that 
ever befe! him. But as if this was 
notfufficient to bear him down, the 
Duke of York was fent by the Kin^ 
with many gracious expreflions of for his lofs, to wifh 





and defire that he would refign his 
feal of chancellor, for tliat his ma- 
jefty was well informed, that the 
parliament was incenfcd fo much 
againll him, that they would, on 
their next meeting, have him im- 
peached J and that it would be out 
of his power to favc him ; for that 
their rage was (o great at the lall 
prorogation, which they imputed 
to his advice, that to his majcfly it 
appeared as if they were bent to 
take away his life. The chancellor 
was indeed as much amazed at this 
relation of the duke, as he could 
have been at the hght of a warrant 
for his execution ; and though 
many eminent perfons, particularly 
the Duke of York, together with 
the Archbifhopof Canteibury, and 
the general, went in perfon to fue 
for him, his majefty only anfwered. 
That what he did was for the lord 
chancellor's good, and the only 
way to preferve him from an en- 
raged parliament : that his degra- 
dation would pacify them, and per- 
haps, by removing, would fave him, 
whom they had vowed to deftroy. 

The lord chancellor liad requeft- 
ed, that his majelly would vifit him 
at his own houfe (Clarendon-houfe), 
and though the King promifed to 
grant him that favour, he did not ; 
and thereupon he bigged to be per- 
mitted to wait on hitn at Whitehall, 
where theKinudid meet him, with 
the duke, and had a long confe- 
rence with him on his fudden dif- 
grace. The King granted that he 
had been ever a faithful fervant, but 
that he mull of necefiity take this 
falutaiy expedient ; for that his in- 
nocence would no more defend him 
or ftcure him from the power of his 
enemies, than it had in the ca 'e of 
the Eaf 1 of StrafFord. The lord chan- 
cellor urged many plea?, not that he 

dcfired to keep his oflice, but that it 
fhould be taken fiom him in that un- 
gracious manner by the King him- 
felf, which feemeda mark of his hea- 
vy difpleafure, and would give room 
to his bittereft enemies to triumph in 
his difgrace, when theyfaw the King 
immediately inftrum.cntal in pro- 
moting it. Thefc and other pleas 
were urg'din vain; and the chancel- 
lor, on going into the coach, faw Sir 
William Coventry, his old and inve- 
terate enemy, with Lord Arlington 
and the Lady, triumph, and looking 
together out of the window with 
great gaiety at the chancellor on hig 
returning home, to him a fufficient 
and evident token from whence this 
unexpefted (haft was fhot. Some 
days pafled without any farther re- 
folutions as to the feal ; but on the 
30th day of Auguft, 1667, the King 
fent Secretary Morrice with a war- 
rant under the fign manual to re- 
quire and receive the great feal ; 
and as foon as the lord chancellor 
had delivered it to the fecretary, and 
he to the King, Mr. May came in;o 
the King's clofet, and falling on his 
knees to kifs his majelly's hand, 
laid, I'oK are no^w King, 'whkh you 
ne-rer ivas before. 

The Lord Clarendon believed 
that now the ftorm was over, as he 
had no reafon to have the leall ap- 
prehenfion (ixinocent as he declares 
him.(elf) from the difpleafure of the 
parliament ; but the Duke of Buck- 
ingham unmalked himfelf, and 
being now reltored to all his places 
and honours, openly joined the con- 
Lderacy againlt Lord Clarendon ; 
and the King himfelf, together with 
Lord Arlington, Sir William Co- 
ventry, the Lady, Mr. May, and 
Brounker, boaited that they had 
effecled fo great a Hep towards his 
ruin. The Duke of Buckingham 


For the YEAR ly^g 

was made to believe, that it was by 
the Lord Clarendon's means he was 
difgraced, proclaimed, and imprifon- 
ed, whereas Lord Clarendon afTares 
us, that he concerned himfelf no 
inore in that profecation, than asa 
privy counfellor for the King's fer- 
vice and fafety. 

The parliament met, and the 
King begun his fpecch with notable 
refledions on the chancellor, he faid, 
" That there had been iome niif- 
carriages lately, which had juilly 
provoked them, and which led to 
create fome differences between him 
and his parliament ; but that he 
had now altered his councils, he 
made no queftion, but that they 
fnould agree for the future, and 
hoped they would fupply his necef- 
fities, and provide for the payment 
of his debts, with an infinuation, 
that what had been formerly done 
amifs was by the advice of the per- 
fon whom he had removed from his 
councils, and with whom he lliould 
not hereafter advife." Not fatisfied 
with this, he let the parliament 
know, that he expefted their thanks 
exprefsly in terms, for his having 
removed the lord chancellor, but 
this was debated long, and warmly, 
by both houfes. The King grew 
angry, and acquainted both houfes 
he expefted it, as his honour was 
concerned in it, and fent the Duke 
of York to demand it in his name ; 
he fent the Archbilhoo of Canterbury 
to require it of the bilhops, and that 
if they oppofed him, they ihould 
forely repent it. In confequence of 
which repeated folicitation, both 
houfes agreed not to difpkafe the 
King, and they accordingly voted 
their thanks to his maiefty, for hav- 
ing removed the lord chancellor from 
his councils. And now^ rheafures 
were entered into by the Duke of 
Buckingham, and the rfit of che 


confederates, to furniih materials of 
impeachment againft him. 

Mr. Seymour, a young man ot 
great conhdence and boldnefs, Hood 
up in the houfe of commons, and in 
a long inventive fxcufed him of high 
treafon and co. ruption. 

The Lord Clarendon gives us the 
fifteen articles of the charge againll 
him. His friends repaired to him 
with intreaties, that he would fiy or 
make his efcape, which fcandalous 
advice he rejedled, as he knew his 
innocence, and was well fatisfied of 
his probity and integrity, in relation 
to every article of the charge, which, 
indeed, is heavy and pregnant with 
plaufibleteftimony againft him; but 
which, however. Lord Clarendon aa 
pofitively combats and redargues, 
particularly that one, of having kept 
a correfpondencewith Oliver Crom- 
well while the King was in exile ; a 
calumny fo improbable and fooliih, 
that the King had publicly at Paris 
refuted it. However Mr. Seymour 
condudled theprofecution with great 
virulence, both within and without 
doors, andaccufed him of high trea- 
fon at the bar of the houfe of lords, 
who debated about committing hinl 
to the Tower ; and the King was 
induced to fend the Bifnop of Here- 
ford to him, to advife him to with- 
draw and leave the kingdom. 

In this crifis, he was deprived of 
the Duke of York's intereft, by his 
hignefi having taken the fmall pox. 
He declined the advice from his ma- 
jefty without an abfolute and pofi- 
tive command ; the French ambaf- 
fador v^dfhed him to retire to 
France, and the King figniiitd to _ 
him, by the Duke of York, who .va 
now recovered, that it was his ma- 
jefty's pieafure that he Ihould be 
gone, and the Bifhoo of Wlnchefter 
cirae f-nm the duke; who rnld hi:n 
ic was the duke ■> own advice, and 
X jhat 


that it was abfolutely neceflary for that he expected fatisfadtion, and to 


him fpeedily to be gone, which at 
length he unwillingly obeyed ; and 
having, by the friendfhipof Sir John 
Wolftenholm, got a boat at Erith, 
he took coach at his houfe on Sa- 
turday night the 29th of November, 
1667, when it was dark, with two 
fervants, and being accompanied by 
his two fons, and two or three other 
friends on horfeback, he found the 
boat ready, and fo he embarked 
about eleven o'clock that night, and 
in three nights more arrived at Ca- 
lais, all places out of England being 
to him indifferent. 

Jn account of a difpiite bet-ween the 
Duke of Buckingham and Lord 

HE Duke of Buckingham, 

find him with his fword in his hand ;" 
which the duke endeavoured to 
avoid by all the fair words and fhifts 
he could ufe, but was fo far prefied 
by the other, whofe courage was 
never doubted, that he could not 
avoid appointing a place where 
they would prefently meet, which 
he found the other would exadl to 
prevent difcovcry, and therefore had 
chofen rather to urge it himfelf, 
than to fend a melTage to him. And 
fo he named a known place in Chel- 
fea fields, and to be there within 
lefs than an hour. 

The Lord Offory made hafte thi- 
ther, and expeded him much be- 
yond the time : and then feeing 
fome perfons come out of the way 
towards the place where he was, 
and concluding they were fent out 
to prevent any action between them, 

X who alfumed a liberty of he avoided fpeaking with them, but 
fpeaking when and what he would, got to the place where his horfe was 
in adialeaumifualandun^^rave, his '-'"'^ '"" -^'-'^ ^- T ^„^o„ nri., 

fimiles and other expreffions giv 
ing occafion of much mirth and 
laughter, or.e da) faid in the debate, 
" that whoever was againft that 
bill, had cither an Irilh intereft or 
an Iriih underllanding :" which fo 
much offended the Lord OfTory, 

and fo retired to London. The 
duke was found by himfelf in ano- 
ther place, on the other fide of the 
water, which was never known by 
the name of Chelfea-field?, which 
he faid was the place he had ap- 
pointed to meet. 

Finding that night that Lord 

who was elded fon to the Duke of Offory was not in cui^ody, and fo 
Ormond, (who had very narrowly he was fure he fhould quickly hea.r 

efcaped the cenfuie of the houfe 
lately, for reproaching the Lord 
Afhley with ha^ ing been a counlel- 
lor to Cromwell, and would not 

from him, and upon conference with 
his fi lends, that the miilake of the 
place would be imputed to him ; 
he took a ftrangc refolution, that 

therefore truft himfelf with giving a every body wondered at, and his 
prefent anfwcr) that meeting him friends dilluaded him from. And 

after.vards in the court, he defired 
the duke " that he would walk in- 
to the next room with him ;" and 
there told him, " that he had triken 
the liberty to ufe many loofe and 
unworthy expreffions which reliev- 
ed upon the whole Irifh nation, and 
which he himfelf relented fo much. 

the next morning, as foon as the 
houfe was fate, the Lord OlTory be- 
ing likewife prefent that he might 
find fome opportnnity to fpeak with 
him, the duke told the houfe, " that 
he muft inform them of fbmewhat 
that concerned himfelf; and being 
fure that it would come to their no- 

1759' ^^^ ^^^ ^ E 

tice fome other way, he had there- 
fore chofe to acquaint them with it 
himfelf;" and thereupon related, 
*' how the Lord OfTory had the day 
before found him in the court, and 
defired him to walk into the next 
room, where he char_^cd him with 
many particulars which he had fpo- 
ken in that place, and in few words 
he told him that he (hould fight 
with h-'m ; which though he did 
not hold himfelf obliged to do, in 
maintenance of any tliing he had 
f?.id or done in the parliament, yet 
that it beina fuitable and agreeable 
to his nature, to fight with any man 
who had a mind to fight with him," 
(upon which he enlarged with a 
little vanity, as if duelling were his 
daily exercife and inclination) " he 
appointed the place in Chelfea- 
nelds, which he underftood to be the 
fields overagainftChelfea; whither, 
having only gone to his lodging to 
change his fword, he ha;lened, by 
prefently croiTing the water in a pair 
of oars, and i^ayed there in expec- 
tation of Lord OlTory, until fuch 
gentlemen," whom he named, 
" found him there, and faid, TAty 
luerejent to fre<vent his and the Lord 
Offorfs 7nseting, muhom others ^were 
like^wife fent to find for the fame pre- 
'vc7ition. Whereupon, concluding 
that for the prefent there would be 
no meeting together, he returned 
with thofe gentlemen to his lodging, 
being always ready to give any 
gentleman fatisfadtion that fhould 
require it of him." 

Every body was exceedingly fur- 
prifed with the oddnefs and unfea- 
fonablenefs of the dlfcourfe, which 
confiired, with fome confufion, be- 
tween aggravating the prefumption 
of the Lord Oilory, and making the 
offence as heinous as the violatjajf all 
the privileges of parliament could 
jiiouni ui::o ; and magnitying Lis 

A R 1759^ 307 

own courage and readinefs to fight 
upon any opportunity, when it was 
clear enough that he had declined 
it by a grofs fnift : and it wa? won- 
dered at, that he had not chofen ra- 
ther that fome other psrfon might 
inform the houfe of a quarrel be- 
tween two members, that it might 
be examined and the mifchlef pre- 
vented. But he believed that way 
vsould not fo well reprefent and ma- 
nifell the luilre of his courage, and 
might leave him under an examina- 
tion that would not be fo advan- 
tageous to him, as his own informa- 
tion : and therefore no perfuafion 
or importunity of his friends, could 
prevail with him to decline that 

The Lord Ofibry feemed out of 
countenance, and troubled that the 
contelt was like to be only in that 
place, and cared not to deny any 
thing that the duke had accufed 
him of; only " wondered, that he 
(liould fay he had challenged hiin 
for wosds fpoken in the houfe, when 
he had exprefsly declared to him, 
when his grace infilled much upon 
the privilege of parliament to de- 
cline giving him any fatisfaclion, 
that he did not quefion him for av.y 
ivords fpoken in parliament, but for 
njjords fpoken in other places^ and for 
affronts, ivhich he had at dther times 
chofsn to hear, rather than to dijlurb 
the company. He confelfed, he had 
attended in the very place where the 
duke had done him the honour to 
promife to m.eet him ;" and men- 
tioned fome expreaions which he 
had ufed in defigning it, which left 
the certainty of jc not to be doubt- 

When they had both 'aid as much 
as they had a mind to, they were 
both required, a^ is the cu^fiom, to 
withdraw to feveral roOms near the 
houfe : Hiid then 'the lords entered 
X 2 upon 



Upon debate of the tranfgreflion ; 
many infiiting " upon the magni- 
tude of the offence, which concerned 
the honour and fafety of the higheft 
tribunal in the kingdom, and the li- 
berty and fecurity of every member 
of the ho'jfe. That if in any de- 
bate any lord exceeded the modeft 
limits prefcribed, in any ofFenftve e.x- 
preffions, the houfe had the power 
and the practice to retrain and re- 
prehend and imprifon the perfon, 
according to the quality and degree 
of the offence; and thit no other 
remedy or examination could be ap- 
plied to it, even by the King him- 
felf. But if it ffiould be in any pri- 
vate man to take exceptions againft 
any words which the houfe finds no 
fault with, and to require men to 
juftify with their fwords all that they 
fay in difcharge of their confcience, 
and for the good and benefit of their 
country ; there is an end of the 
privilege of parliament and the 
freedom of fpeech : and therefore 
that there could not be too great a 
punilhment inflifted upon this no- 
torious and monltrous offence of the 
Lord Oflbry, which concerned every 
lord in particular, as much as it did 
the Duke of Buckingham ; who 
had carried liimfelf as well as the 
ill cuftom and iniquity of the age 
would admit, and had given no of- 
fence to the houfe, towards which 
lie had always paid all poffible rc- 
fpeft and reverence." 

They who confidered the honour 
and dignity only of the houfe, and 
the ill coiifequence of fuch violations 
as thefe, which way focvrr their af- 
feflions were inclined with reference 
to tlieir perfons, were all of opinion, 
" That their off'ences were fo near 
equal, that their punifhment ought 
to be equal : for that befides the 
I-ord Offbry's denial that he had 

made any refleftion upon any words 
fpoken in parliament, which was 
the aggravation of his offence, there 
was fome teftimony given to the 
houfe by fome lords prefent, that 
the Lord Offbry had complained of 
the duke's comportment towards 
him, before thofe words ufed in the 
houfe by him, cfthe Irijh intereji, or 
Irijh underjianding, and refolved to 
expoftulate with him upon it ; fo 
that thofe words could not be the 
ground of the quarrel. And it was 
evident by the duke's own confef- 
fion and declaration, that he was as 
ready to fight, and went to the place 
appointed by himfelf for encounter ; 
which made the ofi^ence equal." 
And therefore they moved, " that 
they might be brought to the bar, 
and upon their knees receive the 
fentence of the houfe for their com- 
mitment to the Tower." 

Some who would ffiew their kind- 
nefs to the duke, were not willing 
that he fliould undergo the fame 
punifhment with the other, until 
fome lords, who were " known not 
to be his friends, were very earneil 
that the duke might receive no 
punifhment, becaufe he had com- 
mitted no fault ; for that it was 
very evident that he never intended 
to fight, and had, when no other 
tergiverfation would ferve his turn, 
prudently miftaken the place that 
was appointed by himfelf;" which 
was preffed by tv/o or three lords in 
fuch a pleafant manner, with reflec- 
tions upon fome exprelTions ufed by 
himfelf, that his better friends 
thought it would be more for his 
honour to undergo the cenfure of 
the houfe than the penalty of fuch 
a vindication : and fo they were 
both fent to the Tower. 

And during the time they remain- 
ed there, the bill againft Ireland re- 

1759* ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

mained in fufpence, and uncalled for 
by thofe, who would not hazard 
their caufe in the abfence of their 
ftrongeft champion. But the fame 
fpirit was kept up in all other argu- 
ments, the difpleafure, that hadaxi- 
fen againft each other in that, vent- 
ing itfelf incontradidlions and rtiarp 
replies on all other occafions ; a 
mifchief that is always contraded 
from the agitation of private affairs, 
where different interefts are pur- 
fued ; from whence perfonal animo- 
fities arife, which are not quickly 
laid afide, after the affair itfelf that 
produced thofe pafTions, is compofed 
and ended. And this kind of dif- 
temper never more appeared, nor 
ever lafled longer, than from the 
debate and conteftation upon this 

Thofe two lords were no fooner 
at liberty, and their difpleafure to- 
wards each other fuppreffed or 
filenced by the King's command, 
but another more untoward outrage 
happened, that continued the fame 
dillurbance. It happened that up- 
on the debate of the fame affair, the 
Irifli bill, there was a conference 
appointed with the houfe of com- 
mons, in which the Duke of Buck- 
ingham was a manager ; and as 
they were fitting down in the paint- 
ed chamber, which is feldom done 
in good order, it chanced that the 
Marquis of Dorchcller fate next the 
Duke of Buckingham, between 
whom there was no good corrfi-fpon- 
dence. The one chanc^ing his pof- 
ture for his own eaie, which made 
the ftation of the ether the more 
uneafy, they firil; endeavoured by 
juftiing, to recover what they had 
difpoiTeffed each other of, and after- 
wards fell to direft blows ; in which 
the marquis, who was the lower of 
the two in Itatjre, and wai lefs ac- 

AR 1759; 309 

tive in his limbs, loft his periwigs 
and received feme rudenefs, which 
nobody imputed to his want of cou- 
rage, which was ever lefs queftioned 
than that of the other. 

The mifdcmeanor, greater than 
had ever happened, in that place 
and upon fuch an occafion, in any 
age, when the lead: reverence to go- 
vernment was preferved, could not 
be concealed ; but as foon as the 
conference was ended, was reported 
to the hoafe, and both parties 
heard, who both confefTed enough to 
make them undergo the cenfure of 
the houfe. The duke's friends 
would fain have juflified him, as be- 
ing provoked by the other ; and it 
was evident their mutual undervalu- 
ing each other, always difpofed them 
to affeclany opportunity to manifeft 
it. But the houfe fent them both 
to the Tower ; from whence after 
a few days they were again releafed 
together, and fuch a reconciliation 
made, as after fuch rencounters is 
ufiial, where either party thinks 
himfelf beforehand with the other, 
as the marquis had much of the 
duke's hair in his hands to recom- 
penfe for his pulling off his peri- 
wig, which he could not reach high 
enough to do to the other. 

Tie charaSicr of Ben. Johiifhn. 

BEN. JOHNSOiN's name 
can never be forgotten, hav- 
ing by his veiy good learning, and 
the feverity of hio nature and man- 
ners, very much leformud the llage; 
and indeed the i-'-nglilh roetiy it- 
felf. His natural advantaves were, 
judgment to oraer and govern 
fancy, rather than excefs of fancy, 
hi= productions bein^ flow and up- 
on deliberation., yet then abound- 
X 3 in- 


^"g with great wit and fancy, and Hi^ ftile in all his writinp;s feems 

''^ill live accordingly; and lurely harfh and fometimes obfcure ; 

as he did exceedingly exalt the which is not wholly to be iiriputed 

Englilh language in eloquence, to the abdrufc i'ubjeC^s of wnich he 

propriety, and mafculine expref- 
iior.s ; fo he was the heft judge of, 
and Ttteft to prefcribe rules to 
poetry and poets, of any man who 
fiad lived with, or before him, or 
fince : if Mr. Cowley had net made 

commonly t;er.tcd, out of the paths 
trod by other rr.en ; but :o a little 
undervaluing the beau'y of a (lile, 
and too much propen':ry to the 
language of antiquity ; but 'n his 
ccnverlation he was the mcft clear 

a flight beyond all men, with that difcourfer, and had the beft faculty 

modclTiy yet, to afcribe much of in making hard things eafy, and 

this, to the example and learn- prefenting them to the underi'cand- 

jng of Ben. Johnfon. His convcr- mg, of any man that liach been 

fation was very good, and v/ith known. Mr. Kyde was wont to 

the tnen of mofl note ; and he had fay, that he valued himfclf upon 

for many years an extraordinary nothing more than upon having 

Jcindnefs for Mr. Hyde, till he had Mr. Selden's acquaintap.ce from 

found he betook himfelf to bufi- the time he was very young ; and 

nefs, which he believed ought held it with great delight as long 

rever to be preferred before his as they were fulFered to continue 

company. He lived to be very 
old, and till the palfy made a deep 
imprefTion upon his body, and his 

^he charaaer of Mr. Selden. 

MR. Selden was a perfon, 
whom no charafler can flat- 
ter, or tranfmit in any expreflions 

equal to his merit and virtue. He 

was of fo fiupendous learning in he could, with his own lafcty, to 
^11 kinds, and in all languages (as which he was always enough in- 

togeiher in London ; and he was 
very much troubU-d always when 
he heard him blamed, ceniured, 
and reproached, tor leaving in 
London, and the parliament, after 
thev were in rebellion, and in the 
Vvorli times, which his age obliged 
him to do; and how wicked Ibever 
the aftions were, which were every 
day done, he was confident he had 
not given his confjnt to them ; 
but would have hindered them if 

may appear in his excellent and 
tranfcendent writings) that a man 
would have thought he had been 
entirely converfant amongfl; books, 
and had never Ipent an hour but 
in reading and writing; yet his 
humanity, cou'-tefy, and affability 
was fuch, that he would have been 
thought to have been bred in the 
beft courts, but that his good na- 
ture, charity, and delight in doing 
good, and in communicating all 
he knew, exceeded that breeding. 

dulgent. If he had fome infirmi- 
ties'^ with other men, they were 
vei^-^hed down with wondcriul and 
prodigious abilities and e.\celkncies 
in the other fcale. 

The charaSer of i\lr. Cotton. 

gentleman born to a compe- 
tent fortune, and fo qualihed in his 
perfon, and education, that for 


1759- ^0^ ^^^ ^ ^ 

many years he continued the great- 
eil ornament in the town, in the 
efieem of thcfe who had been beli: 
bred. His natural parts were very 
great, his wit flowing in all the 
parts of converfaticn ; the luper- 
Itrufture of learning not raifed to 
a conliderabie height ; but having 
palTed fome years in Cambrid::^e, 
and then in France, and converring 
always with learned men, his ex- 
preffions were very proper, and ug- 
nificant, and gave great luftre to 
his difcourfe, upon any argument ; 
that he was thought by thofe who 
were not intimate with him, to 
have been much better acquainted 
with books than he v/as. He had 
all thofe qualities which in youth 
raife n:en to the reputation ot be- 
ino fine gentlemen ; fuch a pleafant- 
neis and gaiety of humour, fuch a 
fweetnefs'^and gen'-lenefs of na- 
ture, and fuch a civ^ility and de- 
lightfulnefs in converduion, that 
no n^an in the court, or out of it, 
appeared a more accompliined per- 
fon; all thefe extraordinary quali- 
fications htlng fuppnrtect by as ex- 
traordinary a clearnefs cf courage, 
and fearleiTnefs of fpirit, of which 
he gave too often manifei1at:on. 
Some unhappy fuits in law, and 
wafte of his fortune in thofe fuits, 
made feme im-reilion upon his 
mind ; which being improved by 
dom-ftic aiHiction;, and thoie ixi- 
dul'j-ences to himitlf, which na- 
turally attend thoie affiidiions, ren- 
dered his age iefs reverenced, than 
his youth had been ; and gave his 
beft friends caufe to have wiihed, 
that he had not lived fo long. 

CharaJier cf2\ly. Vaugkan, 

JOHN VAUGHAN was then a 
iluden: of die kv,' in the 

AR 1759. 31' 

Temple, but at that time indulged 
more to the politer learning ; and 
was in truth a man of great parts 
of nature, and very we:l adorned 
by arts and books ; and fo much 
cheriflied by Mr. Selden, that he 
jrrcw to be of entire trult and 
friendlhip with him, and to that 
owed the beft part of his reputa- 
tion ; for he was of fo magiilerial 
and fuperciiicus a humour, fo proud 
and infoknt a behaviour, that all 
Mr. Selden's inflrudtions, and au- 
thority, and example, could not 
file off that roughnefs of his na- 
ture, fo as to make him very grate- 
ful. He looked moft into thofe 
parts of the lav,', which difpofed 
him to leaft revcrcLce to the 
crown, and moft to popular autho- 
rity ; yet without inclination to any 
chano-e in government ; and there- 
fore,*before the beginning of the 
civil war, and when he clearly dif- 
cerned the approaches to it in parlia- 
ment (of which he was a member) 
he withdrew himfelf into the faft- 
nefles of his own country. North 
Wales, where he enjoyed a fecure, 
and as near an innocent lite, as the 
iniquity of that tim.e would permit ; 
and upon the return of King Charles 
the fecond, he appeared under the 
charafter of a man, who had pre- 
ferved his loyalty int re, and was 
ejleemed accordingly by all that 

His friend Mr. Hyde, who was 
then become lord high chancellor 
of England, renewed his old kind- 
nefs and fricndfaip towards him, 
and was defirous to gratify him all 
t' e ways he could, and earneftly 
prefTed him to put on his gown 
again, and take upon him the of- 
fice of a iudge ; but he excufed 
himfelf upon his long difcontinu- 
ance (having not worn his gov/n, 
£nd wholly difccntinucd the pro- 
X 4 f-C^on 



feflion from the year 1640, full 
twenty years) and upon liis age, 
and exprefly refiifed to receive any 
promotion : but continued all the 
profefllons of refpeft and gr